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A puppet state, puppet régime or puppet government or dummy government is a
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
that is ''
de jure In law and government, ''de jure'' ( ; , "by law") describes practices that are legally recognized, regardless of whether the practice exists in reality. In contrast, ("in fact") describes situations that exist in reality, even if not legally ...
'' independent but ''
de facto ''De facto'' ( ; , "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even though they are not officially recognized by laws. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with ''de jure'' ("by law"), which refers to th ...
'' completely dependent upon an outside
power Power typically refers to: * Power (physics) In physics, power is the amount of energy transferred or converted per unit time. In the International System of Units, the unit of power is the watt, equal to one joule per second. In older works, p ...
and subject to its orders.Compare: Puppet states have nominal
sovereignty Sovereignty is the supreme authority within a territory. Sovereignty entails hierarchy within the state, as well as external autonomy for states. In any state, sovereignty is assigned to the person, body, or institution that has the ultimate a ...
, but a foreign power effectively exercises control through means such as financial interests, economic, or military support. By leaving a local government in existence the outside Powers evade all responsibility, while at the same time successfully paralyzing the Government they tolerate. Puppet states are distinguished from
allies An alliance is a relationship among people, groups, or sovereign state, states that have joined together for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose, whether or not explicit agreement has been worked out among them. Members of an alli ...

allies
, which choose their actions on their own or in accordance with
treaties A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relati ...

treaties
they voluntarily entered. Puppet states are forced into providing legal endorsement for actions already taken by a foreign power.


Characteristics

A puppet state preserves the external paraphernalia of
independence upright=1.0, Pedro surrounded by a crowd in Brazil's independence on September 7, 1822.">Independence of Brazil">Brazil's independence on September 7, 1822. Independence is a condition of a person, nation, country, or state State may ref ...

independence
(such as a name,
flag A flag is a piece of fabric A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking network of yarn Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crochetin ...

flag
,
anthem An anthem is a of , usually used as a symbol for a distinct group, particularly the s of . Originally, and in and religious contexts, it also refers more particularly to short sacred (still frequently seen in and other types of singing) and s ...
,
constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...

constitution
, law codes,
motto A motto (derived from the Latin language, Latin ''muttum'', 'mutter', by way of Italian language, Italian ''motto'', 'word', 'sentence') is the general motivation or intention of an individual, family, social group or organization. Mottos are usuall ...

motto
and government), but in reality it is an organ of another state which creates, sponsors or otherwise controls the government of the puppet state (the "puppet government").
International law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally recognized as binding between nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of anal ...
does not recognize occupied puppet states as legitimate. Puppet states can cease to be puppets through: * the military defeat of the "master" state (as in Europe and Asia in 1945), * absorption into the master state (as in the early
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
), * revolution, notably occurring after withdrawal of foreign occupying forces (like Afghanistan in 1992), or * achievement of
independence upright=1.0, Pedro surrounded by a crowd in Brazil's independence on September 7, 1822.">Independence of Brazil">Brazil's independence on September 7, 1822. Independence is a condition of a person, nation, country, or state State may ref ...

independence
through
state-building State-building as a specific term in social sciences and humanities Humanities are academic disciplines An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of knowledge that is Education, taught and researched at the college or unive ...
methods (especially through
de-colonisation Decolonization (American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U ...
).


Terminology

The term is a metaphor which compares a state or government to a
puppet A puppet is an object, often resembling a human, animal or mythical figure, that is animated or manipulated by a person called a puppeteer A puppeteer is a person who manipulates an inanimate object, called a puppet A puppet is an ...

puppet
controlled by a
puppeteer A puppeteer is a person who manipulates an inanimate object, called a puppet A puppet is an object, often resembling a human, animal or mythical figure, that is animated or manipulated by a person called a puppeteer A puppeteer is a perso ...

puppeteer
using strings. The first recorded use of the term "puppet government" is from 1884, in reference to the
Khedivate of Egypt The Khedivate of Egypt (, ; ota, خدیویت مصر ') was an autonomous tributary state Ayutthaya from its vassal states in the Malay Peninsula">Ayutthaya_Kingdom.html" ;"title="Bunga mas, a form of tribute sent to the King of Ayutthaya K ...
. In the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
vassal state A vassal state is any state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...
s existed which were based on delegation of rule of a country from a King to noble men of lower rank. Since the
Peace of Westphalia The Peace of Westphalia (german: Westfälischer Friede, ) is the collective name for two peace treaties signed in October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück Osnabrück (; wep, Ossenbrügge; archaic ''Osnaburg'') is a city in the ...
of 1648 the concept of a nation came into existence where
sovereignty Sovereignty is the supreme authority within a territory. Sovereignty entails hierarchy within the state, as well as external autonomy for states. In any state, sovereignty is assigned to the person, body, or institution that has the ultimate a ...
was connected more to the people who inhabited the land than to the nobility who owned the land. A similar concept mainly associated with pre-19th century political history is
suzerainty Suzerainty () is a relationship in which one state or other polity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized socia ...
, the control of the external affairs of one state by another.


Examples


19th century

The
Batavian Republic The Batavian Republic ( nl, Bataafse Republiek; french: République Batave) was the successor state Successor is someone who, or something which succeeds or comes after (see success and succession) Film and TV * ''The Successor'' (film), a 1 ...
was established in the Netherlands under French revolutionary protection. In Eastern Europe, France established a Polish client state of the
Duchy of Warsaw The Duchy of Warsaw ( pl, Księstwo Warszawskie, french: Duché de Varsovie, german: Herzogtum Warschau), also known as Napoleonic Poland, was a Poland, Polish client state of the First French Empire, French Empire established by Napoleon Bonapar ...
. In Italy, republics were created in the late 18th and early 19th centuries with the assistance and encouragement of
Napoleonic France The First French Empire, officially the French Republic (until 1809) then the French Empire (; ), was the empire An empire is a sovereign state consisting of several territories and peoples subject to a single ruling authority, often an e ...
(see also
French client republic A sister republic (french: république sœur) was a republic established by French armies or by local revolutionaries and assisted by the First French Republic In the history of France, the First Republic (French: ''Première République'') ...
s). In 1836 U.S. citizens allowed to live in the Mexican state of Texas revolted against the Mexican government to establish a U.S.-backed
Republic of Texas The Republic of Texas ( es, República de Tejas) was a sovereign state A sovereign state is a polity, political entity represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovere ...

Republic of Texas
, a country that existed less than 10 years (from May 14, 1836, to December 29, 1845) before it was annexed to the
United States of America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It consists of 50 , a , five major , 326 , and some . At , it is the world's . The United States shares significan ...

United States of America
. However, in August 1837, Memucan Hunt, Jr., the Texan minister to the United States, submitted the first official annexation proposal to the administration (the first American-led attempts to take over Mexican Texas by filibustering date back to 1819 and by separatist settlers since 1826). In 1896
Britain Britain usually refers to: * United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United ...

Britain
in
Zanzibar Zanzibar (; ; ) is an insular autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division Administrative d ...

Zanzibar
.


World War I

*
Kingdom of Poland Historical political entities *Kingdom of Poland "Kingdom of Poland" ( Polish: ''Królestwo Polskie'', Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was orig ...
(1916–1918) – The
Central Powers The Central Powers, also known as the Central Empires,german: Mittelmächte; hu, Központi hatalmak; tr, İttifak Devletleri / ; bg, Централни сили, translit=Tsentralni sili was one of the two main coalitions that fought World W ...
' forces occupied
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
Congress Poland Congress Poland or Russian Poland, formally known as the Kingdom of Poland, was a polity created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a semi-autonomous Poland, Polish State (polity), state and successor to Napoleon's Duchy of Warsaw. It was est ...
in 1915 and in 1916 the
German Empire The German Empire or the Imperial State of Germany,, officially '.Herbert Tuttle Herbert Tuttle (1846–1894) was an American historian. Biography Herbert Tuttle was born in Bennington, Vermont Bennington is a New England town, town ...
and
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exe ...

Austria-Hungary
created a Polish Monarchy in order to exploit the occupied territories in an easier way and mobilize the Poles against the Russians (see Polish Legions). In 1918 the state became independent and formed the backbone of the new internationally recognized
Second Polish Republic The Second Polish Republic, at the time officially known as the Republic of Poland, was a country in Central Europe, Central and Eastern Europe that existed between 1918 and 1939. The state was established in 1918, in the aftermath of World War I. ...
. *
Kingdom of Lithuania (1918) The Kingdom of Lithuania was a short-lived constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution. Constitutional monarchie ...
– after Russia's defeat and the territorial cessions of the
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (also known as the Peace of Brest in Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and depende ...
, the Germans established a Lithuanian kingdom. However it became an independent republic with Germany's defeat. *
Duchy of Courland and Semigallia (1918) The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia was briefly a client state of the German Empire. It was proclaimed on 8 March 1918, in the German-occupied Courland Governorate by a ''Landesrat'' composed of Baltic Germans, who offered the crown of the once-au ...
– in 1915 the Imperial German forces occupied the
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
Courland Governorate The Courland Governorate, also known as the Province of Courland, Governorate of Kurland (german: Kurländisches Gouvernement; russian: Курля́ндская губерния, translit=Kurljándskaja gubernija; lv, Kurzemes guberņa; lt, Kur ...

Courland Governorate
and the
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (also known as the Peace of Brest in Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and depende ...
ended the
war in the east War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or paramilitary groups such as Mercenary, mercenaries, Insurgency, insurgents, and militias. It is generally characterized by extreme violence ...
, so the local ethnic
Baltic Germans The Baltic Germans (german: Deutsch-Balten or , later ; and остзейцы ''ostzeitsy'' 'Balters' in Russian) are ethnic German inhabitants of the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, in what today are Estonia and Latvia. Since their reset ...
established a Duchy under the German crown from that part of
Ober Ost is short for , German for "Supreme Commander of All German Forces in the East" during World War I. In practice it refers not only to said commander, but also to his governing military staff and the district they controlled: was in command of th ...

Ober Ost
, with a common return of civil administration in favor of military. This state was very swiftly merged with the Baltic State Duchy, and German-occupied territories of
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
in Livonia and Estonia, into a multi-ethnic
United Baltic Duchy The United Baltic Duchy, (german: Vereinigtes Baltisches Herzogtum, et, Balti Hertsogiriik, lv, Apvienotā Baltijas hercogiste) also known as the Grand Duchy of Livonia, was a state proposed by the Baltic German nobility The Baltic or Balti ...
. *
Provisional National Government of the Southwestern Caucasus The Provisional National Government of the Southwestern Caucasus, Provisional National Government of South West Caucasia ( Modern Turkish: ''Güneybatı Kafkas Geçici Milli Hükûmeti''; Ottoman Turkish Ottoman Turkish ( ota, لِسَانِ ...
and
Provisional Government of Western Thrace The Provisional Government of Western Thrace; el, Προσωρινή Κυβέρνηση Δυτικής Θράκης, Prosoriní Kyvérnisi Dytikís Thrákis; tr, Batı Trakya Geçici HükümetiInternational Affairs Agency Turkish Dossier Program ...

Provisional Government of Western Thrace
were the provisional republics that were established by the Turkish minorities in Thrace and Caucasia, after the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
lost its lands in these regions. Both were the products of the Ottoman Intelligence agency, Teşkilat-ı Mahsusa, in terms of organisational structure and organisers, and they had remarkably common features.


Axis Powers of World War II


Imperial Japan

During , and particularly during the
Pacific War The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia–Pacific War, was the theater Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or i ...
(parts of which are considered the Pacific theatre of
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
), the Imperial Japanese regime established a number of dependent states. Nominally sovereign states *
Manchukuo Manchukuo, officially the State of Manchuria prior to 1934 and the Empire of (Great) Manchuria after 1934, was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945. It was founded as a republic in 19 ...
(1932–1945), set up in
Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its populatio ...

Manchuria
under the leadership of the last
Chinese Emperor Emperor of China, or ''Huáng dì'' was the monarch of China during the History of China#Imperial China, Imperial Period of Chinese history. In traditional Chinese political theory, the emperor was considered the Son of Heaven and the autocracy, ...
,
Puyi Puyi (; February 7, 1906 – October 17, 1967), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cult ...
. * North Shanxi Autonomous Government (1937-1939), was formed in northern Shanxi with its capital at Datong on October 15, 1937. The state was then merged with South Chahar Autonomous Government as well as the Mongol United Autonomous Government into Menjiang. * South Chahar Autonomous Government (1937-1939), was formed in South Chahar with its capital at Kalgan (modern day
Zhangjiakou Zhangjiakou (; ; ) also known as Kalgan and by several other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' ( ...
) on September 4, 1937. The state was merged with the North Shanxi Autonomous Government as well as the Mongol United Autonomous Government to create Mengjiang. * Mongol Military Government (1936-1937) as well as Mongol United Autonomous Government (1937-1939) were established in Inner Mongolia as puppet states with local collaborators. This state formed the large basis of what was to become Mengjiang. *
Mengjiang Mengjiang (Mengkiang), also known in English as Mongol Border Land or the Mengjiang United Autonomous Government, was an autonomous area in Inner Mongolia, formed in 1939 as a puppet state of the Empire of Japan, then from 1940 being under the ...

Mengjiang
, set up in
Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnati ...

Inner Mongolia
on May 12, 1936, as the Mongol Military Government (蒙古軍政府) was renamed in October 1937 as the Mongol United Autonomous Government (蒙古聯盟自治政府). On September 1, 1939, the predominantly
Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four ...
governments of South Chahar Autonomous Government and North Shanxi Autonomous Government were merged with the Mongol Autonomous Government, creating the new Mengjiang United Autonomous Government (蒙疆聯合自治政府). All of these were headed by . * East Hebei Autonomous Council – a state in
northeast China Northeast China () is a geographical region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth ...

northeast China
between 1935 and 1938. * – A short-lived regime based in Shanghai. This provinsional government was established as a preliminary collaboration state as the Japanese took control of all of Shanghai and advanced towards Nanking. This was then merged with the Reformed Government of China as well as the Provisional Government of China into the Reorganised Nationalist Government of the Republic of China under the leadership of Chairmen Wang Jingwei. *
Reformed Government of the Republic of China The Reformed Government of the Republic of China (, ''Zhōnghuá Mínguó Wéixīn Zhèngfǔ'' or ja, 中華民国維新政府, ) was a China, Chinese puppet state created by Empire of Japan, Japan that existed from 1938 to 1940 during the Second ...
– First regime established in
Nanjing Nanjing (; , Mandarin pronunciation: ), Postal Map Romanization, alternately romanized as Nanking, is the capital of Jiangsu Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, a sub-provincial city, a megacity and the List ...

Nanjing
after the
Battle of Nanjing The Battle of Nanking (or Nanjing) was fought in early December 1937 during the Second Sino-Japanese War between the Chinese National Revolutionary Army and the Imperial Japanese Army for control of Nanking (Nanjing), the capital of the Republi ...
. Later fused into the Provisional Government of China. * Provisional Government of China (December 14, 1937 – March 30, 1940) – Incorporated into the Nanjing Nationalist Government on March 30, 1940. * Reorganised Nationalist Government of the Republic of China (March 30, 1940 – 1945) – Established in
Nanjing Nanjing (; , Mandarin pronunciation: ), Postal Map Romanization, alternately romanized as Nanking, is the capital of Jiangsu Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, a sub-provincial city, a megacity and the List ...

Nanjing
under the leadership of
Wang Jingwei Wang Jingwei (Wang Ching-wei; 4 May 1883 – 10 November 1944), born as Wang Zhaoming (Wang Chao-ming), but widely known by his pen name "Jingwei", was a Chinese politician. He was initially a member of the left wing of the Kuomintang (KMT), ...

Wang Jingwei
. *
State of Burma The State of Burma (; ja, ビルマ国, ''Biruma-koku'') was the wartime administration of Burma created by Japan in 1943 during the Japanese occupation of Burma The Japanese occupation of Burma was the period between 1942 and 1945 during W ...
(
Burma Myanmar (; my, မြန်မာ ) or Burma ( my, ဗမာ ), officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, is a country in Southeast Asia. Myanmar is bordered by Bangladesh and India to its northwest, China to its northeast, Laos a ...

Burma
, 1942–1945) – Head of State:
Ba Maw Ba Maw ( my, ဘမော်, ; 8 February 1893 – 29 May 1977) was a Burmese lawyer and political leader, active during the interwar In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end ...
. *
Second Philippine Republic The Second Philippine Republic, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines ( tl, Republika ng Pilipinas; ja, フィリピン, Firipin kyōwakoku; Spanish: ''República de Filipinas'') and also known as the Japanese-sponsored Philippine ...
(1943–1945) – government headed by José P. Laurel as
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
. *
Provisional Government of Free India The Provisional Government of Free India (''Arzi Hakumat-e-Azad Hind'') or, more simply, ''Azad Hind'', was an Indian Provisional government established in Japanese occupied Singapore during World War II World War II or the Sec ...
(1943–1945) - set up in
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bor ...
in October 1943 by
Subhas Chandra Bose Subhas Chandra Bose ( ; 23 January 1897 – 18 August 1945) was an Indian independence movement, Indian nationalist whose defiant patriotism made him a hero in India, but whose attempts during World War II to rid India of British Raj, Br ...

Subhas Chandra Bose
and was in charge of Indian expatriates and military personnel in Japanese Southeast Asia. The government was established with prospective control of Indian territory to fall to the offensive to India. Of the territory of post-independence India, the government took charge of
Kohima Kohima ( ) (Angami Naga The Angamis are a major Naga ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a comm ...

Kohima
(after it fell to Japanese-INA offensive), parts of
Manipur Manipur () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...

Manipur
that fell to both the Japanese 15th Army as well as to the INA, and the
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Andaman and Nicobar Islands is a union territory of India consisting of 572 islands, of which 38 are inhabited, at the juncture of the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. The territory is about north of Aceh in Indonesia and separated from Thai ...

Andaman and Nicobar Islands
. *
Empire of Vietnam The Empire of Vietnam ( vi, Đế quốc Việt Nam; Hán tự: 帝國越南; ja, ベトナム帝国) was a short-lived puppet state of Imperial Japan governing the former French protectorates of Annam and Tonkin Tonkin, also spelled ''To ...
(Vietnamese: Đế quốc Việt Nam, Hán tự: 帝國越南) (March–August 1945) – Emperor
Bảo Đại Bảo Đại (, vi-hantu, , lit. "keeper of greatness", 22 October 191330 July 1997), born Nguyễn Phúc Vĩnh Thụy, was the 13th and final Emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sov ...
's regime with
Trần Trọng Kim Trần Trọng Kim (1883 – December 2, 1953), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the Sinosphere, includ ...
as prime minister after proclaiming independence from France. *
Kingdom of Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ពុជា, ), officially the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is in area, bordered by Thailand to Cambodia–Th ...
(
Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ពុជា, ), officially the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is in area, bordered by Thailand to Cambodia–T ...

Cambodia
, March–August 1945) – King
Norodom Sihanouk Norodom Sihanouk ( km, នរោត្តម សីហនុ, ; 31 October 192215 October 2012) was a Cambodia, Cambodian politician who led Cambodia in various capacities throughout his political career, but most often as the King of Cambodia. ...
's regime with
Son Ngoc Thanh Son Ngoc Thanh ( vi, Sơn Ngọc Thành, km, សឺង ង៉ុកថាញ់) (7 December 1908 – 8 August 1977) was a Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ពុជា, ), officially the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a c ...
as Prime Minister after proclaiming independence from France. *
Kingdom of Laos The Kingdom of Laos was a constitutional monarchy that ruled Laos beginning with its independence on 9 November 1953. It survived until December 1975, when its last king, Sisavang Vatthana, Laotian Civil War, surrendered the throne to the Pathet ...
– King
Sisavang Vong Sisavang Phoulivong (or Sisavangvong, lo, ພຣະບາທສົມເດັຈພຣະເຈົ້າມະຫາຊີວິຕສີສວ່າງວົງສ໌) (14 July 1885 – 29 October 1959) was king of the Kingdom of Luang Phr ...

Sisavang Vong
's régime after proclaiming independence from France.


= Unrealized drafts for dependent states

= Empire of Japan, Japan had made drafts for other dependent states. The Provisional Priamurye Government never got beyond the planning stages. In addition to the Japanese, the Nazi Germany, Germans supported the formation of this state. In 1945, as the Second World War drew to a close, Japan planned to grant independence to the former Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). These plans ended when the Japanese Surrender of Japan, surrendered on August 15, 1945.


Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy

Several European governments under the domination of Nazi Germany, Germany and Italy during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
have been described as "puppet régimes". The formal means of control in German-occupied Europe, occupied Europe varied greatly. These states fall into several categories.


= Existing states in alliance with Germany and Italy

= * Government of National Unity (Hungary), Government of National Unity (1944–1945) – The pro-Nazi régime of Prime Minister Ferenc Szálasi supported by the Arrow Cross Party was a German puppet régime. Arrow Cross was a pro-German, anti-Semitic Fascist party. Szálasi was installed by the Germans after Hitler launched Operation Panzerfaust and had the Hungarian Regent, Admiral Miklós Horthy, removed and placed under house arrest. Horthy was forced to abdicate in favor of Szálasi. Szálasi fought on even after Budapest fell and Hungary was completely overrun.


= Existing states under German or Italian rule

= * Albania under Nazi Germany (1943–1944) – The Kingdom of Albania was an Italian protectorate and puppet régime. Italy invaded Albania in 1939 and ended the rule of Zog of Albania, King Zog I. Zog was exiled and King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy added King of Albania to his titles. King Victor Emmanuel and Shefqet Bej Verlaci, Albanian Prime Minister and Head of State, controlled the Italian protectorate. Shefqet Bej Verlaci was replaced as Prime Minister and Head of State by Mustafa Merlika-Kruja, Mustafa Merlika Kruja on 3 December 1941. The Germans occupied Albania when Italy quit the war in 1943 and Ibrahim Bej Biçaku, Mehdi Bej Frashëri, and Rexhep Bej Mitrovica became successive Prime Minister under the Nazis. * Vichy France (1940–1942/4) – The Vichy French régime of Philippe Pétain had limited autonomy from 1940 to 1942, being heavily dependent on Germany. The Vichy government controlled many of France's colonies and the Zone libre, unoccupied part of France and enjoyed international recognition. In 1942, the Germans occupied the portion of France administered by the Vichy government in Case Anton and installed a new leadership under Pierre Laval, which ended much of the international legitimacy the government had. * Monaco (1943–1945) – In 1943, the Italian army invaded and occupied Monaco, setting up a fascist administration. Shortly thereafter, following Mussolini's collapse in Italy, the German army occupied Monaco and began the deportation of the Jewish population. Among them was René Blum (ballet), René Blum, founder of the Ballet de l'Opera, who died in a Nazi extermination camp.


= New states formed to reflect national aspirations

= * Slovak Republic (1939-1945), Slovak Republic under the Slovak People's Party (1939–1945) – The Slovak Republic was a German client state. The Slovak People's Party was a Clerical fascism, clerofascist nationalism, nationalist movement associated with the Roman Catholic Church. Monsignor Jozef Tiso became the president in a nominally independent Slovakia. * Independent State of Croatia (1941–1945) – The Independent State of Croatia (''Nezavisna Država Hrvatska'' or NDH) was a German and Italian puppet régime. On paper, the NDH was a kingdom under King Tomislav II of Croatia, Tomislav II (Aimone, Duke of Spoleto) of the House of Savoy, but Tomislav II was only a figurehead in Croatia who never exercised any real power, with Ante Pavelić being a somewhat independent leader ("poglavnik"), though staying obedient to Rome and Berlin.


= States under control of Germany and Italy

= * Hellenic State (1941-1944), Hellenic State (1941–1944) – The Hellenic State (1941-1944), Hellenic State administration of Georgios Tsolakoglou, Konstantinos Logothetopoulos and Ioannis Rallis was a "collaborationist" puppet government during the Axis occupation of Greece. Germany, Italy and Bulgaria occupied different portions of Greece at different times during these régimes. * Government of National Salvation (1941–1944) – The government of General Milan Nedić and sometimes known as Nedić's Serbia was a German puppet régime operating in the Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia during the Axis occupation of Serbia. * Lokot Republic, Russia (1941–1943) – The Lokot Republic under Konstantin Voskoboinik and Bronislaw Kaminski was a semi-autonomous region in Nazi-occupied Russia under an all-Russian administration. The republic covered the area of several raions of Oryol Oblast, Oryol and Kursk Oblast, Kursk oblasts. It was directly associated with the Kaminski Brigade and the Russian Liberation Army (''Russkaya Osvoboditelnaya Narodnaya Armiya'' or RONA). * Belarusian Central Rada (1943–1944) – The Belarusian Central Council (''Biełaruskaja Centralnaja Rada'') was nominally the government of Belarus from 1943 to 1944. It was a collaborationist government established by Nazi Germany (see Reichskommissariat Ostland). * Quisling regime, Quisling's Norwegian National government (1942–1945) – The occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany started with all authority held by German Reich Commissioner (''Reichskommissar'') Josef Terboven, who exercised this through the Reichskommissariat Norwegen. The Norwegian pro-German fascist Vidkun Quisling had attempted a coup d'état against the Norwegian government during the German invasion on 9 April 1940, but he was not appointed by the Germans to head another native government until 1 February 1942. * Independent State of Croatia (1941–1945) – Formed after the invasion of Yugoslavia, the Independent State of Croatia was led by the Croatian fascist leader Ante Pavelić. It controlled all or most of Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, parts of Serbia, and parts of Slovenia. The government relied on German support for much of its existence.


= Italian Social Republic

= * Italian Social Republic (1943–1945, known also as the Republic of Salò) – General Pietro Badoglio and King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, Victor Emmanuel III withdrew Italy from the Axis Powers and moved the government to southern Italy, already conquered by the Allies. In response, the Germans occupied northern Italy and founded the Italian Social Republic (''Repubblica Sociale Italiana'' or RSI) with Italian dictator Benito Mussolini as its "Head of State" and "Minister of Foreign Affairs". While the RSI government had some trappings of an independent state, it was completely dependent both economically and politically on Germany.


United Kingdom during and after World War II

The Axis demand for oil and the concern of the Allies that Germany would look to the oil-rich Middle East for a solution, caused the invasion of Iraq by the United Kingdom and the invasion of Iran by the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union. Pro-Axis governments in both Iraq and Iran were removed and replaced with Allied-dominated governments. * Kingdom of Iraq (1941–1947) – Iraq was important to the United Kingdom because of its position on the route to India. Iraq also could provide strategic oil reserves. But, due to the UK's weakness early in the war, Iraq backed away from the pre-war Anglo-Iraqi Treaty (1930), Anglo-Iraqi Alliance. On 1 April 1941, the Hashemite monarchy in Iraq was over-thrown and there was a 1941 Iraqi coup d'état, pro-German ''coup d'état'' under Rashid Ali. The Rashid Ali regime began negotiations with the Axis powers and military aid was quickly sent to Mosul via Vichy French-controlled Syria. The Germans provided a squadron of twin engine fighters and a squadron of medium bombers. The Italians provided a squadron of biplane fighters. In mid-April 1941, a brigade of the 10th Indian Infantry Division landed at Basra (Operation Sabine). On 30 April, British forces at RAF Habbaniya were besieged by a numerically inferior Iraqi force. On 2 May, the British launched pre-emptive airstrikes against the Iraqis and the Anglo-Iraqi War began. By the end of May, the siege of RAF Habbaniya was lifted, Falluja was taken, Baghdad was surrounded by British forces, and the pro-German government of Rashid Ali collapsed. Rashid Ali and his supporters fled the country. The Hashemite monarchy (King Faisal II and Prime Minister Nuri al-Said) was restored. The UK then forced Iraq to declare war on the Axis in 1942. Commonwealth forces remained in Iraq until 26 October 1947. * Pahlavi Iran, Imperial State of Iran (1941–1943) – German workers in Iran caused the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union to question Iran's neutrality. In addition, Iran's geographical position was important to the Allies. So, in August 1941, the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran (Operation Countenance) was launched. In September 1941, Rezā Shāh, Reza Shah Pahlavi was forced to abdicate his throne and went into exile. He was replaced by his son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was willing to declare war on the Axis powers. By January 1942, the UK and the Soviet Union agreed to end their occupation of Iran six months after the end of the war.


Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

* Tuvan People's Republic, also Tannu Tuva (1921–1944) achieved independence from China by means of local nationalist revolutions only to come under the domination of the Soviet Union in the 1920s. In 1944, Tannu Tuva was absorbed into the Soviet Union. * Finnish Democratic Republic (1939–1940) – The Finnish Democratic Republic (''Suomen Kansanvaltainen Tasavalta'') was a short-lived republic in the parts of Finland that were occupied by the Soviet Union during the Winter War. The Finnish Democratic Republic was also known as the "Terijoki Government" (''Terijoen hallitus'') because Terijoki was the first town captured by the Soviets. * Azerbaijan People's Government (1940–1946) – A short-lived state in Iranian Azerbaijan after WWII. * Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic (1940) – In June 1940 the Republic of Latvia was occupied by the USSR and in July a government proclaimed Soviet power, In August 1940, Latvia was illegally annexed by the USSR. * Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic (1940) – In June 1940 the Republic of Lithuania was occupied by the USSR and in July a government proclaimed Soviet power, In August 1940, Lithuania was illegally annexed by the USSR. * Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic (1940) – In June 1940 the Republic of Estonia was occupied by the USSR and in July a government proclaimed Soviet power.The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania (Postcommunist States and Nations) David J. Smith from Front Matter In August 1940, Estonia was illegally annexed by the USSR. * Polish People's Republic (1947–1989) – The war-time governments under the Polish Committee of National Liberation, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland, and the Provisional Government of National Unity. * Socialist Republic of Romania, National-communist state of Romania (1947–1968) – The war-time National Front (FND) government under Prime Minister of Romania Petru Groza. The FND was led by the Romanian Communist Party (PCR). Romania refused to participate at the 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia and, since that year, it started trading and having a warmer relationship with the Western World, resulting in the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
to lose control of Romania as a puppet state. This is known as the de-satellization of Communist Romania. * Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (1948–1990) – The war-time pro-Communist government National Front (Czechoslovakia), National Front. * People's Republic of Bulgaria (1946–1990) – The war-time pro-Communist Fatherland Front (Bulgaria), Fatherland Front government headed by Kimon Georgiev (Zveno). * Hungarian People's Republic (1949–1989) – The war-time government of Prime Minister Béla Miklós. * Republic of Mahabad (January 22, 1946 – January 15, 1947), officially known as the Republic of Kurdistan and established in several provinces of northwestern Iran, or what is known as Iranian Kurdistan, was a short-lived republic that sought Kurdish autonomy within the limits of the Iranian state. Iran re-took control in December and the leaders of the state were executed in March 1947 in Mahabad. * Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (1978–1991) As Soviet forces prevailed over the German Army on the Eastern Front during the Second World War, the Soviet Union supported the creation of communist governments throughout Eastern Europe. Specifically, the People's Republics in Polish People's Republic, Poland, Romanian People's Republic, Romania, Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, Czechoslovakia, People's Republic of Bulgaria, Bulgaria, Hungarian People's Republic, Hungary, and People's Republic of Albania, Albania were Soviet sphere of influence, dominated by the Soviet Union. While all of these People's Republics did not "officially" take power until after
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
ended, they all have roots in pro-Communist war-time governments. The Soviet Union established puppet communist governments in East Germany, People's Socialist Republic of Albania, Albania, Polish People's Republic, Poland, Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, Czechoslovakia, Socialist Republic of Romania, Romania, Hungarian People's Republic, Hungary, and People's Republic of Bulgaria, Bulgaria. Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Yugoslavia was also a communist state closely linked to the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
, but Yugoslavia retained autonomy in its own lines. After the Tito-Stalin split, the relationship between the two countries deteriorated significantly. Yugoslavia was expelled from the international organizations of the Eastern bloc. After Stalin's death and his rejection of his policy by Khrushchev, peace was restored, bringing Yugoslavia back to the socialist brothers. However, the relationship between the two countries was never completely mended. Some other countries who were once Soviet puppet governments include Mongolia, North Korea, North Vietnam, DRV (Vietnam, SRV), Cuba:After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, most of the communist states were reformed towards democratization. Only Vietnam and Cuba remain one-party Communist states. In North Korea since 2009, connections to communism under Marxism-Leninism, Marx-Leninism have been Supreme People's Assembly has been removed from the constitution even though Juche is linked to Marxism-Leninism.


Decolonization

In some cases, the process of decolonization has been managed by the decolonizing power to create a neo-colony, that is a nominally independent state whose economy and politics permits continued foreign domination. Neo-colonies are not normally considered puppet states.


Dutch East Indies

The Netherlands formed several puppet states in the former Dutch East Indies as part of the effort to quell the Indonesian National Revolutionː * State of East Indonesia, East Indonesia * State of East Java, East Java * East Sumatra * State of Madura, Madura * Pasundan * State of South Sumatra, South Sumatra * Bandjar Region, Bandjar * Bangka Island * Biliton * Central Java * East Kalimantan * Great Dayak * Southeast Borneo Federation * Pontianak Sultanate, West Kalimantan


Congo crisis

Following Belgian Congo's independence as the Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville), Congo-Leopoldville in 1960, Belgian interests supported the short-lived breakaway state of Katanga (1960–1963).


South Africa's Bantustans

During the 1970s and 1980s, four ethnic bantustans, called "homelands" by the government of the time (some of which were extremely gerrymandering, fragmented) were carved out of South Africa and given nominal sovereignty. Mostly Xhosa people resided in the Ciskei and Transkei, Tswana people in Bophuthatswana and Venda people in Venda, the Venda Republic. The principal purpose of these states was to remove the Xhosa, Tswana and Venda peoples from South African citizenship (and so to provide grounds for denying them democratic rights). All four bantustans were reincorporated into a democratic South Africa on 27 April 1994.


Post-Cold War


Republic of Kuwait

The Republic of Kuwait was a short-lived pro-Ba'athist Iraq, Iraqi state in the Persian Gulf that only existed three weeks before Kuwait Governorate, it was annexed by Iraq in 1990.


Republic of Serbian Krajina

The Republic of Serbian Krajina was a self proclaimed and by Serbian forces ethnic cleansing, ethnic cleansed territory during the Croatian War (1991–95). It was not recognized internationally. That regime was completely dependent to the Serbian regime of Slobodan Milošević.


Current


China

* – The ''de facto'' independent Wa State in Myanmar is considered a puppet state that is linked with China.


Russia

* is considered a puppet state that depends on Russia. The economy of Abkhazia is heavily integrated with Russia and uses the Russian ruble as its currency. About half of Abkhazia's state budget is financed with aid money from Russia. Most Abkhazians have Russian passports. Russia maintains a 3,500-strong force in Abkhazia with its headquarters in Gudauta, a former Soviet military base on the Black Sea coast. The borders of the Republic of Abkhazia are being protected by the Russian border guards. * – is considered to be a puppet state which is supported by Russia * – is considered to be a puppet state which is supported by Russia * has declared independence but its ability to maintain independence is solely based on Russian troops deployed on its territory. As South Ossetia is landlocked between Russia and Georgia, from which it seceded, it has to rely on Russia for economic and logistical support, as its entire exports and imports and air and road traffic is only between Russia. Former President of South Ossetia Eduard Kokoity claimed he would like South Ossetia eventually to become a part of the Russian Federation through reunification with North Ossetia.


By limited opinion


Iran

* – The Houthi movement, Houthi government are considered by some to be a puppet state which is supported by Iran. This classification is disputed, however.


Russia

* – is sometimes considered a puppet state which is supported by Russia.


Saudi Arabia

* – The Cabinet of Yemen, Hadi government is sometimes considered a puppet state which is supported by Saudi Arabia.


Turkey

* – According to the European Court of Human Rights, the Republic of Cyprus remains the sole legitimate government in Cyprus, and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus should be considered as a puppet state under Turkish effective control. Its isolation, the Turkish military forces in Northern Cyprus, Turkish military presence and the heavy dependence on Turkish support mean that Turkey has a high level of control over the country's decision-making processes. That has led to some experts stating that it runs as an effective puppet state of Turkey.Kaczorowska, A. ''Public International Law.'' p. 19

Taylor and Francis, 2010, 944 pages. .
Other experts, however, have pointed out to the independent nature of elections and appointments in Northern Cyprus and disputes between the Turkish Cypriot and Turkish governments and conclude that "puppet state" is not an accurate description for Northern Cyprus.


United Arab Emirates

* – Southern Transitional Council is sometimes considered a puppet state which is supported by the United Arab Emirates.


United States

* Islamic Republic of Afghanistan – Like the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (1978–1991) during the Russian occupation, the Afghan governments during the US and NATO occupation of 2001–2021 were considered by some, especially the Taliban, to be puppet governments.


See also


References


Further reading

* James Crawford. ''The creation of states in international law'' (1979) {{DEFAULTSORT:Puppet State Political metaphors Client state