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Platinum is a
chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical elements cannot be broken down into simp ...
with the
symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an , , or . Symbols allow people to go beyond what is n or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different s and s. All (and ) is achieved th ...
Pt and
atomic number 300px, The Rutherford–Bohr model of the hydrogen atom () or a hydrogen-like ion (). In this model it is an essential feature that the photon energy (or frequency) of the electromagnetic radiation emitted (shown) when an electron jumps from one ...
78. It is a
dense The density (more precisely, the volumetric mass density; also known as specific mass), of a substance is its mass Mass is both a property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or ...

dense
, malleable,
ductile Ductility is a mechanical property commonly described as a material's amenability to drawing Drawing is a form of visual art in which an artist uses instruments to mark paper Paper is a thin sheet material produced by mechanically a ...

ductile
, highly unreactive, precious, silverish-white
transition metal In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible definitions: * The IUPAC The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC ) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations tha ...
. Its name originates from
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
, a
diminutive A diminutive is a root word A root (or root word) is the core of a word that is irreducible into more meaningful elements. In morphology, a root is a morphologically simple unit which can be left bare or to which a prefix A prefix is an affi ...
of "silver." Platinum is a member of the
platinum group The platinum-group metals (abbreviated as the PGMs; alternatively, the platinoids, platinides, platidises, platinum group, platinum metals, platinum family or platinum-group elements (PGEs)) are six Noble metal, noble, Precious metal, precious meta ...
of elements and group 10 of the
periodic table of elements The periodic table, also known as the periodic table of elements, is a tabular display of the chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry ...

periodic table of elements
. It has six naturally occurring
isotopes Isotopes are two or more types of atoms that have the same atomic number 300px, The Rutherford–Bohr model of the hydrogen atom () or a hydrogen-like ion (). In this model it is an essential feature that the photon energy (or frequency) of ...
. It is one of the rarer elements in Earth's crust, with an average abundance of approximately 5  μg/kg. It occurs in some
nickel Nickel is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same nu ...

nickel
and
copper Copper is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Cu (from la, cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductility, ductile metal with very high thermal conductivity, thermal and electrical conductivity. A fre ...

copper
ores along with some
native Native may refer to: People * Jus soli, citizenship by right of birth * Indigenous peoples, peoples with a set of specific rights based on their historical ties to a particular territory ** Native Americans (disambiguation) In arts and entertain ...
deposits, mostly in
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the Southern Africa, southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 60 million people, it is the world's List of countries by population, 23rd-most ...

South Africa
, which accounts for 80% of the world production. Because of its scarcity in Earth's crust, only a few hundred
tonne The tonne ( or ; symbol: t) is a metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilogram The kilogram (also kilogramme) is the base unit of mass Mass is the physical quantity, quantity of ''matter'' in a physical body. It is also a meas ...
s are produced annually, and given its important uses, it is highly valuable and is a major precious metal commodity. Platinum is one of the least reactive metals. It has remarkable resistance to
corrosion Corrosion is a that converts a refined metal into a more chemically stable form such as , , or . It is the gradual destruction of materials (usually a ) by chemical and/or electrochemical reaction with their environment. is the field dedica ...

corrosion
, even at high temperatures, and is therefore considered a
noble metal In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo duri ...
. Consequently, platinum is often found chemically uncombined as native platinum. Because it occurs naturally in the alluvial sands of various rivers, it was first used by pre-Columbian South American natives to produce artifacts. It was referenced in European writings as early as 16th century, but it was not until
Antonio de Ulloa Antonio de Ulloa y de la Torre-Giralt, FRS, FRSA, KOS (12 January 1716 – 3 July 1795) was a Spanish naval officer, scientist, and administrator. At the age of nineteen, he joined the French Geodesic Mission to what is now the country ...

Antonio de Ulloa
published a report on a new metal of
Colombia Colombia ( , ; ), officially the Republic of Colombia, is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental country spanning South America and an Insular region of Colombia, insular region in North America. It is bordered by the Carib ...

Colombia
n origin in 1748 that it began to be investigated by scientists. Platinum is used in
catalytic converter A catalytic converter is an exhaust emission control device that reduces toxic gases and pollutants in exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine in which the combustion of a fuel o ...

catalytic converter
s, laboratory equipment,
electric Electricity is the set of physics, physical Phenomenon, phenomena associated with the presence and motion of matter that has a property of electric charge. Electricity is related to magnetism, both being part of the phenomenon of electromagnet ...

electric
al contacts and
electrode An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor A semiconductor material has an Electrical resistivity and conductivity, electrical conductivity value falling between tha ...

electrode
s,
platinum resistance thermometer Resistance thermometers, also called resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), are sensors used to measure temperature. Many RTD elements consist of a length of fine wire wrapped around a ceramic or glass core but other constructions are also used. ...
s,
dentistry Dentistry, also known as dental medicine and oral medicine, is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the mouth, oral cavity (the mouth), commonly in the ...

dentistry
equipment, and jewelry. Being a
heavy metal Heavy metal may refer to: *Heavy metals, a loose category of relatively dense metals and metalloids **Toxic heavy metal, any heavy metal chemical element of environmental concern *Heavy metal music, a genre of rock music **Heavy metal genres *Hea ...
, it leads to health problems upon exposure to its
salts In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during ...
; but due to its corrosion resistance, metallic platinum has not been linked to adverse health effects. Compounds containing platinum, such as
cisplatin Cisplatin is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of cancers. These include testicular cancer, ovarian cancer Ovarian cancer is a cancer Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to i ...

cisplatin
,
oxaliplatin Oxaliplatin, sold under the brand name Eloxatin, is a cancer medication used to treat colorectal cancer Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer, colon cancer, or rectal cancer, is the development of cancer from the Colon (anatomy), ...

oxaliplatin
and
carboplatin Carboplatin, sold under the trade name Paraplatin among others, is a chemotherapy Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs ( chemotherapeutic agen ...
, are applied in
chemotherapy Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment Cancer Cancer is a group of diseases A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or f ...

chemotherapy
against certain types of cancer. Pure platinum is less expensive than pure
gold Gold is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical elemen ...

gold
, having been so continuously since 2015. In early 2021, the value of platinum ranged from US$1,055 per
troy ounce 1 troy ounce (1.097 avoirdupois ounces, 31.1 g) coin example ( Platinum Eagle) File:1000oz.silver.bullion.bar.underneath.jpg, A Good Delivery silver bar weighing Troy weight is a system of Physical unit, units of mass that originated in 15th-ce ...
to US$1,320 per troy ounce.


Characteristics


Physical

Pure platinum is a lustrous,
ductile Ductility is a mechanical property commonly described as a material's amenability to drawing Drawing is a form of visual art in which an artist uses instruments to mark paper Paper is a thin sheet material produced by mechanically a ...

ductile
, and
malleable Ductility is a mechanical property commonly described as a material's amenability to drawing Drawing is a form of visual art in which an artist uses instruments to mark paper Paper is a thin sheet material produced by mechanically a ...
, silver-white metal. Platinum is more ductile than
gold Gold is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical elemen ...

gold
,
silver Silver is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical ele ...

silver
or
copper Copper is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Cu (from la, cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductility, ductile metal with very high thermal conductivity, thermal and electrical conductivity. A fre ...

copper
, thus being the most ductile of pure metals, but it is less malleable than gold. The metal has excellent resistance to
corrosion Corrosion is a that converts a refined metal into a more chemically stable form such as , , or . It is the gradual destruction of materials (usually a ) by chemical and/or electrochemical reaction with their environment. is the field dedica ...

corrosion
, is stable at high temperatures and has stable electrical properties. Platinum does oxidize, forming , at 500 °C; this oxide can be easily removed thermally. It reacts vigorously with fluorine at to form
platinum tetrafluoride Platinum tetrafluoride is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula . In the solid state, the compound features platinum(IV) in octahedral coordination geometry. Preparation The compound was first reported by Henri Moissan by the fluorinati ...
. It is also attacked by
chlorine Chlorine is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemica ...

chlorine
,
bromine Bromine is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical elemen ...

bromine
,
iodine Iodine is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical ele ...

iodine
, and
sulfur Sulfur (in nontechnical British English: sulphur) is a chemical element In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: th ...

sulfur
. Platinum is insoluble in
hydrochloric Hydrochloric acid +(aq) Cl−(aq) or H3O+ Cl− also known as muriatic acid, is an aqueous solution An aqueous solution is a solution Solution may refer to: * Solution (chemistry) Image:SaltInWaterSolutionLiquid.jpg, upMaking a salin ...

hydrochloric
and
nitric acid Nitric acid (), also known as ''aqua fortis'' (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid. The pure compound is colorless, but older samples tend to acquire a yellow cast due to decomposition into nitroge ...

nitric acid
, but dissolves in hot ''
aqua regia ''Aqua regia'' (; from Latin, "regal water" or "Royal water") is a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, optimally in a molar concentration, molar ratio of 1:3.The relative concentrations of the two acids in water differ; values could be ...

aqua regia
'' (a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids), to form
chloroplatinic acid Chloroplatinic acid (also known as hexachloroplatinic acid) is an inorganic compound with the formula 3O tCl6H2O)''x'' (0 ≤ ''x'' ≤ 6). A red solid, it is an important commercial source of platinum, usually as an aqueous solution. Alth ...

chloroplatinic acid
, . Its physical characteristics and chemical stability make it useful for industrial applications. Its resistance to wear and tarnish is well suited to use in fine
jewellery Jewellery or jewelry consists of decorative items worn for personal adornment 150px, The principal adornment of these girls from the Bundu tribe in Sierra Leone is the adornment of bodies and faces with markings produced by the smearing on by ...

jewellery
.


Chemical

The most common
oxidation state The oxidation state, or oxidation number, is the hypothetical charge Charge or charged may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Films * ''Charge, Zero Emissions/Maximum Speed'', a 2011 documentary Music * Charge (David Ford album), ''Charge ...
s of platinum are +2 and +4. The +1 and +3 oxidation states are less common, and are often stabilized by metal bonding in bimetallic (or polymetallic) species. As is expected, tetracoordinate platinum(II) compounds tend to adopt 16-electron
square planar The square planar molecular geometry in chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties ...

square planar
geometries. Although elemental platinum is generally unreactive, it dissolves in hot
aqua regia ''Aqua regia'' (; from Latin, "regal water" or "Royal water") is a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, optimally in a molar concentration, molar ratio of 1:3.The relative concentrations of the two acids in water differ; values could be ...

aqua regia
to give aqueous
chloroplatinic acid Chloroplatinic acid (also known as hexachloroplatinic acid) is an inorganic compound with the formula 3O tCl6H2O)''x'' (0 ≤ ''x'' ≤ 6). A red solid, it is an important commercial source of platinum, usually as an aqueous solution. Alth ...

chloroplatinic acid
): : As a soft acid, platinum has a great affinity for sulfur, such as on
dimethyl sulfoxide Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an organosulfur compound Organosulfur compounds are organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements ...

dimethyl sulfoxide
(DMSO); numerous DMSO complexes have been reported and care should be taken in the choice of reaction solvent. In 2007, the German scientist
Gerhard Ertl Gerhard Ertl (born 10 October 1936) is a German physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches of science, area of interest. In classic ...
won the
Nobel Prize in Chemistry ) , image = Nobel Prize.png , alt = A golden medallion with an embossed image of a bearded man facing left in profile. To the left of the man is the text "ALFR•" then "NOBEL", and on the right, the text (smaller) "NAT•" then "MD ...
for determining the detailed molecular mechanisms of the catalytic oxidation of
carbon monoxide Carbon monoxide (chemical formula CO) is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, flammable gas that is slightly less dense than air. Carbon monoxide consists of one carbon atom and one oxygen atom. It is the simplest molecule of the oxocarbon family. In ...

carbon monoxide
over platinum (
catalytic converter A catalytic converter is an exhaust emission control device that reduces toxic gases and pollutants in exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine in which the combustion of a fuel o ...

catalytic converter
).


Isotopes

Platinum has six naturally occurring
isotopes Isotopes are two or more types of atoms that have the same atomic number 300px, The Rutherford–Bohr model of the hydrogen atom () or a hydrogen-like ion (). In this model it is an essential feature that the photon energy (or frequency) of ...
: 190Pt, 192Pt, 194Pt, 195Pt, 196Pt, and 198Pt. The most abundant of these is 195Pt, comprising 33.83% of all platinum. It is the only stable isotope with a non-zero spin. The spin of 1/2 and other favourable magnetic properties of the nucleus are utilised in 195Pt NMR. Due to its spin and large abundance, 195Pt satellite peaks are also often observed in 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopy (''e.g.,'' for Pt-phosphine and Pt-alkyl complexes). 190Pt is the least abundant at only 0.01%. Of the naturally occurring isotopes, only 190Pt is unstable, though it decays with a half-life of 6.5 years, causing an activity of 15 Bq/kg of natural platinum. 198Pt can undergo , but its decay has never been observed (the
half-life Half-life (symbol ''t''1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half of its initial value. The term is commonly used in nuclear physics Nuclear physics is the field of physics Physics is the natural science that studies ...
is known to be longer than 3.2 years); therefore, it is considered stable. Platinum also has 34 synthetic isotopes ranging in atomic mass from 165 to 204, making the total number of known isotopes 40. The least stable of these are 165Pt and 166Pt, with half-lives of 260 µs, whereas the most stable is 193Pt with a half-life of 50 years. Most platinum isotopes decay by some combination of
beta decay In , beta decay (''β''-decay) is a type of in which a (fast energetic or ) is emitted from an , transforming the original to an of that nuclide. For example, beta decay of a transforms it into a by the emission of an electron accompanie ...

beta decay
and alpha decay. 188Pt, 191Pt, and 193Pt decay primarily by
electron capture Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics ...

electron capture
. 190Pt and 198Pt are predicted to have energetically favorable
double beta decay In nuclear physics Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions. Other forms of nuclear matter are also studied. Nuclear physics should not be confused with atomic physics, which studi ...
paths.


Occurrence

Platinum is an extremely rare metal, occurring at a concentration of only 0.005 ppm in
Earth's crust Earth's crust is a thin shell on the outside of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The ...
. It is sometimes mistaken for silver. Platinum is often found chemically uncombined as native platinum and as
alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in ...
with the other platinum-group metals and
iron Iron () is a chemical element In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behav ...

iron
mostly. Most often the native platinum is found in secondary deposits in
alluvial Alluvium (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power ...
deposits. The alluvial deposits used by pre-Columbian people in the
Chocó Department Chocó Department (, es, Departamento del Chocó) is a department of Western Colombia Colombia ( , ; ), officially the Republic of Colombia (), is a country in South America with Insular region of Colombia, territories in North America. ...
,
Colombia Colombia ( , ; ), officially the Republic of Colombia, is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental country spanning South America and an Insular region of Colombia, insular region in North America. It is bordered by the Carib ...

Colombia
are still a source for platinum-group metals. Another large alluvial deposit is in the
Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (; rus, Ура́льские го́ры, r=Uralskiye gory, p=ʊˈralʲskʲɪjə ˈgorɨ; ba, Урал тауҙары, ''Ural tauźarı'') or simply the Urals, are a mountain range A mountain range is a series of mounta ...
, Russia, and it is still mined. In
nickel Nickel is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same nu ...

nickel
and
copper Copper is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Cu (from la, cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductility, ductile metal with very high thermal conductivity, thermal and electrical conductivity. A fre ...

copper
deposits, platinum-group metals occur as
sulfide Sulfide (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and usage a ...

sulfide
s (e.g., ,
tellurides The telluride ion is the anion An ion () is a particle, atom or molecule with a net electric charge, electrical charge. The charge of the electron is considered negative by convention. The negative charge of an ion is equal and opposite ...
(e.g., ),
antimonideAntimonides (sometimes called stibnides) are compounds of antimony Antimony is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element i ...
s (PdSb), and
arsenide In chemistry, an arsenide is a compound of arsenic Arsenic is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance ...
s (e.g. ), and as end alloys with nickel or copper. Platinum arsenide,
sperrylite Sperrylite is a platinum Platinum is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of a ...
(), is a major source of platinum associated with nickel ores in the
Sudbury Basin The Sudbury Basin (), also known as Sudbury Structure or the Sudbury Nickel Irruptive, is a major geological Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science ...
deposit in
Ontario ("Loyal she began, loyal she remains") , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , cap ...

Ontario
,
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
. At
Platinum, Alaska Platinum ( esu, Arviiq) is a city in Bethel Census Area, Alaska, United States. The population was 61 at the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census, up from 41 in 2000. Geography Platinum is located at . It is located on Goodnews Bay adjacent to th ...
, about was mined between 1927 and 1975. The mine ceased operations in 1990. The rare
sulfide mineral The sulfide minerals are a class of s containing (S2−) or (S22−) as the major . Some sulfide minerals are economically important as metal s. The sulfide class also includes the , the , the , the , the bismuthinides, the s and the s.http://w ...
cooperite, , contains platinum along with
palladium Palladium is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical elem ...

palladium
and nickel. Cooperite occurs in the
Merensky Reef The Merensky Reef is a layer of igneous rock in the Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC) in the North West, Limpopo, Gauteng and Mpumalanga Mpumalanga () is a Provinces of South Africa, province of South Africa. The name means "east", or literall ...
within the
Bushveld complex The Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC) is the largest Layered intrusion, layered igneous intrusion within the Earth's Crust (geology), crust. It has been tilted and Erosion, eroded forming the outcrops around what appears to be the edge of a great Bas ...
,
Gauteng Gauteng ( ; tn, Gauteng; Northern and Southern Sotho: ; zu, eGoli; ts, Gauteng/; Ndebele Ndebele may refer to: *Southern Ndebele people, located in South Africa *Northern Ndebele people, located in Zimbabwe and Botswana About It is a lang ...
,
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the Southern Africa, southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 60 million people, it is the world's List of countries by population, 23rd-most ...

South Africa
. In 1865,
chromite Chromite is a crystalline mineral In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology), rocks of ...

chromite
s were identified in the Bushveld region of South Africa, followed by the discovery of platinum in 1906. In 1924, the geologist discovered a large supply of platinum in the
Bushveld Igneous Complex The Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC) is the largest layered igneous intrusion within the Earth's crust. It has been tilted and eroded In earth science Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science Natural science ...

Bushveld Igneous Complex
in South Africa. The specific layer he found, named the
Merensky Reef The Merensky Reef is a layer of igneous rock in the Bushveld Igneous Complex (BIC) in the North West, Limpopo, Gauteng and Mpumalanga Mpumalanga () is a Provinces of South Africa, province of South Africa. The name means "east", or literall ...
, contains around 75% of the world's known platinum. The large copper–nickel deposits near
Norilsk Norilsk ( rus, Нори́льск, p=nɐˈrʲilʲsk, ''Norílʹsk'') is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Soci ...
in
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
, and the
Sudbury Basin The Sudbury Basin (), also known as Sudbury Structure or the Sudbury Nickel Irruptive, is a major geological Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science ...
,
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
, are the two other large deposits. In the Sudbury Basin, the huge quantities of nickel ore processed make up for the fact platinum is present as only 0.5 ppm in the ore. Smaller reserves can be found in the United States, for example in the
Absaroka Range The Absaroka Range ( or ) is a sub-range Range may refer to: Geography * Range (geographic)A range, in geography, is a chain of hill A hill is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or ...
in
Montana Montana () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Montana
. In 2010, South Africa was the top producer of platinum, with an almost 77% share, followed by Russia at 13%; world production in 2010 was . Large platinum deposits are present in the state of
Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu (; ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspape ...

Tamil Nadu
,
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
. Platinum exists in higher abundances on the
Moon The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite. At about one-quarter the diameter of Earth (comparable to the width of Australia (continent), Australia), it is the largest natural satellite in the Solar System relative to the size of its plane ...

Moon
and in meteorites. Correspondingly, platinum is found in slightly higher abundances at sites of
bolide A bolide (; Italian via Latin from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its ...

bolide
impact on Earth that are associated with resulting post-impact volcanism, and can be mined economically; the
Sudbury Basin The Sudbury Basin (), also known as Sudbury Structure or the Sudbury Nickel Irruptive, is a major geological Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science ...
is one such example.


Compounds


Halides

Hexachloroplatinic acid mentioned above is probably the most important platinum compound, as it serves as the precursor for many other platinum compounds. By itself, it has various applications in photography, zinc etchings,
indelible ink Electoral ink, indelible ink, electoral stain or phosphoric ink is a semi-permanent ink or dye that is applied to the forefinger (usually) of voters during elections in order to prevent electoral fraud such as double voting. It is an effective ...

indelible ink
, plating, mirrors, porcelain coloring, and as a catalyst. Treatment of hexachloroplatinic acid with an ammonium salt, such as
ammonium chloride Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, ...

ammonium chloride
, gives
ammonium hexachloroplatinate Ammonium hexachloroplatinate, also known as ammonium chloroplatinate, is the inorganic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, ...

ammonium hexachloroplatinate
, which is relatively insoluble in ammonium solutions. Heating this ammonium salt in the presence of hydrogen reduces it to elemental platinum.
Potassium hexachloroplatinate Potassium hexachloroplatinate is the inorganic compound with the formula K2PtCl6. It is a yellow solid that is an example of a comparatively insoluble potassium salt. The salt features the hexachloroplatinate(IV) dianion, which has octahedral coor ...

Potassium hexachloroplatinate
is similarly insoluble, and hexachloroplatinic acid has been used in the determination of potassium ions by gravimetry. When hexachloroplatinic acid is heated, it decomposes through platinum(IV) chloride and platinum(II) chloride to elemental platinum, although the reactions do not occur stepwise: : : : All three reactions are reversible. Platinum(II) bromide, Platinum(II) and platinum(IV) bromides are known as well. Platinum hexafluoride is a strong oxidizer capable of dioxygenyl#Synthesis, oxidizing oxygen.


Oxides

Platinum(IV) oxide, , also known as 'Adams' catalyst', is a black powder that is soluble in potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions and concentrated acids. and the less common both decompose upon heating. Platinum(II,IV) oxide, , is formed in the following reaction: :


Other compounds

Unlike palladium acetate, platinum(II) acetate is not commercially available. Where a base is desired, the halides have been used in conjunction with sodium acetate. The use of platinum(II) acetylacetonate has also been reported. Several barium platinides have been synthesized in which platinum exhibits negative oxidation states ranging from −1 to −2. These include BaPt, , and . Caesium platinide, , a dark-red transparent crystalline compound has been shown to contain Pt anions. Platinum also exhibits negative oxidation states at surfaces reduced electrochemically. The negative oxidation states exhibited by platinum are unusual for metallic elements, and they are attributed to the relativistic stabilization of the 6s orbitals. It is predicted that even the cation PtO42+ in which platinum exists in +10 oxidation state may be achievable. Zeise's salt, containing an ethylene ligand, was one of the first organometallic compounds discovered. is a commercially available Alkene, olefin complex, which contains easily displaceable 1,5-Cyclooctadiene, cod ligands ("cod" being an abbreviation of 1,5-cyclooctadiene). The cod complex and the halides are convenient starting points to platinum chemistry. Cisplatin, or is the first of a series of square planar platinum(II)-containing chemotherapy drugs. Others include
carboplatin Carboplatin, sold under the trade name Paraplatin among others, is a chemotherapy Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs ( chemotherapeutic agen ...
and
oxaliplatin Oxaliplatin, sold under the brand name Eloxatin, is a cancer medication used to treat colorectal cancer Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer, colon cancer, or rectal cancer, is the development of cancer from the Colon (anatomy), ...

oxaliplatin
. These compounds are capable of cross-link, crosslinking DNA, and kill cells by similar pathways to alkylating chemotherapy, chemotherapeutic agents. (Side effects of cisplatin include nausea and vomiting, hair loss, tinnitus, hearing loss, and nephrotoxicity.) Organoplatinum compounds such as the above antitumour agents, as well as soluble inorganic platinum complexes, are routinely characterised using Platinum-195 nuclear magnetic resonance, 195Pt nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. File:Hexachloridoplatinat-Ion.svg, The hexachloroplatinate ion File:Zeise's-salt-anion-3D-balls.png, The anion of Zeise's salt File:Dichloro(cycloocta-1,5-diene)platinum(II)-from-xtal-3D-balls-E.png, File:Cisplatin-3D-balls.png, Cisplatin


History


Early uses

Archaeologists have discovered traces of platinum in the gold used in ancient Egyptian burials as early as 1200 BC. For example, a small box from burial of Shepenupet II was found to be decorated with gold-platinum hieroglyphics. However, the extent of early Egyptians' knowledge of the metal is unclear. It is quite possible they did not recognize there was platinum in their gold. The metal was used by pre-Columbian Americans near modern-day Esmeraldas, Ecuador to produce artifacts of a white gold-platinum alloy. Archeologists usually associate the tradition of platinum-working in South America with the Pre-Columbian Ecuador#La Tolita Culture, La Tolita Culture (circa 600 BC – AD 200), but precise dates and location is difficult, as most platinum artifacts from the area were bought secondhand through the antiquities trade rather than obtained by direct archeological excavation. To work the metal, they would combine gold and platinum powders by sintering. The resulting gold–platinum alloy would then be soft enough to shape with tools. The platinum used in such objects was not the pure element, but rather a naturally occurring mixture of the
platinum group The platinum-group metals (abbreviated as the PGMs; alternatively, the platinoids, platinides, platidises, platinum group, platinum metals, platinum family or platinum-group elements (PGEs)) are six Noble metal, noble, Precious metal, precious meta ...
metals, with small amounts of palladium, rhodium, and iridium.


European discovery

The first European reference to platinum appears in 1557 in the writings of the Italy, Italian humanist Julius Caesar Scaliger as a description of an unknown noble metal found between Darién Province, Darién and Mexico, "which no fire nor any Spanish artifice has yet been able to liquefy". From their first encounters with platinum, the Spanish generally saw the metal as a kind of impurity in gold, and it was treated as such. It was often simply thrown away, and there was an official decree forbidding the adulteration of gold with platinum impurities. In 1735,
Antonio de Ulloa Antonio de Ulloa y de la Torre-Giralt, FRS, FRSA, KOS (12 January 1716 – 3 July 1795) was a Spanish naval officer, scientist, and administrator. At the age of nineteen, he joined the French Geodesic Mission to what is now the country ...

Antonio de Ulloa
and Jorge Juan y Santacilia saw Native Americans mining platinum while the Spaniards were travelling through Colombia and Peru for eight years. Ulloa and Juan found mines with the whitish metal nuggets and took them home to Spain. Antonio de Ulloa returned to Spain and established the first mineralogy lab in Spain and was the first to systematically study platinum, which was in 1748. His historical account of the expedition included a description of platinum as being neither separable nor calcination, calcinable. Ulloa also anticipated the discovery of platinum mines. After publishing the report in 1748, Ulloa did not continue to investigate the new metal. In 1758, he was sent to superintend mercury mining operations in Huancavelica. In 1741, Charles Wood, a British metallurgy, metallurgist, found various samples of Colombian platinum in Jamaica, which he sent to William Brownrigg for further investigation. In 1750, after studying the platinum sent to him by Wood, Brownrigg presented a detailed account of the metal to the Royal Society, stating that he had seen no mention of it in any previous accounts of known minerals. Brownrigg also made note of platinum's extremely high melting point and refractoriness toward borax. Other chemists across Europe soon began studying platinum, including Andreas Sigismund Marggraf, Torbern Bergman, Jöns Jakob Berzelius, William Lewis (scientist), William Lewis, and Pierre Macquer. In 1752, Henrik Teofilus Scheffer, Henrik Scheffer published a detailed scientific description of the metal, which he referred to as "white gold", including an account of how he succeeded in fusing platinum ore with the aid of arsenic. Scheffer described platinum as being less pliable than gold, but with similar resistance to corrosion.


Means of malleability

Carl von Sickingen researched platinum extensively in 1772. He succeeded in making
malleable Ductility is a mechanical property commonly described as a material's amenability to drawing Drawing is a form of visual art in which an artist uses instruments to mark paper Paper is a thin sheet material produced by mechanically a ...
platinum by
alloy An alloy is an admixture of metal A metal (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in ...
ing it with gold, dissolving the alloy in hot ''
aqua regia ''Aqua regia'' (; from Latin, "regal water" or "Royal water") is a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, optimally in a molar concentration, molar ratio of 1:3.The relative concentrations of the two acids in water differ; values could be ...

aqua regia
'', precipitating the platinum with
ammonium chloride Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, ...

ammonium chloride
, igniting the ammonium chloroplatinate, and hammering the resulting finely divided platinum to make it cohere. Franz Karl Achard made the first platinum crucible in 1784. He worked with the platinum by fusing it with arsenic, then later volatilisation, volatilizing the arsenic. Because the other platinum-family members were not discovered yet (platinum was the first in the list), Scheffer and Sickingen made the false assumption that due to its hardness—which is slightly more than for pure
iron Iron () is a chemical element In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behav ...

iron
—platinum would be a relatively non-pliable material, even brittle at times, when in fact its ductility and malleability are close to that of gold. Their assumptions could not be avoided because the platinum they experimented with was highly contaminated with minute amounts of platinum-family elements such as osmium and iridium, amongst others, which embrittled the platinum alloy. Alloying this impure platinum residue called "plyoxen" with gold was the only solution at the time to obtain a pliable compound, but nowadays, very pure platinum is available and extremely long wires can be drawn from pure platinum, very easily, due to its crystalline structure, which is similar to that of many soft metals. In 1786, Charles III of Spain provided a library and laboratory to Pierre-François Chabaneau to aid in his research of platinum. Chabaneau succeeded in removing various impurities from the ore, including gold, mercury, lead, copper, and iron. This led him to believe he was working with a single metal, but in truth the ore still contained the yet-undiscovered platinum-group metals. This led to inconsistent results in his experiments. At times, the platinum seemed malleable, but when it was alloyed with iridium, it would be much more brittle. Sometimes the metal was entirely incombustible, but when alloyed with osmium, it would volatilize. After several months, Chabaneau succeeded in producing 23 kilograms of pure, malleable platinum by hammering and compressing the sponge form while white-hot. Chabeneau realized the infusibility of platinum would lend value to objects made of it, and so started a business with Joaquín Cabezas producing platinum ingots and utensils. This started what is known as the "platinum age" in Spain.


Production

Platinum, along with the rest of the Platinum group, platinum-group metals, is obtained commercially as a by-product from
nickel Nickel is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same nu ...

nickel
and
copper Copper is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Cu (from la, cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductility, ductile metal with very high thermal conductivity, thermal and electrical conductivity. A fre ...

copper
mining and processing. During Copper extraction techniques#Electrorefining, electrorefining of copper, noble metals such as silver, gold and the platinum-group metals as well as selenium and tellurium settle to the bottom of the cell as "anode mud", which forms the starting point for the extraction of the platinum-group metals. If pure platinum is found in placer deposits or other ores, it is isolated from them by various methods of subtracting impurities. Because platinum is significantly denser than many of its impurities, the lighter impurities can be removed by simply floating them away in a liquid. Platinum is paramagnetism, paramagnetic, whereas nickel and iron are both Ferromagnetism, ferromagnetic. These two impurities are thus removed by running an electromagnet over the mixture. Because platinum has a higher melting point than most other substances, many impurities can be burned or melted away without melting the platinum. Finally, platinum is resistant to hydrochloric and sulfuric acids, whereas other substances are readily attacked by them. Metal impurities can be removed by stirring the mixture in either of the two acids and recovering the remaining platinum. One suitable method for purification for the raw platinum, which contains platinum, gold, and the other platinum-group metals, is to process it with ''aqua regia'', in which palladium, gold and platinum are dissolved, whereas osmium, iridium, ruthenium and rhodium stay unreacted. The gold is precipitated by the addition of iron(II) chloride and after filtering off the gold, the platinum is precipitated as Ammonium hexachloroplatinate, ammonium chloroplatinate by the addition of
ammonium chloride Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, ...

ammonium chloride
. Ammonium chloroplatinate can be converted to platinum by heating. Unprecipitated hexachloroplatinate(IV) may be reduced with elemental zinc, and a similar method is suitable for small scale recovery of platinum from laboratory residues. Mining and refining platinum has environmental impacts.


Applications

Of the 218 tonnes of platinum sold in 2014, 98 tonnes were used for vehicle emissions control devices (45%), 74.7 tonnes for jewelry (34%), 20.0 tonnes for chemical production and petroleum refining (9.2%), and 5.85 tonnes for electrical applications such as hard disk drives (2.7%). The remaining 28.9 tonnes went to various other minor applications, such as medicine and biomedicine, glassmaking equipment, investment, electrodes, anticancer drugs, oxygen sensors, spark plugs and turbine engines.


Catalyst

The most common use of platinum is as a catalyst in chemical reactions, often as platinum black. It has been employed as a catalyst since the early 19th century, when platinum powder was used to catalyze the ignition of hydrogen. Its most important application is in automobiles as a
catalytic converter A catalytic converter is an exhaust emission control device that reduces toxic gases and pollutants in exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine in which the combustion of a fuel o ...

catalytic converter
, which allows the complete combustion of low concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons from the exhaust into carbon dioxide and water vapor. Platinum is also used in the petroleum industry as a catalyst in a number of separate processes, but especially in catalytic reforming of straight-run Petroleum naphtha, naphthas into higher-octane gasoline that becomes rich in aromatic compounds. , also known as Adams' catalyst, is used as a hydrogenation catalyst, specifically for vegetable oils. Platinum also strongly catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen and it is used in fuel cells as a catalyst for the reduction of oxygen.


Standard

From 1889 to 1960, the metre, meter was defined as the length of a platinum-iridium (90:10) alloy bar, known as the History of the meter#International prototype metre, international prototype meter. The previous bar was made of platinum in 1799. Until May 2019, the kilogram was defined as the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram, a cylinder of the same platinum-iridium alloy made in 1879. The Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometer (SPRT) is one of the four types of thermometers used to define the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90), the international calibration standard for temperature measurements. The resistance wire in the thermometer is made of pure platinum (e.g. The NIST manufactured the wires from platinum bar stock with a chemical purity of 99.999% by weight). In addition to laboratory uses, Platinum Resistance Thermometry (PRT) also has many industrial applications, industrial standards include ASTM E1137 and IEC 60751. The standard hydrogen electrode also uses a platinized platinum electrode due to its corrosion resistance, and other attributes.


As an investment

Platinum is a precious metal commodity; its bullion has the ISO currency code of XPT. Coins, bars, and ingots are traded or collected. Platinum finds use in jewellery, usually as a 90–95% alloy, due to its inertness. It is used for this purpose for its prestige and inherent bullion value. Jewellery trade publications advise jewellers to present minute surface scratches (which they term patina) as a desirable feature in attempt to enhance value of platinum products. In watchmaking, Vacheron Constantin, Patek Philippe, Rolex, Breitling SA, Breitling, and other companies use platinum for producing their limited edition watch series. Watchmakers appreciate the unique properties of platinum, as it neither tarnishes nor wears out (the latter quality relative to gold). During periods of sustained economic stability and growth, the price of platinum tends to be as much as twice the price of gold, whereas during periods of economic uncertainty, the price of platinum tends to decrease due to reduced industrial demand, falling below the price of gold. Gold prices are more stable in slow economic times, as gold is considered a safe haven. Although gold is also used in industrial applications, especially in electronics due to its use as a conductor, its demand is not so driven by industrial uses. In the 18th century, platinum's rarity made King Louis XV of France declare it the only metal fit for a king. File:One litre of Platinum.jpg, 1,000 cubic centimeters of 99.9% pure platinum, worth about US$696,000 at 29 Jun 2016 prices File:Pt price 92 12.jpg, Average price of platinum from 1992 to 2012 in US$ per
troy ounce 1 troy ounce (1.097 avoirdupois ounces, 31.1 g) coin example ( Platinum Eagle) File:1000oz.silver.bullion.bar.underneath.jpg, A Good Delivery silver bar weighing Troy weight is a system of Physical unit, units of mass that originated in 15th-ce ...


Other uses

In the laboratory, platinum wire is used for electrodes; platinum pans and supports are used in thermogravimetric analysis because of the stringent requirements of chemical inertness upon heating to high temperatures (~1000 °C). Platinum is used as an alloying agent for various metal products, including fine wires, noncorrosive laboratory containers, medical instruments, dental prostheses, electrical contacts, and thermocouples. Platinum-cobalt, an alloy of roughly three parts platinum and one part cobalt, is used to make relatively strong permanent magnets. Platinum-based anodes are used in ships, pipelines, and steel piers. Platinum drugs are used to treat a wide variety of cancers, including testicular and ovarian carcinomas, melanoma, small-cell and non-small-cell lung cancer, myelomas and lymphomas.


Symbol of prestige in marketing

Platinum's rarity as a metal has caused advertisers to associate it with exclusivity and wealth. "Platinum" Payment card, debit and credit cards have greater privileges than "
gold Gold is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical elemen ...

gold
" cards. "RIAA certification, Platinum awards" are the second highest possible, ranking above "gold", "
silver Silver is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical ele ...

silver
" and "bronze", but below diamond. For example, in the United States, a musical album that has sold more than 1 million copies will be credited as "platinum", whereas an album that has sold more than 10 million copies will be certified as "diamond". Some products, such as blenders and vehicles, with a silvery-white color are identified as "platinum". Platinum is considered a precious metal, although its use is not as common as the use of gold or silver. The frame of the Crown of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, manufactured for her coronation as Consort of King George VI, is made of platinum. It was the first British crown to be made of this particular metal.


Health problems

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, short-term exposure to platinum salts may cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, and long-term exposure may cause both respiratory and skin allergies. The current Occupational Safety and Health Administration, OSHA standard is 2 micrograms per cubic meter of air averaged over an 8-hour work shift. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has set a recommended exposure limit (REL) for platinum as 1 mg/m3 over an 8-hour workday. As platinum is a catalyst in the manufacture of the silicone rubber and gel components of several types of implant (medicine), medical implants (breast implants, joint replacement prosthetics, artificial lumbar discs, vascular access ports, etc.), the possibility that platinum could enter the body and cause adverse effects has merited study. The Food and Drug Administration and other institutions have reviewed the issue and found no evidence to suggest toxicity in vivo. Chemically unbounded platinum has been identified by the FDA as a "fake cancer 'cure'". The misunderstanding is created by healthcare workers who are using inappropriately the name of the metal as a slang term for platinum-based chemotherapy medications like cisplatin. They are platinum compounds, not the metal itself.


See also

* Chelated platinum * Iron–platinum nanoparticle * List of countries by platinum production * Mixed metal oxide electrode * Platinum group * Platinum in Africa * Platinum nanoparticle * Platinum print * 2000s commodities boom


References


Further reading

*


External links


Platinum
at ''The Periodic Table of Videos'' (University of Nottingham) *
Nuclides and Isotopes
Fourteenth Edition: Chart of the Nuclides'', General Electric Company, 1989.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention * * * * * {{Authority control Platinum, Chemical elements Transition metals Cubic minerals Minerals in space group 225 Noble metals Precious metals Native element minerals Catalysts Chemical elements with face-centered cubic structure