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In
digital imaging Digital imaging or digital image acquisition is the creation of a representation of the visual characteristics of an object, such as a physical scene or the interior structure of an object. The term is often assumed to imply or include the proce ...
, a pixel, pel, or picture element is the smallest addressable element in a
raster image upright=1, The Smiley, smiley face in the top left corner is a raster image. When enlarged, individual pixels appear as squares. Enlarging further, each pixel can be analyzed, with their colors constructed through combination of the values for r ...
, or the smallest addressable element in an
all points addressable "Bling Bling": Dot matrix-style skywriting. A dot matrix is a 2-dimensional patterned array ARRAY, also known as ARRAY Now, is an independent distribution company launched by film maker and former publicist Ava DuVernay in 2010 under the nam ...
display device A display device is an output device An output device is any piece of computer hardware Computer hardware includes the physical parts of a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or ...
; so it is the smallest controllable element of a picture represented on the screen. Each pixel is a sample of an original image; more samples typically provide more accurate representations of the original. The intensity of each pixel is variable. In color imaging systems, a color is typically represented by three or four component intensities such as
red, green, and blue
red, green, and blue
, or cyan, magenta, yellow, and black. In some contexts (such as descriptions of
camera sensor An image sensor or imager is a sensor A sensor is a device that produces an output signal for the purpose of sensing of a physical phenomenon. In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, machine, or subsystem that detects ev ...
s), ''pixel'' refers to a single scalar element of a multi-component representation (called a ''photosite'' in the camera sensor context, although '' sensel'' is sometimes used), while in yet other contexts (like MRI) it may refer to a set of component intensities for a spatial position.


Etymology

The word ''pixel'' is a combination of ''pix'' (from "pictures", shortened to "pics") and ''el'' (for "''
element Element may refer to: Science * Chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all ...
''"); similar formations with '''el include the words ''
voxel In 3D computer graphics 3D computer graphics, sometimes called CGI, 3DCG or three-dimensional computer graphics (in contrast to 2D computer graphics 2D computer graphics is the Computer-generated imagery, computer-based generation of digita ...

voxel
'' and ''texel''. The word ''pix'' appeared in ''
Variety Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equations * Variety (universal algebra), classes of algebraic structures defined by equations in universal algebra Hort ...
'' magazine headlines in 1932, as an abbreviation for the word ''pictures'', in reference to movies. By 1938, "pix" was being used in reference to still pictures by photojournalists. The word "pixel" was first published in 1965 by Frederic C. Billingsley of
JPL The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agencies of the United States government, independent agency o ...
, to describe the picture elements of scanned images from
space probe A space probe or a spaceprobe is a robotic spacecraft that doesn't Earth orbit, orbit the Earth (planet), Earth, but instead explores farther into outer space. A space probe may approach the Moon; travel through interplanetary space; planetary ...
s to the Moon and Mars. Billingsley had learned the word from Keith E. McFarland, at the Link Division of General Precision in
Palo Alto Palo Alto (; for "tall stick") is a located in the northwestern corner of , United States, in the . The city is named after a known as . The city was established by when he founded , following the death of his son, Palo Alto includes port ...

Palo Alto
, who in turn said he did not know where it originated. McFarland said simply it was "in use at the time" (circa 1963). The concept of a "picture element" dates to the earliest days of television, for example as "''Bildpunkt''" (the German word for ''pixel'', literally 'picture point') in the 1888 German patent of
Paul Nipkow Paul may refer to: *Paul (given name) Paul () is a common masculine given name in countries and ethnicities with a Christian heritage (Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodoxy, Catholic Church, Catholicism, Protestantism) and, beyond Europe, i ...
. According to various etymologies, the earliest publication of the term ''picture element'' itself was in ''
Wireless World ''Electronics World'' (''Wireless World'', founded in 1913, and in September 1984 renamed ''Electronics & Wireless World'') is a technical magazine in electronics and RF engineering aimed at professional design engineers. It is produced monthly in ...
'' magazine in 1927, though it had been used earlier in various U.S. patents filed as early as 1911. Some authors explain ''pixel'' as ''picture cell,'' as early as 1972. In graphics and in image and video processing, ''pel'' is often used instead of ''pixel''. For example, IBM used it in their Technical Reference for the original PC. Pixels, abbreviated as "px", are also a unit of measurement commonly used in graphic and web design, equivalent to roughly . This measurement is used to make sure a given element will display as the same size no matter what screen resolution views it.
Pixilation Pixilation (from ''pixilated'') is a stop motion technique where live actors are used as a frame-by-frame subject in an animated Animation is a method in which Image, figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation ...
, spelled with a second ''i'', is an unrelated filmmaking technique that dates to the beginnings of cinema, in which live actors are posed frame by frame and photographed to create stop-motion animation. An archaic British word meaning "possession by spirits (
pixie A pixie (also pixy, pixi, pizkie, piskie and pigsie as it is sometimes known in Cornwall Cornwall (; kw, Kernow ) is a Historic counties of England, historic county and Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county in South West Eng ...

pixie
s)", the term has been used to describe the animation process since the early 1950s; various animators, including
Norman McLaren Norman McLaren, (11 April 1914 – 27 January 1987) was a Scottish Canadian animator An animator is an artist who creates multiple images, known as frames, which give an illusion of movement called animation when displayed in rapid sequence. ...
and Grant Munro, are credited with popularizing it.


Technical

thought of as the smallest single component of a
digital image A digital image is an composed of s, also known as ''pixels'', each with ', ' of numeric representation for its or that is an output from its fed as input by its denoted with ''x'', ''y'' on the x-axis and y-axis, respectively. Depending on ...
. However, the definition is highly context-sensitive. For example, there can be "" in a page, or pixels carried by electronic signals, or represented by digital values, or pixels on a display device, or pixels in a
digital camera A digital camera is a camera A camera is an optical Optics is the branch of physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behav ...

digital camera
(photosensor elements). This list is not exhaustive and, depending on context, synonyms include pel, sample, byte, bit, dot, and spot. ''Pixels'' can be used as a unit of measure such as: 2400 pixels per inch, 640 pixels per line, or spaced 10 pixels apart. The measures
dots per inch at draft quality. Actual size is approximately 0.25 inch by 0.25 inch (6.35 mm by 6.35 mm). Individual colored droplets of ink are visible; this sample is about 150 DPI. Dots per inch (DPI, or dpiThe acronym appears in sources as either "DPI" or lo ...
(dpi) and
pixels per inch In digital imaging Digital imaging or digital image acquisition is the creation of a representation of the visual characteristics of an object, such as a physical scene or the interior structure of an object. The term is often assumed to imp ...
(ppi) are sometimes used interchangeably, but have distinct meanings, especially for printer devices, where dpi is a measure of the printer's density of dot (e.g. ink droplet) placement. For example, a high-quality photographic image may be printed with 600 ppi on a 1200 dpi inkjet printer. Even higher dpi numbers, such as the 4800 dpi quoted by printer manufacturers since 2002, do not mean much in terms of achievable
resolution Resolution(s) may refer to: Common meanings * Resolution (debate), the statement which is debated in policy debate * Resolution (law), a written motion adopted by a deliberative body * New Year's resolution, a commitment that an individual make ...
. The more pixels used to represent an image, the closer the result can resemble the original. The number of pixels in an image is sometimes called the resolution, though resolution has a more specific definition. Pixel counts can be expressed as a single number, as in a "three-megapixel" digital camera, which has a nominal three million pixels, or as a pair of numbers, as in a "640 by 480 display", which has 640 pixels from side to side and 480 from top to bottom (as in a
VGA Video Graphics Array (VGA) is a video display controller A video display controller or VDC (also regularly called display engine, display interface) is an integrated circuit An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also ...
display) and therefore has a total number of 640 × 480 = 307,200 pixels, or 0.3 megapixels. The pixels, or color samples, that form a digitized image (such as a
JPEG JPEG ( ) is a commonly used method of lossy compression In information technology, lossy compression or irreversible compression is the class of data encoding methods that uses inexact approximations and partial data discarding to represe ...

JPEG
file used on a web page) may or may not be in one-to-one with screen pixels, depending on how a computer displays an image. In computing, an image composed of pixels is known as a '''' or a ''
raster image upright=1, The Smiley, smiley face in the top left corner is a raster image. When enlarged, individual pixels appear as squares. Enlarging further, each pixel can be analyzed, with their colors constructed through combination of the values for r ...
''. The word ''raster'' originates from television scanning patterns, and has been widely used to describe similar
halftone Halftone is the reprographicReprography is the reproduction of graphics through mechanical or electrical means, such as photography or xerography. Reprography is commonly used in catalogs and archives, as well as in the architectural reprography ...
printing and storage techniques.


Sampling patterns

For convenience, pixels are normally arranged in a . By using this arrangement, many common operations can be implemented by uniformly applying the same operation to each pixel independently. Other arrangements of pixels are possible, with some sampling patterns even changing the shape (or
kernel Kernel may refer to: Computing * Kernel (operating system) In an operating system with a Abstraction layer, layered architecture, the kernel is the lowest level, has complete control of the hardware and is always in memory. In some systems it ...
) of each pixel across the image. For this reason, care must be taken when acquiring an image on one device and displaying it on another, or when converting image data from one pixel format to another. For example: * LCD screens typically use a staggered grid, where the red, green, and blue components are sampled at slightly different locations.
Subpixel rendering Subpixel rendering is a way to increase the apparent resolution of a computer's liquid crystal display (LCD) or organic light-emitting diode (OLED) display by rendering pixels to take into account the screen type's physical properties. It takes ad ...

Subpixel rendering
is a technology which takes advantage of these differences to improve the rendering of text on LCD screens. * The vast majority of color digital cameras use a
Bayer filter A Bayer filter mosaic is a color filter array In digital imaging, a color filter array (CFA), or color filter mosaic (CFM), is a mosaic of tiny color filters placed over the pixel sensors of an image sensor to capture color Color ( ...
, resulting in a regular grid of pixels where the ''color'' of each pixel depends on its position on the grid. * A
clipmapClipmapping is a method of clipping a mipmap to a subset of data pertinent to the geometry being displayed. This is useful for loading as little data as possible when memory Memory is the faculty of the brain by which data or information is en ...
uses a hierarchical sampling pattern, where the size of the
support Support may refer to: Business and finance * Support (technical analysis) * Child support * Customer support * Income Support Construction * Support (structure), or lateral support, a type of structural support to help prevent sideways movement * ...
of each pixel depends on its location within the hierarchy. * Warped grids are used when the underlying geometry is non-planar, such as images of the earth from space. * The use of non-uniform grids is an active research area, attempting to bypass the traditional
Nyquist limit In signal processing, the Nyquist frequency (or folding frequency), named after Harry Nyquist, is a characteristic of a Sampling (signal processing), sampler, which converts a continuous function or signal into a discrete sequence. In units of ...
. * Pixels on computer monitors are normally "square" (that is, have equal horizontal and vertical sampling pitch); pixels in other systems are often "rectangular" (that is, have unequal horizontal and vertical sampling pitch – oblong in shape), as are
digital video Digital video is an electronic representation of moving visual images (video) in the form of encoded digital data. This is in contrast to analog video, which represents moving visual images in the form of analog signals. Digital video comprises ...
formats with diverse
aspect ratios The aspect ratio of a geometric Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; '' geo-'' "earth", '' -metron'' "measurement") is, with arithmetic Arithmetic (from the Ancient Greek, Greek wikt:en:ἀριθμός#Ancient Greek, ἀριθμό ...
, such as the
anamorphic widescreen Anamorphic widescreen (also called Full height anamorphic or FHA) is a process by which a comparatively wide widescreen Widescreen images are images that are displayed within a set of aspect ratio (image), aspect ratios (relationship of image ...
formats of the
Rec. 601 ITU-R The ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) is one of the three sectors (divisions or units) of the International Telecommunication Union 260px, ITU Monument, Bern The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of t ...
digital video standard.


Resolution of computer monitors

Computers can use pixels to display an image, often an abstract image that represents a
GUI#REDIRECT graphical user interface The graphical user interface (GUI "UI" by itself is still usually pronounced . or ) is a form of user interface that allows User (computing), users to Human–computer interaction, interact with electronic devic ...

GUI
. The resolution of this image is called the display resolution and is determined by the
video card A graphics card (also called a video card, display card, graphics adapter, video adapter, or display adapter) is an expansion card which generates a feed of output images to a display device (such as a computer monitor). Frequently, these are ad ...

video card
of the computer.
LCD A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat-panel display A flat-panel display (FPD) is an electronic display device s, LED display and Vacuum fluorescent display, VF display, top to bottom. A display device is an output device for presentation ...
monitors also use pixels to display an image, and have a
native resolution frame, Example of non-native display (video driver setting of 800x600 as displayed through a native 1024x768 LCD) The native resolution of a LCD display. A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat panel display, flat-panel display or other ...
. Each pixel is made up of triads, with the number of these triads determining the native resolution. On some
CRT CRT may refer to: Science and technology Medicine * Calreticulin, a protein *Capillary refill time, the rate at which blood refills empty capillaries *Cardiac resynchronization therapy, a treatment for heart failure, and CRT defibrillator (CRT-D ...

CRT
monitors, the beam sweep rate may be fixed, resulting in a fixed native resolution. Most CRT monitors do not have a fixed beam sweep rate, meaning they do not have a native resolution at all - instead they have a set of resolutions that are equally well supported. To produce the sharpest images possible on an LCD, the user must ensure the display resolution of the computer matches the native resolution of the monitor.


Resolution of telescopes

The pixel scale used in astronomy is the angular distance between two objects on the sky that fall one pixel apart on the detector (CCD or infrared chip). The scale ''s'' measured in
radian The radian, denoted by the symbol \text, is the SI unit for measuring angle In Euclidean geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two Ray (geometry), rays, called the ''sides'' of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the ''verte ...

radian
s is the ratio of the pixel spacing ''p'' and
focal length The focal length of an optical Optics is the branch of physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space ...

focal length
''f'' of the preceding optics, ''s''=''p/f''. (The focal length is the product of the
focal ratio In optics Optics is the branch of physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies matter, its Motion (ph ...
by the diameter of the associated lens or mirror.) Because ''p'' is usually expressed in units of
arcseconds A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc, denoted by the symbol ', is a unit of angular measurement equal to of one degree. Since one degree is of a turn (or complete rotation), one minute of arc is of a turn. The n ...
per pixel, because 1 radian equals ''180/π*3600≈206,265'' arcseconds, and because diameters are often given in millimeters and pixel sizes in micrometers which yields another factor of 1,000, the formula is often quoted as ''s=206p/f''.


Bits per pixel

The number of distinct colors that can be represented by a pixel depends on the number of bits per pixel (bpp). A 1 bpp image uses 1 bit for each pixel, so each pixel can be either on or off. Each additional bit doubles the number of colors available, so a 2 bpp image can have 4 colors, and a 3 bpp image can have 8 colors: * 1 bpp, 21 = 2 colors (
monochrome A monochromic image is composed of one color (or values In ethics Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existe ...
) * 2 bpp, 22 = 4 colors * 3 bpp, 23 = 8 colors * 4 bpp, 24 = 16 colors * 8 bpp, 28 = 256 colors * 16 bpp, 216 = 65,536 colors ("
Highcolor High color graphics is a method of storing image information in a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets o ...
" ) * 24 bpp, 224 = 16,777,216 colors (" Truecolor") For color depths of 15 or more bits per pixel, the depth is normally the sum of the bits allocated to each of the red, green, and blue components.
Highcolor High color graphics is a method of storing image information in a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets o ...
, usually meaning 16 bpp, normally has five bits for red and blue each, and six bits for green, as the human eye is more sensitive to errors in green than in the other two primary colors. For applications involving transparency, the 16 bits may be divided into five bits each of red, green, and blue, with one bit left for transparency. A 24-bit depth allows 8 bits per component. On some systems, 32-bit depth is available: this means that each 24-bit pixel has an extra 8 bits to describe its opacity (for purposes of combining with another image).


Subpixels

Many display and image-acquisition systems are not capable of displaying or sensing the different color channels at the same site. Therefore, the pixel grid is divided into single-color regions that contribute to the displayed or sensed color when viewed at a distance. In some displays, such as LCD, LED, and plasma displays, these single-color regions are separately addressable elements, which have come to be known as subpixels, mostly
RGB s The RGB color model is an additive color, additive color model A color model is an abstract mathematical model describing the way colors can be represented as tuples of numbers, typically as three or four values or color components. When ...

RGB
colors. For example,
LCD A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat-panel display A flat-panel display (FPD) is an electronic display device s, LED display and Vacuum fluorescent display, VF display, top to bottom. A display device is an output device for presentation ...
s typically divide each pixel vertically into three subpixels. When the square pixel is divided into three subpixels, each subpixel is necessarily rectangular. In display industry terminology, subpixels are often referred to as ''pixels'', as they are the basic addressable elements in a viewpoint of hardware, and hence ''pixel circuits'' rather than ''subpixel circuits'' is used. Most digital camera
image sensor An image sensor or imager is a that detects and conveys information used to make an . It does so by converting the variable of light s (as they or objects) into , small bursts of that convey the information. The waves can be light or other ...
s use single-color sensor regions, for example using the
Bayer filter A Bayer filter mosaic is a color filter array In digital imaging, a color filter array (CFA), or color filter mosaic (CFM), is a mosaic of tiny color filters placed over the pixel sensors of an image sensor to capture color Color ( ...
pattern, and in the camera industry these are known as ''pixels'' just like in the display industry, not ''subpixels''. For systems with subpixels, two different approaches can be taken: * The subpixels can be ignored, with full-color pixels being treated as the smallest addressable imaging element; or * The subpixels can be included in rendering calculations, which requires more analysis and processing time, but can produce apparently superior images in some cases. This latter approach, referred to as
subpixel rendering Subpixel rendering is a way to increase the apparent resolution of a computer's liquid crystal display (LCD) or organic light-emitting diode (OLED) display by rendering pixels to take into account the screen type's physical properties. It takes ad ...

subpixel rendering
, uses knowledge of
pixel geometry The components of the pixel In digital imaging, a pixel, pel, or picture element is a smallest addressable element in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in an all points addressable display device s, LED display and Vacuum f ...
to manipulate the three colored subpixels separately, producing an increase in the apparent resolution of color displays. While
CRT CRT may refer to: Science and technology Medicine * Calreticulin, a protein *Capillary refill time, the rate at which blood refills empty capillaries *Cardiac resynchronization therapy, a treatment for heart failure, and CRT defibrillator (CRT-D ...

CRT
displays use red-green-blue-masked phosphor areas, dictated by a mesh grid called the shadow mask, it would require a difficult calibration step to be aligned with the displayed pixel raster, and so CRTs do not currently use subpixel rendering. The concept of subpixels is related to
samples Sample or samples may refer to: Base meaning * Sample (statistics), a subset of a population - Complete data set * Sample (signal), a digital discrete sample of a continuous analog signal * Sample (material), a specimen or small quantity of somet ...
.


Megapixel

A megapixel (MP) is a million pixels; the term is used not only for the number of pixels in an image but also to express the number of
image sensor An image sensor or imager is a that detects and conveys information used to make an . It does so by converting the variable of light s (as they or objects) into , small bursts of that convey the information. The waves can be light or other ...
elements of
digital camera A digital camera is a camera A camera is an optical Optics is the branch of physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behav ...

digital camera
s or the number of display elements of digital displays. For example, a camera that makes a 2048 × 1536 pixel image (3,145,728 finished image pixels) typically uses a few extra rows and columns of sensor elements and is commonly said to have "3.2 megapixels" or "3.4 megapixels", depending on whether the number reported is the "effective" or the "total" pixel count. Pixel is used to define the resolution of a photo. Photo resolution is calculated by multiplying the width and height of a sensor in pixel. Digital cameras use photosensitive electronics, either
charge-coupled device A charge-coupled device (CCD) is an integrated circuit containing an array of linked, or coupled, capacitors. Under the control of an external circuit, each capacitor can transfer its electric charge to a neighboring capacitor. CCD sensors are a ...
(CCD) or complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors, consisting of a large number of single sensor elements, each of which records a measured intensity level. In most digital cameras, the sensor array is covered with a patterned color filter mosaic having red, green, and blue regions in the
Bayer filter A Bayer filter mosaic is a color filter array In digital imaging, a color filter array (CFA), or color filter mosaic (CFM), is a mosaic of tiny color filters placed over the pixel sensors of an image sensor to capture color Color ( ...
arrangement so that each sensor element can record the intensity of a single primary color of light. The camera interpolates the color information of neighboring sensor elements, through a process called
demosaicingA demosaicing (also de-mosaicing, demosaicking or debayering) algorithm of an algorithm (Euclid's algorithm) for calculating the greatest common divisor (g.c.d.) of two numbers ''a'' and ''b'' in locations named A and B. The algorithm proceeds by ...
, to create the final image. These sensor elements are often called "pixels", even though they only record one channel (only red or green or blue) of the final color image. Thus, two of the three color channels for each sensor must be interpolated and a so-called ''N-megapixel'' camera that produces an N-megapixel image provides only one-third of the information that an image of the same size could get from a scanner. Thus, certain color contrasts may look fuzzier than others, depending on the allocation of the primary colors (green has twice as many elements as red or blue in the Bayer arrangement). DxO Labs invented the Perceptual MegaPixel (P-MPix) to measure the sharpness that a camera produces when paired to a particular lens – as opposed to the MP a manufacturer states for a camera product, which is based only on the camera's sensor. The new P-MPix claims to be a more accurate and relevant value for photographers to consider when weighing up camera sharpness. As of mid-2013, the Sigma 35 mm f/1.4 DG HSM lens mounted on a
Nikon D800 The Nikon D800 is a 36.3-megapixel In digital imaging Digital imaging or digital image acquisition is the creation of a representation of the visual characteristics of an object, such as a physical scene or the interior structure of an obje ...
has the highest measured P-MPix. However, with a value of 23 MP, it still wipes off more than one-third of the D800's 36.3 MP sensor. In August 2019, Xiaomi released Redmi Note 8 Pro as the world's first
smartphone A smartphone is a portable device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can per ...

smartphone
with 64 MP camera. On December 12, 2019 Samsung released Samsung A71 with also a 64 MP camera. In late 2019, Xiaomi announced the first camera phone with 108MP 1/1.33-inch across sensor. The sensor is larger than most of
bridge camera bridge digital camera bridge camera Image:Konica Minolta alvesgaspar.jpg, The Konica Minolta DIMAGE A200 (2005) Bridge cameras are cameras that fill the niche market, niche between the single-lens reflex cameras (SLRs) and the point-and-shoot ca ...
with 1/2.3-inch across sensor. One new method to add megapixels has been introduced in a
Micro Four Thirds System The is a standard released by Olympus Corporation, Olympus and Panasonic in 2008, for the design and development of mirrorless interchangeable lens digital cameras, camcorders and Camera lens, lenses. Camera bodies are available from Blackmagic De ...
camera, which only uses a 16 MP sensor but can produce a 64 MP RAW (40 MP JPEG) image by making two exposures, shifting the sensor by a half pixel between them. Using a tripod to take level multi-shots within an instance, the multiple 16 MP images are then generated into a unified 64 MP image.


See also

*
Computer display standard Computer display standards are a combination of Display aspect ratio, aspect ratio, display size, display resolution, color depth, and refresh rate. They are associated with specific expansion cards, Audio and video interfaces and connectors#Vide ...
*
Dexel The term ''Dexel'' has two common uses: Dexel ("depth pixel In digital imaging Digital imaging or digital image acquisition is the creation of a representation of the visual characteristics of an object, such as a physical scene or the inte ...
* Gigapixel image *
Image resolution Image resolution is the detail an image An image (from la, imago) is an artifact that depicts visual perception Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment Environment most often refers to: __NOTOC_ ...
* Intrapixel and Interpixel processing * LCD crosstalk *
PenTile matrix familyPenTile matrix is a family of patented subpixel matrix schemes used in Electronic visual display, electronic device displays. PenTile is a trademark of Samsung. PenTile matrices are used in AMOLED and LCD displays. These Pixel geometry, subpixel lay ...
*
Pixel advertising The Million Dollar Homepage is a website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web pages and related content that is identified by a common domain name and published on at least one web server. Notable examples are wi ...
*
Pixel art Pixel art is a form of digital art, created through the use of software, where images are edited on the pixel level. The aesthetic for this kind of graphics comes from 8-bit and 16-bit computers and video game consoles, in addition to other li ...
*
Pixel art scaling algorithmsPixel-art scaling algorithms are graphical filters that are often used in video game console emulators to enhance hand-drawn 2D pixel art graphics. The re-scaling of pixel art is a specialist sub-field of image rescaling. As pixel art, pixel-art gra ...
*
Pixel aspect ratio Pixel aspect ratio 2:1 Pixel aspect ratio (often abbreviated PAR) is a mathematical ratio that describes how the width of a pixel in a digital image compares to the height of that pixel. Most digital imaging systems display an image as a grid ...
*
Pixelation In computer graphics, pixelation (or pixellation in British English) is caused by displaying a bitmap or a section of a bitmap at such a large size that individual pixels, small single-colored square display elements that comprise the bitmap, ar ...
*
Pixelization Pixelization (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval Englan ...
*
Point (typography) In typography, the point is the smallest typographic unit, unit of measure. It is used for measuring typeface, font size, leading, and other items on a printed page. The size of the point has varied throughout the history of printing. Since the ...
* Glossary of video terms *
Voxel In 3D computer graphics 3D computer graphics, sometimes called CGI, 3DCG or three-dimensional computer graphics (in contrast to 2D computer graphics 2D computer graphics is the Computer-generated imagery, computer-based generation of digita ...

Voxel


References


External links


A Pixel Is Not A Little Square
Microsoft Memo by computer graphics pioneer Alvy Ray Smith.
"Pixels and Me"
2016 lecture by Richard F. Lyon at the Computer History Museum
Square and non-Square Pixels
Technical info on pixel aspect ratios of modern video standards (480i, 576i, 1080i, 720p), plus software implications.
How a TV Works in Slow Motion - The Slow Mo Guys
– YouTube video by The Slow Mo Guys {{Photography Computer graphics data structures Digital geometry Digital imaging Digital photography Display technology Image processing Television technology