Propofol, marketed as Diprivan, among other names, is a short-acting medication that results in a decreased level of consciousness and a lack of memory for events
Its uses include the starting and maintenance of
General anaesthesia (UK) or general anesthesia (US) is a medically induced loss of consciousness that renders the patient unarousable even with painful stimuli. This effect is achieved by administering either intravenous or inhalational general ...
, sedation for mechanically ventilated
Procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) is a technique in which a sedating/dissociative medication is given, usually along with an analgesic medication, in order to perform non-surgical procedures on a patient. The overall goal is to induce a decr ...
[ It is also used for ] status epilepticus
Status epilepticus (SE), or status seizure, is a single seizure lasting more than 5 minutes or 2 or more seizures within a 5-minute period without the person returning to normal between them. Previous definitions used a 30-minute time limit. The ... if other medications have not worked. [ It is given by injection into a vein, and the maximum effect takes about two minutes to occur and typically lasts five to ten minutes.] [ Propofol is also used for medical assistance in dying in Canada.]
The medication appears to be safe for use during pregnancy
Pregnancy is the time during which one or more offspring develops ( gestates) inside a woman's uterus (womb). A multiple pregnancy involves more than one offspring, such as with twins.
Pregnancy usually occurs by sexual intercourse, but ca ... but has not been well studied for use in this case. It is not recommended for use during a cesarean section. [ It is not a pain medication, so ] opioids
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects. Medically they are primarily used for pain relief, including anesthesia. Other medical uses include suppression of diarrhea, replacement therapy for opioid u ... such as morphine
Morphine is a strong opiate that is found naturally in opium, a dark brown resin in poppies (''Papaver somniferum''). It is mainly used as a pain medication, and is also commonly used recreationally, or to make other illicit opioids. The ... may also be used; however, whether or not they are always needed is not clear. Propofol is believed to work at least partly via a receptor for GABA. [
Propofol was discovered in 1977 and approved for use in the United States in 1989.] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines
The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (aka Essential Medicines List or EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health .... It is available as a generic medication
A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that contains the same chemical substance as a drug that was originally protected by chemical patents. Generic drugs are allowed for sale after the patents on the original drugs expire. Because the active c .... [ It has been referred to as milk of amnesia (a play on " milk of magnesia"), because of the milk-like appearance of the intravenous preparation, and because of its tendency to suppress memory recall.] Propofol is also used in veterinary medicine
Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, management, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, disorder, and injury in animals. Along with this, it deals with animal rearing, husbandry, breeding, research on nutr ... for anesthesia.
To induce general anesthesia, propofol is the drug used almost exclusively, having largely replaced
Sodium thiopental, also known as Sodium Pentothal (a trademark of Abbott Laboratories), thiopental, thiopentone, or Trapanal (also a trademark), is a rapid-onset short-acting barbiturate general anesthetic. It is the thiobarbiturate analog of .... [ It can also be administered as part of an anesthesia maintenance technique called total intravenous anesthesia, using either manually programmed infusion pumps or computer-controlled infusion pumps in a process called target controlled infusion (TCI). Propofol is also used to sedate individuals who are receiving mechanical ventilation but not undergoing surgery, such as patients in the ] intensive care unit
220px, Intensive care unit
An intensive care unit (ICU), also known as an intensive therapy unit or intensive treatment unit (ITU) or critical care unit (CCU), is a special department of a hospital or health care facility that provides intensi .... In critically ill patients, propofol is superior to lorazepam both in effectiveness and overall cost. Propofol is relatively inexpensive compared to medications of similar use due to shorter ICU stay length. One of the reasons propofol is thought to be more effective (although it has a longer half-life than lorazepam) is because studies have found that benzodiazepines like midazolam and lorazepam tend to accumulate in critically ill patients, prolonging sedation. Propofol has also been suggested as a sleep aid in critically ill adults in the ICU; however, the effectiveness of this medicine at replicating the mental and physical aspects of sleep for people in the ICU is not clear.
Propofol can be run through a peripheral IV or central line. Propofol is frequently paired with fentanyl
Fentanyl, also spelled fentanil, is a very potent synthetic opioid used as a pain medication. Together with other drugs, fentanyl is used for anesthesia. It is also used illicitly as a recreational drug, sometimes mixed with heroin, cocaine, ... (for pain relief) in intubated and sedated people. The two drugs are compatible in IV form.
Propofol is also used for deepening of anesthesia in order to relieve laryngospasm
Laryngospasm is an uncontrolled or involuntary muscular contraction ( spasm) of the vocal folds. The condition typically lasts less than 60 seconds, but in cases partial blocking it may last 20 to 30 minutes and hinder inspiration, while exhal .... It may be used alone or followed by succinylcholine. Its use can avoid the need for paralysis and in some instances the potential side-effects of succinylcholine.
Propofol is safe and effective for gastrointestinal endoscopy procedures. Its use in these settings results in a faster recovery compared to midazolam.
It can also be combined with opioids
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects. Medically they are primarily used for pain relief, including anesthesia. Other medical uses include suppression of diarrhea, replacement therapy for opioid u ... or benzodiazepines
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BDZ, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of depressant drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring. They are prescribed to treat conditions such as anxiety disorders, .... Because of its rapid induction and recovery time, propofol is also widely used for sedation of infants and children undergoing MRI. It is also often used in combination with ketamine
Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic used medically for induction and maintenance of anesthesia. It is also used as a recreational drug. It is one of the safest anesthetics, as, in contrast with opiates, ether, and propofol, it suppresses nei ... with minimal side effects.
In March 2021, the U.S.
Food and Drug Administration
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA or US FDA) is a federal agency of the Department of Health and Human Services. The FDA is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the control and supervision of food ... (FDA) issued an emergency use authorization
An Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) in the United States is an authorization granted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under sections of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act as added to and amended by various Acts of Congress, includi ... (EUA) for ''Propofol‐Lipuro'' 1% to maintain sedation via continuous infusion in people older than sixteen with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 who require mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit
220px, Intensive care unit
An intensive care unit (ICU), also known as an intensive therapy unit or intensive treatment unit (ITU) or critical care unit (CCU), is a special department of a hospital or health care facility that provides intensi ... ICU setting. In the circumstances of this public health emergency, it would not be feasible to require healthcare providers to seek to limit Fresenius Propoven 2% Emulsion or Propofol-Lipuro 1% only to be used for patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19; therefore, this authorization does not limit use to such patients.
Assisted death in Canada
A lethal dose of propofol is used for medical assistance in dying in Canada to quickly induce deep coma and death, but rocuronium is always given—even when patient dies as a result of propofol injection. Delivery order of IV medication is as follows:
Step 1: Midazolam 10–20 mg given as 2−4ml of 5 mg/ml preparation for pre-anesthesia, induces sleep in 1−2 minutes.
Step 2: Lidocaine 40 mg given as 4ml of 1% preparation to reduce possible burning in peripheral vein caused by propofol. Pause to allow effect.
Step 3: Propofol 1000 mg given as 100ml of 10 mg/ml preparation. Loss of consciousness occurs within 10 seconds and coma occurs in 1–2 minutes. Death may result from the propofol but rocuronium is still given.
Step 4: Rocuronium 200 mg given as 20ml of 10 mg/ml preparation to induce respiratory arrest. Cardiac arrest subsequently follows about 5 minutes later due to hypoxia.
The US state of Missouri added propofol to its execution protocol in April 2012. However, Governor Jay Nixon halted the first execution by the administration of a lethal dose of propofol in October 2013 following threats from the European Union to limit the drug's export if it were used for that purpose. The United Kingdom had already banned the export of medicines or veterinary medicines containing propofol to the United States.
Recreational use of the drug via self-administration has been reported but is relatively rare due to its potency and the level of monitoring required for safe critically, a steep dose-response curve makes recreational use of propofol very dangerous, and deaths from self-administration continue to be reported. The short-term effects sought via recreational use include mild euphoria, hallucinations, and disinhibition.
Recreational use of the drug has been described among medical staff, such as anesthetists who have access to the drug.
It is reportedly more common among anesthetists on rotations with short rest periods, as usage generally produces a well-rested feeling. Long-term use has been reported to result in addiction
Addiction is a neuropsychological disorder characterized by a persistent and intense urge to engage in certain behaviors, one of which is the usage of a drug, despite substantial harm and other negative consequences. Repetitive drug use o .... [
Attention to the risks of ] off-label use
Off-label use is the use of pharmaceutical drugs for an unapproved indication or in an unapproved age group, dosage, or route of administration. Both prescription drugs and over-the-counter drugs (OTCs) can be used in off-label ways, although ... of propofol increased in August 2009 due to the Los Angeles County coroner's conclusion that music icon Michael Jackson
Michael Joseph Jackson (August 29, 1958 – June 25, 2009) was an American singer, songwriter, dancer, and philanthropist. Dubbed the " King of Pop", he is regarded as one of the most significant cultural figures of the 20th century. Over ... died from a mixture of propofol and the benzodiazepine
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BDZ, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of depressant drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring. They are prescribed to treat conditions such as anxiety disorders, ... drugs lorazepam, midazolam, and diazepam
Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that acts as an anxiolytic. It is commonly used to treat a range of conditions, including anxiety, seizures, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, muscle spasms, insomnia ... on 25 June 2009. According to a 22 July 2009 search warrant affidavit unsealed by the district court of Harris County, Texas, Jackson's physician, Conrad Murray, administered 25 milligrams of propofol diluted with lidocaine
Lidocaine, also known as lignocaine and sold under the brand name Xylocaine among others, is a local anesthetic of the amino amide type. It is also used to treat ventricular tachycardia. When used for local anaesthesia or in nerve blocks, lidoc ... shortly before Jackson's death. Even so, as of 2016, propofol was not on a US Drug Enforcement Administration
The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA; ) is a United States federal law enforcement agency under the U.S. Department of Justice tasked with combating drug trafficking and distribution within the U.S. It is the lead agency for domestic en ... schedule
A schedule or a timetable, as a basic time-management tool, consists of a list of times at which possible tasks, events, or actions are intended to take place, or of a sequence of events in the chronological order in which such things are ....
One of propofol's most common side effects is pain on injection, especially in smaller veins. This pain arises from activation of the pain receptor,
Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1, also known as transient receptor potential ankyrin 1, TRPA1, or The Wasabi Receptor, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ''TRPA1'' (and in mice and rats by the ''Trpa1' ..., found on sensory nerves and can be mitigated by pretreatment with lidocaine
Lidocaine, also known as lignocaine and sold under the brand name Xylocaine among others, is a local anesthetic of the amino amide type. It is also used to treat ventricular tachycardia. When used for local anaesthesia or in nerve blocks, lidoc .... Less pain is experienced when infused at a slower rate in a large vein (antecubital fossa). Patients show considerable variability in their response to propofol, at times showing profound sedation with small doses
Additional side effects include low blood pressure related to vasodilation, transient apnea
Apnea, BrE: apnoea, is the temporal cessation of breathing. During apnea, there is no movement of the muscles of inhalation, and the volume of the lungs initially remains unchanged. Depending on how blocked the airways are ( patency), there ma ... following induction doses, and cerebrovascular effects. Propofol has more pronounced hemodynamic effects relative to many intravenous anesthetic agents. Reports of blood pressure drops of 30% or more are thought to be at least partially due to inhibition of sympathetic nerve activity. This effect is related to the dose and rate of propofol administration. It may also be potentiated by opioid analgesics.
Propofol can also cause decreased systemic vascular resistance, myocardial blood flow, and oxygen consumption, possibly through direct vasodilation. There are also reports that it may cause green discolouration of the urine.
Although propofol is heavily used in the adult ICU setting, the side effects associated with propofol seem to be of greater concern in children. In the 1990s, multiple reported deaths of children in ICUs associated with propofol sedation prompted the FDA to issue a warning.
As a respiratory depressant, propofol frequently produces apnea. The persistence of apnea can depend on factors such as premedication, dose administered, and rate of administration, and may sometimes persist for longer than 60 seconds. Possibly as the result of depression of the central inspiratory drive, propofol may produce significant decreases in respiratory rate
The respiratory rate is the rate at which breathing occurs; it is set and controlled by the respiratory center of the brain. A person's respiratory rate is usually measured in breaths per minute.
The respiratory rate in humans is mea ..., minute volume, tidal volume
Tidal volume (symbol VT or TV) is the volume of air moved into or out of the lungs during a normal breath. In a healthy, young human adult, tidal volume is approximately 500 ml per inspiration or 7 ml/kg of body mass.
Mechanical vent ..., mean inspiratory flow rate, and functional residual capacity
Functional residual capacity (FRC) is the volume of air present in the lungs at the end of passive expiration. At FRC, the opposing elastic recoil forces of the lungs and chest wall are in equilibrium and there is no exertion by the diaphrag ....
Diminishing cerebral blood flow, cerebral metabolic oxygen consumption, and intracranial pressure
Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure exerted by fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inside the skull and on the brain tissue. ICP is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and at rest, is normally 7–15 mmHg for a supine adult. T ... are also characteristics of propofol administration. In addition, propofol may decrease intraocular pressure
Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the fluid pressure inside the human eye, eye. Ocular tonometry, Tonometry is the method eye care professionals use to determine this. IOP is an important aspect in the evaluation of patients at risk of glaucoma. Most ... by as much as 50% in patients with normal intraocular pressure.
A more serious but rare side effect is dystonia
Dystonia is a neurological hyperkinetic movement disorder in which sustained or repetitive muscle contractions result in twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal fixed postures. The movements may resemble a tremor. Dystonia is often in .... Mild myoclonic
Myoclonus is a brief, involuntary, irregular (lacking rhythm) twitching of a muscle or a group of muscles, different from clonus, which is rhythmic or regular. Myoclonus (myo "muscle", clonic "jerk") describes a medical sign and, generally, is ... movements are common, as with other intravenous hypnotic agents. Propofol appears to be safe for use in porphyria
Porphyria is a group of liver disorders in which substances called porphyrins build up in the body, negatively affecting the skin or nervous system. The types that affect the nervous system are also known as acute porphyria, as symptoms are r ..., and has not been known to trigger malignant hyperpyrexia.
Propofol is also reported to induce priapism
Priapism is a condition in which a penis remains erect for hours in the absence of stimulation or after stimulation has ended. There are three types: ischemic (low-flow), nonischemic (high-flow), and recurrent ischemic (intermittent). Most cases ... in some individuals, and has been observed to suppress REM sleep stage and to worsen the poor sleep quality in some patients.
Rare side effects include:
* changes in vision.
* cloudy urine.
* coughing up blood.
* delirium or hallucinations.
* difficult urination.
* difficulty swallowing.
* dry eyes, mouth, nose, or throat.
As with any other general anesthetic agent, propofol should be administered only where appropriately trained staff and facilities for monitoring are available, as well as proper airway management, a supply of supplemental oxygen, artificial ventilation, and cardiovascular resuscitation.
Because of its lipid base, some hospital facilities require the IV tubing (of continuous propofol infusions) to be changed after 12 hours. This is a preventive measure against microbial growth and infection.
Propofol infusion syndrome
A rare, but serious, side effect is propofol infusion syndrome. This potentially lethal metabolic derangement has been reported in critically ill patients after a prolonged infusion of high-dose propofol, sometimes in combination with
A catecholamine (; abbreviated CA) is a monoamine neurotransmitter, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups next to each other) and a side-chain amine.
Catechol can be either a free molecule or a substi ...s and/or corticosteroid
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones. Two main classes of corticosteroids, glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, are involve ...s.
The respiratory effects of propofol are increased if given with other respiratory depressants, including
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BDZ, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of depressant drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring. They are prescribed to treat conditions such as anxiety disorders, ...s.
Propofol has been proposed as having several mechanisms of action, both through potentiation of GABAA receptor activity and therefore acting as a GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator, thereby slowing the channel-closing time. At high doses, propofol may be able to activate GABAA receptors in the absence of GABA, behaving as a GABAA receptor agonist as well. Propofol analogs have been shown to also act as
Sodium channels are integral membrane proteins that form ion channels, conducting sodium ions (Na+) through a cell's membrane. They belong to the superfamily of cation channels and can be classified according to the trigger that opens the chan ... blockers. Some research has also suggested that the endocannabinoid
Cannabinoids () are several structural classes of compounds found in the cannabis plant primarily and most animal organisms (although insects lack such receptors) or as synthetic compounds. The most notable cannabinoid is the phytocannabinoid tet ... system may contribute significantly to propofol's anesthetic action and to its unique properties, as endocannabinoids also play an important role in the physiologic control of sleep
Sleep is a sedentary state of mind and body. It is characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, reduced muscle activity and reduced interactions with surroundings. It is distinguished from wakefulness by a de ..., pain processing and emesis. An EEG study on patients undergoing general anesthesia with propofol found that it causes a prominent reduction in the brain's information integration capacity.
Propofol is an inhibitor of the endoccannabinoid Anandamide
Anandamide (ANA), also known as ''N''-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA), is a fatty acid neurotransmitter. Anandamide was the first endocannabinoid to be discovered: it participates in the body's endocannabinoid system by binding to cannabinoid rece ... (AEA: C22H37NO2; 20:4,n-6) metabolizing enzyme Fatty acid amide hydrolase
Fatty acid amide hydrolase or FAAH (, oleamide hydrolase, anandamide amidohydrolase) is a member of the serine hydrolase family of enzymes. It was first shown to break down anandamide in 1993. In humans, it is encoded by the gene ''FAAH''.;
F ... (FAAH), as propofol activation of the endocannabinoid system, possibly via inhibition of AEA catabolism
Catabolism () is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions. Catabolism breaks down large molecules (such as polysaccharides, lipids ..., generate a significant increase in the whole-brain content of AEA, that contributes to the sedative properties of propofol via CB1 receptor activation, and may explain the reason of the side effects of general anesthetics such as psychomimetic and antiemetic
An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea. Antiemetics are typically used to treat motion sickness and the side effects of opioid analgesics, general anaesthetics, and chemotherapy directed against cancer. They ma ... properties of propofol and the high incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting after volatile anesthetics, as they contribute to the opposite and a significant decrease in the whole-brain content of AEA, lasting until 40 min after induction.
Propofol is highly protein-bound ''in vivo'' and is metabolised by conjugation in the liver.
The half-life of elimination of propofol has been estimated to be between 2 and 24 hours. However, its duration of clinical effect is much shorter, because propofol is rapidly distributed into peripheral tissues. When used for IV sedation, a single dose of propofol typically wears off within minutes. Propofol is versatile; the drug can be given for short or prolonged sedation, as well as for general anesthesia. Its use is not associated with nausea as is often seen with opioid medications. These characteristics of rapid onset and recovery along with its amnestic effects have led to its widespread use for sedation and anesthesia.
John B. Glen, a veterinarian and researcher at
Imperial Chemical Industries
Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) was a British chemical company. It was, for much of its history, the largest manufacturer in Britain.
It was formed by the merger of four leading British chemical companies in 1926.
Its headquarters were at M ... (ICI) spent 13 years developing propofol, an effort which led to the awarding to him of the prestigious 2018 Lasker Award
The Lasker Awards have been awarded annually since 1945 to living persons who have made major contributions to medical science or who have performed public service on behalf of medicine. They are administered by the Lasker Foundation, which was f ... for clinical research. Propofol was originally developed as ICI 35868. It was chosen for development after extensive evaluation and structure–activity relationship studies of the anesthetic potencies and pharmacokinetic profiles of a series of ''ortho''-alkylated phenols.
First identified as a drug candidate in 1973, clinical trials followed in 1977, using a form solubilised in cremophor EL. However, due to anaphylactic reactions to cremophor, this formulation was withdrawn from the market and subsequently reformulated as an emulsion
An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable) owing to liquid-liquid phase separation. Emulsions are part of a more general class of two-phase systems of matter called colloids. Althou ... of a soya oil/propofol mixture in water. The emulsified formulation was relaunched in 1986 by ICI (now AstraZeneca
AstraZeneca plc () is a British-Swedish multinational pharmaceutical and biotechnology company with its headquarters at the Cambridge Biomedical Campus in Cambridge, England. It has a portfolio of products for major diseases in areas includi ...) under the brand name Diprivan. The currently available preparation is 1% propofol, 10% soybean oil
Soybean oil ( British English: soyabean oil) is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the soybean (''Glycine max''). It is one of the most widely consumed cooking oils and the second most consumed vegetable oil. As a drying oil, processed ..., and 1.2% purified egg phospholipid as an emulsifier, with 2.25% glycerol
Glycerol (), also called glycerine in British English and glycerin in American English, is a simple triol compound. It is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid that is sweet-tasting and non-toxic. The glycerol backbone is found in lipids kn ... as a tonicity
In chemical biology, tonicity is a measure of the effective osmotic pressure gradient; the water potential of two solutions separated by a partially-permeable cell membrane. Tonicity depends on the relative concentration of selective membrane- ...-adjusting agent, and sodium hydroxide
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye and caustic soda, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions .
Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkal ... to adjust the pH. Diprivan contains EDTA, a common chelation agent, that also acts alone (bacteriostatically against some bacteria) and synergistically with some other antimicrobial agents. Newer generic formulations contain sodium metabisulfite or benzyl alcohol
Benzyl alcohol is an aromatic alcohol with the formula C6H5CH2OH. The benzyl group is often abbreviated "Bn" (not to be confused with "Bz" which is used for benzoyl), thus benzyl alcohol is denoted as BnOH. Benzyl alcohol is a colorless liquid ... as antimicrobial agents. Propofol emulsion is a highly opaque white fluid due to the scattering of light from the tiny (about 150-nm) oil droplets it contains: Tyndall Effect
The Tyndall effect is light scattering by particles in a colloid or in a very fine suspension. Also known as Tyndall scattering, it is similar to Rayleigh scattering, in that the intensity of the scattered light is inversely proportional to th ....
A prodrug is a medication or compound that, after intake, is metabolized (i.e., converted within the body) into a pharmacologically active drug. Instead of administering a drug directly, a corresponding prodrug can be used to improve how the dru ... form, fospropofol, has been developed and tested with positive results. Fospropofol is rapidly broken down by the enzyme alkaline phosphatase
The enzyme alkaline phosphatase (EC 188.8.131.52, alkaline phosphomonoesterase; phosphomonoesterase; glycerophosphatase; alkaline phosphohydrolase; alkaline phenyl phosphatase; orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase (alkaline optimum), systematic ... to form propofol. Marketed as ''Lusedra'', this formulation may not produce the pain at injection site that often occurs with the conventional form of the drug. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA or US FDA) is a federal agency of the Department of Health and Human Services. The FDA is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the control and supervision of food ... (FDA) approved the product in 2008.
However fospropofol is a Schedule IV controlled substance
A controlled substance is generally a drug or chemical whose manufacture, possession and use is regulated by a government, such as illicitly used drugs or prescription medications that are designated by law. Some treaties, notably the Single ... with the DEA ACSCN of 2138 in the United States unlike propofol. [ pp. 3. accessed 23. January 2016]
By incorporation of an azobenzene unit, a photoswitchable version of propofol (AP2) was developed in 2012 that allows for optical control of GABAA receptors with light. In 2013, a propofol binding site on mammalian GABAA receptors has been identified by photolabeling using a diazirine
Diazirines are a class of organic molecules consisting of a carbon bound to two nitrogen atoms, which are double-bonded to each other, forming a cyclopropene-like ring, 3''H''-diazirene. They are isomeric with diazocarbon groups, and like them ... derivative. Additionally, it was shown that the hyaluronan polymer present in the synovia can be protected from free-radical depolymerization by propofol.
Chemical substances for emergency medicine
GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators
GABAA receptor agonists
Glycine receptor agonists
World Health Organization essential medicines
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