HOME

TheInfoList




Photography is the
art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use o ...

art
, application, and practice of creating durable
image An image (from la, imago) is an artifact that depicts visual perception Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment Environment most often refers to: __NOTOC__ * Natural environment, all living and non- ...

image
s by recording
light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visual perception, perceived by the human eye. Visible light is usually defined as having wavelengths in the range of 400–700 nan ...

light
, either electronically by means of an
image sensor An image sensor or imager is a that detects and conveys information used to make an . It does so by converting the variable of light s (as they or objects) into , small bursts of that convey the information. The waves can be light or other ...
, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as
photographic film Photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent coated on one side with a containing microscopically small light-sensitive crystals. The sizes and other characteristics of the crystals determine the sensitivity, contrast, and of the ...
. It is employed in many fields of science, manufacturing (e.g.,
photolithography In manufacturing, photolithography or optical lithography is a general term for techniques that use to produce minutely patterned s of suitable materials over a substrate, such as a , to protect selected areas of it during subsequent , , or op ...
), and business, as well as its more direct uses for art,
film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, ...

film
and
video production Video production is the process of producing video content for TV, home video or the internet. It is the equivalent of filmmaking, but with video recorded either as analog signals on videotape, digitally in video tape or as computer files stored on ...
, recreational purposes, hobby, and mass communication. Typically, a
lens A lens is a transmissive optical Optics is the branch of physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, s ...

lens
is used to
focus FOCUS is a fourth-generation programming language (4GL) computer programming programming language, language and development environment that is used to build database queries. Produced by Information Builders Inc., it was originally developed for d ...
the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a
camera A camera is an optical Optics is the branch of physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and t ...

camera
during a timed exposure. With an electronic image sensor, this produces an
electrical charge Electricity is the set of physical Physical may refer to: *Physical examination, a regular overall check-up with a doctor *Physical (album), ''Physical'' (album), a 1981 album by Olivia Newton-John **Physical (Olivia Newton-John song), "Physi ...
at each
pixel In digital imaging Digital imaging or digital image acquisition is the creation of a representation of the visual characteristics of an object, such as a physical scene or the interior structure of an object. The term is often assumed to imp ...

pixel
, which is
electronically processed Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses active devices to control electron flow by amplifier, amplification and rectifie ...
and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing. The result with
photographic emulsion Photographic emulsion is a light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be visual perception, perceived by the human eye. Visible light is usually defined as having wav ...
is an invisible
latent image {{citations needed, date=November 2015 A latent image is an invisible image produced by the exposure to light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be visual perception ...

latent image
, which is later chemically "developed" into a visible image, either negative or
positive Positive is a property of Positivity (disambiguation), positivity and may refer to: Mathematics and science * Converging lens or positive lens, in optics * Plus sign, the sign "+" used to indicate a positive number * Positive (electricity), a po ...
, depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of
processing
processing
. A negative image on film is traditionally used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print, either by using an
enlarger An enlarger is a specialized transparency projector used to produce photographic prints from film or glass negatives, or from transparencies. Construction All enlargers consist of a light source, normally an incandescent light bulb shining tho ...
or by
contact print A contact print is a photographic image produced from Photographic film, film; sometimes from a film negative (photography), negative, and sometimes from a film positive or paper negative. In a darkroom an exposed and developed piece of film or p ...

contact print
ing.


Etymology

The word "photography" was created from the Greek roots φωτός (''phōtós''), genitive of φῶς (''phōs''), "light" and γραφή (''graphé'') "representation by means of lines" or "drawing", together meaning "drawing with light". Several people may have coined the same new term from these roots independently.
Hercules Florence Hercules () is the Roman equivalent of the Greek divine hero File:Wilhelm Tell Denkmal Altdorf um 1900.jpeg, upWilliam Tell, a popular folk hero of Switzerland. A hero (heroine in its feminine form) is a real person or a main fictional ...
, a French painter and inventor living in Campinas,
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
, used the French form of the word, ''photographie'', in private notes which a Brazilian historian believes were written in 1834. This claim is widely reported but is not yet largely recognized internationally. The first use of the word by the Franco-Brazilian inventor became widely known after the research of Boris Kossoy in 1980. The German newspaper ''Vossische Zeitung'' of 25 February 1839 contained an article entitled ''Photographie'', discussing several priority claims – especially
Henry Fox Talbot William Henry Fox Talbot Fellow of the Royal Society, FRS FRSE Royal Astronomical Society, FRAS (; 11 February 180017 September 1877) was an English scientist, inventor and photography pioneer who invented the Salt print, salted paper and calot ...
's – regarding Daguerre's claim of invention. The article is the earliest known occurrence of the word in public print. It was signed "J.M.", believed to have been Berlin astronomer
Johann von Maedler Johann, typically a male given name, is the Germanic language, Germanized form of the originally Hebrew language name ''יוחנן (Yohanan)'' (meaning "God is merciful"). It is a form of the Germanic and Latin given name "Johannes." The English la ...
. The astronomer Sir
John Herschel Sir John Frederick William Herschel, 1st Baronet (; 7 March 1792 – 11 May 1871) was an English polymath active as a mathematician, astronomer, chemist, inventor, experimental photographer who invented the blueprint, and did botanical wor ...
is also credited with coining the word, independent of Talbot, in 1839. The inventors
Nicéphore Niépce Joseph Nicéphore Niépce (; 7 March 1765 – 5 July 1833), commonly known or referred to simply as Nicéphore Niépce, was a French inventor, usually credited as the inventor of photography and a pioneer in that field. Niépce developed heliogr ...
, Henry Fox Talbot and
Louis Daguerre Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre ( , ; 18 November 1787 – 10 July 1851) was a French artist and photographer, recognized for his invention of the eponymous daguerreotype Daguerreotype (; french: daguerréotype) was the first publicly avai ...

Louis Daguerre
seem not to have known or used the word "photography", but referred to their processes as "Heliography" (Niépce), "Photogenic Drawing"/"Talbotype"/"Calotype" (Talbot) and "Daguerreotype" (Daguerre).


History


Precursor technologies

Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries, relating to seeing an image and capturing the image. The discovery of the
camera obscura A camera obscura (plural ''camerae obscurae'' or ''camera obscuras'', from Latin , "dark chamber") is a darkened room with a small hole or lens at one side through which an image is projected onto a wall or table opposite the hole. "Camera obs ...

camera obscura
("dark chamber" in
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
) that provides an image of a scene dates back to
ancient China The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC), during the king Wu Ding's reign, who was mentioned as the twenty-first Shang king by the same. Ancient hi ...
. Greek mathematicians
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental quest ...

Aristotle
and
Euclid Euclid (; grc-gre, Εὐκλείδης Euclid (; grc, Εὐκλείδης – ''Eukleídēs'', ; fl. 300 BC), sometimes called Euclid of Alexandria to distinguish him from Euclid of Megara, was a Greek mathematician, often referre ...

Euclid
independently described a camera obscura in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician
Anthemius of Tralles Anthemius of Tralles ( grc-gre, Ἀνθέμιος ὁ Τραλλιανός, Medieval Greek Medieval Greek (also known as Middle Greek or Byzantine Greek) is the stage of the Greek language Greek (modern , romanized: ''Elliniká'', Ancient G ...
used a type of camera obscura in his experiments. The
Arab physicist The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an ethnic group mainly inhabiting the Arab world. In modern usage the term refers to ...
Ibn al-Haytham Ḥasan Ibn al-Haytham (Latinization of names, Latinized as Alhazen ; full name ; ) was a Muslim Arab Mathematics in medieval Islam, mathematician, Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world, astronomer, and Physics in the medieval Islamic world, ...

Ibn al-Haytham
(Alhazen) (965–1040) also invented a camera obscura as well as the first true
pinhole camera A pinhole camera is a simple camera without a lens but with a tiny aperture In optics, an aperture is a hole or an opening through which light travels. More specifically, the aperture and focal length of an optical system determine the cone ...

pinhole camera
. The invention of the camera has been traced back to the work of Ibn al-Haytham. While the effects of a single light passing through a pinhole had been described earlier, Ibn al-Haytham gave the first correct analysis of the camera obscura, including the first geometrical and quantitative descriptions of the phenomenon, and was the first to use a screen in a dark room so that an image from one side of a hole in the surface could be projected onto a screen on the other side. He also first understood the relationship between the focal point and the pinhole, and performed early experiments with
afterimage An afterimage is an image that continues to appear in the eyes after a period of exposure to the original image. An afterimage may be a normal phenomenon (physiological afterimage) or may be pathological ( palinopsia). Illusory palinopsia may be ...

afterimage
s, laying the foundations for the invention of photography in the 19th century.
Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519) was an Italian of the who was active as a painter, , engineer, scientist, theorist, sculptor and architect. While his fame initially rested on his achievements as a painter, he als ...

Leonardo da Vinci
mentions natural camera obscura that are formed by dark caves on the edge of a sunlit valley. A hole in the cave wall will act as a pinhole camera and project a laterally reversed, upside down image on a piece of paper.
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

Renaissance
painters used the camera obscura which, in fact, gives the optical rendering in color that dominates Western Art. It is a box with a small hole in one side, which allows specific light rays to enter, projecting an inverted image onto a viewing screen or paper. The birth of photography was then concerned with inventing means to capture and keep the image produced by the camera obscura.
Albertus Magnus Albertus Magnus (c. 1200 – November 15, 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great or Albert of Cologne, was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany ...

Albertus Magnus
(1193–1280) discovered
silver nitrate Silver nitrate is an inorganic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, be ...

silver nitrate
, and
Georg Fabricius Georg Fabricius (23 April 1516 – 17 July 1571), born Georg Goldschmidt, was a Protestantism, Protestant Germany, German poet, historian and archaeologist who wrote in Latin during the German Renaissance. Life Fabricius was born in Chemnitz in ...
(1516–1571) discovered
silver chloride Silver chloride is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held together b ...

silver chloride
, and the techniques described in
Ibn al-Haytham Ḥasan Ibn al-Haytham (Latinization of names, Latinized as Alhazen ; full name ; ) was a Muslim Arab Mathematics in medieval Islam, mathematician, Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world, astronomer, and Physics in the medieval Islamic world, ...

Ibn al-Haytham
's
Book of Optics The ''Book of Optics'' ( ar, كتاب المناظر, Kitāb al-Manāẓir; la, De Aspectibus or ''Perspectiva''; it, Deli Aspecti) is a seven-volume treatise on optics Optics is the branch of physics Physics (from grc, φυσι ...
are capable of producing primitive photographs using medieval materials.
Daniele Barbaro Daniele Matteo Alvise Barbaro (also Barbarus) (8 February 1514 – 13 April 1570) was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the ...

Daniele Barbaro
described a
diaphragm Diaphragm may refer to: * Diaphragm (anatomy) or thoracic diaphragm, a thin sheet of muscle between the thorax and the abdomen * Diaphragm (optics), a stop in the light path of a lens, having an aperture that regulates the amount of light that pass ...
in 1566. Gernsheim, Helmut (1986).
A concise history of photography
''. Courier Dover Publications. pp. 3–4.
Wilhelm Homberg Wilhelm Homberg (January 8, 1652 – September 24, 1715), also known as Guillaume Homberg in French, was a German natural philosopher. Life Wilhelm Homberg was the son of John Homberg, a Saxon gentleman, originally from Quedlinburg, who was str ...
described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694. The fiction book '' Giphantie'', published in 1760, by French author Tiphaigne de la Roche, described what can be interpreted as photography. Around the year 1800,
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ir ...

British
inventor Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance. He used paper or white leather treated with
silver nitrate Silver nitrate is an inorganic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, be ...

silver nitrate
. Although he succeeded in capturing the shadows of objects placed on the surface in direct sunlight, and even made shadow copies of paintings on glass, it was reported in 1802 that "the images formed by means of a camera obscura have been found too faint to produce, in any moderate time, an effect upon the nitrate of silver." The shadow images eventually darkened all over.


Invention

The first permanent
photoetching Photoengraving is a process that uses a light-sensitive photoresist applied to the surface to be engraved to create a mask that shields some areas during a subsequent operation which etches, dissolves, or otherwise removes some or all of the mater ...
was an image produced in 1822 by the French inventor
Nicéphore Niépce Joseph Nicéphore Niépce (; 7 March 1765 – 5 July 1833), commonly known or referred to simply as Nicéphore Niépce, was a French inventor, usually credited as the inventor of photography and a pioneer in that field. Niépce developed heliogr ...
, but it was destroyed in a later attempt to make prints from it. Niépce was successful again in 1825. In 1826 or 1827, he made the ''
View from the Window at Le Gras ''View from the Window at Le Gras'' is a heliographic image and the oldest surviving camera photograph 396x396px, '' View from the Window at Le Gras'' (1826 or 1827), by Nicéphore Niépce, the earliest known surviving photograph of a real-w ...
'', the earliest surviving photograph from nature (i.e., of the image of a real-world scene, as formed in a
camera obscura A camera obscura (plural ''camerae obscurae'' or ''camera obscuras'', from Latin , "dark chamber") is a darkened room with a small hole or lens at one side through which an image is projected onto a wall or table opposite the hole. "Camera obs ...

camera obscura
by a
lens A lens is a transmissive optical Optics is the branch of physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, s ...

lens
). Because Niépce's camera photographs required an extremely long exposure (at least eight hours and probably several days), he sought to greatly improve his
bitumen Asphalt, also known as bitumen (, ), is a sticky, black, highly viscous The viscosity of a fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformation (mechanics), deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress, or externa ...
process or replace it with one that was more practical. In partnership with
Louis Daguerre Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre ( , ; 18 November 1787 – 10 July 1851) was a French artist and photographer, recognized for his invention of the eponymous daguerreotype Daguerreotype (; french: daguerréotype) was the first publicly avai ...

Louis Daguerre
, he worked out post-exposure processing methods that produced visually superior results and replaced the bitumen with a more light-sensitive resin, but hours of exposure in the camera were still required. With an eye to eventual commercial exploitation, the partners opted for total secrecy. Niépce died in 1833 and Daguerre then redirected the experiments toward the light-sensitive
silver halide A silver halide (or silver salt) is one of the chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, e ...
s, which Niépce had abandoned many years earlier because of his inability to make the images he captured with them light-fast and permanent. Daguerre's efforts culminated in what would later be named the
daguerreotype Daguerreotype (; french: daguerréotype) was the first publicly available photographic Photography is the art, application, and practice of creating durable image An SAR radar imaging, radar image acquired by the SIR-C/X-SAR radar on ...
process. The essential elements—a silver-plated surface sensitized by
iodine Iodine is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical ele ...

iodine
vapor, developed by
mercury Mercury usually refers to: * Mercury (planet) Mercury is the smallest planet in the Solar System and the closest to the Sun. Its orbit around the Sun takes 87.97 Earth days, the shortest of all the Sun's planets. It is named after the Roman g ...

mercury
vapor, and "fixed" with hot saturated
salt Salt is a mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure fo ...
water—were in place in 1837. The required exposure time was measured in minutes instead of hours. Daguerre took the earliest confirmed photograph of a person in 1838 while capturing a view of a Paris street: unlike the other pedestrian and horse-drawn traffic on the busy boulevard, which appears deserted, one man having his boots polished stood sufficiently still throughout the several-minutes-long exposure to be visible. The existence of Daguerre's process was publicly announced, without details, on 7 January 1839. The news created an international sensation. France soon agreed to pay Daguerre a pension in exchange for the right to present his invention to the world as the gift of France, which occurred when complete working instructions were unveiled on 19 August 1839. In that same year, American photographer is credited with taking the earliest surviving photographic self-portrait. In Brazil,
Hercules Florence Hercules () is the Roman equivalent of the Greek divine hero File:Wilhelm Tell Denkmal Altdorf um 1900.jpeg, upWilliam Tell, a popular folk hero of Switzerland. A hero (heroine in its feminine form) is a real person or a main fictional ...
had apparently started working out a silver-salt-based paper process in 1832, later naming it ''Photographie''. Meanwhile, a
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ir ...

British
inventor, , had succeeded in making crude but reasonably light-fast silver images on paper as early as 1834 but had kept his work secret. After reading about Daguerre's invention in January 1839, Talbot published his hitherto secret method and set about improving on it. At first, like other pre-daguerreotype processes, Talbot's paper-based photography typically required hours-long exposures in the camera, but in 1840 he created the
calotype Calotype or talbotype is an early photographic process introduced in 1841 by William Fox Talbot, William Henry Fox Talbot, using paper coated with silver iodide. The term ''calotype'' comes from the Greek language, Greek ' (kalos), "beautiful", ...
process, which used the of a
latent image {{citations needed, date=November 2015 A latent image is an invisible image produced by the exposure to light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be visual perception ...

latent image
to greatly reduce the exposure needed and compete with the daguerreotype. In both its original and calotype forms, Talbot's process, unlike Daguerre's, created a translucent negative which could be used to print multiple positive copies; this is the basis of most modern chemical photography up to the present day, as daguerreotypes could only be replicated by rephotographing them with a camera. Talbot's famous tiny paper negative of the Oriel window in
Lacock Abbey Lacock Abbey in the village of Lacock Lacock is a village and civil parish in the county of Wiltshire, England, about 3 miles (5 km) south of the town of Chippenham. The village is owned almost in its entirety by the National T ...
, one of a number of camera photographs he made in the summer of 1835, may be the oldest camera negative in existence. In France,
Hippolyte Bayard Hippolyte Bayard (20 January 1801 – 14 May 1887) was a French photographer and pioneer in the history of photography. He invented his own process that produced direct positive paper prints in the camera and presented the world's first public ex ...
invented his own process for producing direct positive paper prints and claimed to have invented photography earlier than Daguerre or Talbot. British chemist
John Herschel Sir John Frederick William Herschel, 1st Baronet (; 7 March 1792 – 11 May 1871) was an English polymath active as a mathematician, astronomer, chemist, inventor, experimental photographer who invented the blueprint, and did botanical wor ...
made many contributions to the new field. He invented the
cyanotype Image:Joy_Oil_gas_station_blueprints.jpg, Architectural drawing blueprint, Canada, 1936 Cyanotype is a photographic process, photographic printing process that produces a cyan, cyan-blue print. Engineers used the process well into the 20th centu ...

cyanotype
process, later familiar as the "blueprint". He was the first to use the terms "photography", "negative" and "positive". He had discovered in 1819 that sodium thiosulphate was a solvent of silver halides, and in 1839 he informed Talbot (and, indirectly, Daguerre) that it could be used to "fix" silver-halide-based photographs and make them completely light-fast. He made the first
glass negative photographic plates, 1880 Image:Femme-au-chien neg.jpg, Negative plate Photographic plates preceded photographic film as a capture medium in photography, and were still used in some communities up until the late 20th century. The light-sensitive ...
in late 1839. In the March 1851 issue of ''The Chemist'',
Frederick Scott Archer ] Frederick Scott Archer (1813 – 1 May 1857) was an English photographer and sculptor who is best known for having invented the photographic collodion process which preceded the modern photographic film, gelatin emulsion. He was born in either ...

Frederick Scott Archer
published his wet plate
collodion process.- Puente de Isabel II''. Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport (Spain) The Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (MEFP) is the Spanish government departments, department of the Government of Spain responsible for proposing and carrying ...
. It became the most widely used photographic medium until the gelatin dry plate, introduced in the 1870s, eventually replaced it. There are three subsets to the collodion process; the
Ambrotype The ambrotype (from grc, ἀμβροτός — “immortal”, and  — “impression”) also known as a collodion positive in the UK, is a positive photograph on glass made by a variant of the wet plate.- Puente de Isabel II''. Minist ...

Ambrotype
(a positive image on glass), the
Ferrotype A tintype, also known as a melainotype or ferrotype, is a photograph made by creating a direct positive on a thin sheet of metal coated with a dark lacquer or enamel and used as the support for the photographic emulsion. Tintypes enjoyed their wid ...

Ferrotype
or Tintype (a positive image on metal) and the glass negative, which was used to make positive prints on
albumen Egg white is the clear liquid (also called the albumen or the glair/glaire) contained within an Egg (biology), egg. In chickens it is formed from the layers of secretions of the anterior section of the hen's oviduct during the passage of the egg ...
or salted paper. Many advances in photographic glass plates and printing were made during the rest of the 19th century. In 1891,
Gabriel Lippmann Jonas Ferdinand Gabriel Lippmann (16 August 1845 – 13 July 1921) was a Franco-Luxembourg Luxembourg ( ; lb, Lëtzebuerg ; french: link=no, Luxembourg; german: link=no, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, ; french: lin ...
introduced a process for making natural-color photographs based on the optical phenomenon of the
interference Interference is the act of interfering, invading, or poaching. Interference may also refer to: Communications * Interference (communication), anything which alters, modifies, or disrupts a message * Adjacent-channel interference, caused by extran ...
of light waves. His scientifically elegant and important but ultimately impractical invention earned him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1908. Glass plates were the medium for most original camera photography from the late 1850s until the general introduction of flexible plastic films during the 1890s. Although the convenience of the film greatly popularized amateur photography, early films were somewhat more expensive and of markedly lower optical quality than their glass plate equivalents, and until the late 1910s they were not available in the large formats preferred by most professional photographers, so the new medium did not immediately or completely replace the old. Because of the superior dimensional stability of glass, the use of plates for some scientific applications, such as
astrophotography Astrophotography, also known as astronomical imaging, is of s, s, and areas of the . The first photograph of an astronomical object (the ) was taken in 1840, but it was not until the late 19th century that advances in technology allowed for deta ...

astrophotography
, continued into the 1990s, and in the niche field of laser
holography Holography is a technique that enables a wavefront In physics, the wavefront of a time-varying field is the set () of all where the wave has the same of the sinusoid. The term is generally meaningful only for fields that, at each point, v ...

holography
, it has persisted into the 21st century.


Film

Hurter and Driffield Ferdinand Hurter Ferdinand Hurter (15 March 1844 – 12 March 1898) was a Swiss (people), Swiss industrial chemist who settled in England. He also carried out research into photography. Early life Ferdinand Hurter was born in Schaffhausen, ...
began pioneering work on the
light sensitivityPhotosensitivity is the amount to which an object reacts upon receiving photons, especially visible light. In medicine, the term is principally used for abnormal reactions of the skin, and two types are distinguished, photoallergy and phototoxicity. ...
of photographic emulsions in 1876. Their work enabled the first quantitative measure of film speed to be devised. The first flexible photographic roll film was marketed by
George Eastman George may refer to: People * George (given name) George (in English or in Romanian) is a masculine given name derived from the Greek language, Greek Georgios, Geōrgios (; ). The name gained popularity due to its association with the Christia ...
, founder of
Kodak The Eastman Kodak Company (referred to simply as Kodak ) is an American public company that produces various products related to its historic basis in analogue photography. The company is headquartered in Rochester, New York Rochester ( ...

Kodak
in 1885, but this original "film" was actually a coating on a paper base. As part of the processing, the image-bearing layer was stripped from the paper and transferred to a hardened gelatin support. The first transparent plastic roll film followed in 1889. It was made from highly flammable
nitrocellulose Nitrocellulose (also known as cellulose nitrate, flash paper, flash cotton, guncotton, pyroxylin and flash string, depending on form) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating In organic chemistry, nitration is a general class of chem ...

nitrocellulose
known as nitrate film. Although
cellulose acetate Cellulose acetate refers to any acetate An acetate is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with a base (e.g. alkaline, earthy, metallic, nonmetal image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-en.svg, upright=1.75, Nonmetals (and metalloids ...

cellulose acetate
or "
safety film Cellulose acetate film, or safety film, is used in photography Photography is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, ch ...
" had been introduced by Kodak in 1908, at first it found only a few special applications as an alternative to the hazardous nitrate film, which had the advantages of being considerably tougher, slightly more transparent, and cheaper. The changeover was not completed for
X-ray An X-ray, or, much less commonly, X-radiation, is a penetrating form of high-energy electromagnetic radiation In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Moti ...

X-ray
films until 1933, and although safety film was always used for 16 mm and 8 mm home movies, nitrate film remained standard for theatrical 35 mm motion pictures until it was finally discontinued in 1951. Films remained the dominant form of photography until the early 21st century when advances in digital photography drew consumers to digital formats. Although modern photography is dominated by digital users, film continues to be used by enthusiasts and professional photographers. The distinctive "look" of film based photographs compared to digital images is likely due to a combination of factors, including: (1) differences in spectral and tonal sensitivity (S-shaped density-to-exposure (H&D curve) with film vs. linear response curve for digital CCD sensors) (2) resolution and (3) continuity of tone.


Black-and-white

Originally, all photography was
monochrome A monochromic image is composed of one color (or values In ethics Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existe ...
, or ''
black-and-white Black-and-white (B/W or B&W) images combine black and white in a continuous spectrum In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is ...
''. Even after color film was readily available, black-and-white photography continued to dominate for decades, due to its lower cost, chemical stability, and its "classic" photographic look. The tones and contrast between light and dark areas define black-and-white photography. Monochromatic pictures are not necessarily composed of pure blacks, whites, and intermediate shades of gray but can involve shades of one particular
hue In color theory In the visual arts The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, after applica ...

hue
depending on the process. The
cyanotype Image:Joy_Oil_gas_station_blueprints.jpg, Architectural drawing blueprint, Canada, 1936 Cyanotype is a photographic process, photographic printing process that produces a cyan, cyan-blue print. Engineers used the process well into the 20th centu ...

cyanotype
process, for example, produces an image composed of blue tones. The
albumen print Egg white is the clear liquid (also called the albumen or the glair/glaire) contained within an egg. In chicken The chicken (''Gallus gallus domesticus''), a subspecies of the red junglefowl, is a type of domestication, domesticated fowl, ...
process, publicly revealed in 1847, produces brownish tones. Many
photographers photographer stand. A photographer (the Greek language, Greek φῶς (''phos''), meaning "light", and γραφή (''graphê''), meaning "drawing, writing", together meaning "drawing with light") is a person who makes photographs 396x396px ...

photographers
continue to produce some monochrome images, sometimes because of the established archival permanence of well-processed silver-halide-based materials. Some full-color digital images are processed using a variety of techniques to create black-and-white results, and some manufacturers produce digital cameras that exclusively shoot monochrome. Monochrome printing or electronic display can be used to salvage certain photographs taken in color which are unsatisfactory in their original form; sometimes when presented as black-and-white or single-color-toned images they are found to be more effective. Although color photography has long predominated, monochrome images are still produced, mostly for artistic reasons. Almost all
digital cameras A digital camera is a camera A camera is an optical Optics is the branch of physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behav ...

digital cameras
have an option to shoot in monochrome, and almost all image editing software can combine or selectively discard
RGB s The RGB color model is an additive color, additive color model A color model is an abstract mathematical model describing the way colors can be represented as tuples of numbers, typically as three or four values or color components. When ...

RGB
color channels to produce a monochrome image from one shot in color.


Color

Color photography in 1855, taken in 1861 by Thomas Sutton (photographer), Thomas Sutton. The subject is a colored ribbon, usually described as a tartan ribbon. photograph of William Willoughby Cole Verner, Col. Willoughby Verner by Sarah Acland (photographer) ...
was explored beginning in the 1840s. Early experiments in color required extremely long exposures (hours or days for camera images) and could not "fix" the photograph to prevent the color from quickly fading when exposed to white light. The first permanent color photograph was taken in 1861 using the three-color-separation principle first published by Scottish physicist
James Clerk Maxwell James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as num ...

James Clerk Maxwell
in 1855. The foundation of virtually all practical color processes, Maxwell's idea was to take three separate black-and-white photographs through red, green and blue
filters Filter, filtering or filters may refer to: Science and technology Device * Filter (chemistry), a device which separates solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass ** Filter (aquarium), critical ...
. This provides the photographer with the three basic channels required to recreate a color image. Transparent prints of the images could be projected through similar color filters and superimposed on the projection screen, an of color reproduction. A color print on paper could be produced by superimposing
carbon print A carbon print is a Photography, photographic print with an image consisting of pigmented gelatin, rather than of silver or other metallic particles suspended in a uniform layer of gelatin, as in typical black-and-white prints, or of chromogenic dye ...
s of the three images made in their
complementary color Complementary colors are pairs of color Color (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native ...
s, a subtractive method of color reproduction pioneered by
Louis Ducos du Hauron Louis Arthur Ducos du Hauron (8 December 1837 – 31 August 1920) was a French pioneer of color photography. He was born in Langon, Gironde Gironde ( , US usually , ; oc, Gironda, ) is a department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region In g ...
in the late 1860s. Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii made extensive use of this color separation technique, employing a special camera which successively exposed the three color-filtered images on different parts of an oblong plate. Because his exposures were not simultaneous, unsteady subjects exhibited color "fringes" or, if rapidly moving through the scene, appeared as brightly colored ghosts in the resulting projected or printed images. Implementation of color photography was hindered by the limited sensitivity of early photographic materials, which were mostly sensitive to blue, only slightly sensitive to green, and virtually insensitive to red. The discovery of dye sensitization by photochemist Hermann Vogel in 1873 suddenly made it possible to add sensitivity to green, yellow and even red. Improved color sensitizers and ongoing improvements in the overall sensitivity of
emulsions An emulsion is a mixture In chemistry, a mixture is a material made up of two or more different chemical substances which are not chemically combined. A mixture is the physical combination of two or more substances in which the identities are ...
steadily reduced the once-prohibitive long exposure times required for color, bringing it ever closer to commercial viability. Autochrome, the first commercially successful color process, was introduced by the
Lumière brothers Lumière is French for 'light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be visual perception, perceived by the human eye. Visible light is usually defined as having waveleng ...
in 1907. Autochrome plates incorporated a
mosaic A mosaic is a pattern or image made of small regular or irregular pieces of colored stone, glass or ceramic, held in place by plaster/mortar, and covering a surface. Mosaics are often used as floor and wall decoration, and were particularly pop ...

mosaic
color filter layer made of dyed grains of
potato starch The potato is a starch Starch or amylum is a consisting of numerous units joined by s. This is produced by most green s for energy storage. Worldwide, it is the most common carbohydrate in human diets, and is contained in large amount ...

potato starch
, which allowed the three color components to be recorded as adjacent microscopic image fragments. After an Autochrome plate was reversal processed to produce a positive
transparency Transparency, transparence or transparent most often refer to transparency and translucency, the physical property of allowing the transmission of light through a material. They may also refer to: Literal uses * Transparency (photography), a sti ...
, the starch grains served to illuminate each fragment with the correct color and the tiny colored points blended together in the eye, synthesizing the color of the subject by the . Autochrome plates were one of several varieties of additive color screen plates and films marketed between the 1890s and the 1950s.
Kodachrome Kodachrome is the brand name for a color reversal film introduced by Eastman Kodak in 1935. It was one of the first successful color materials and was used for both cinematography and still photography. For many years Kodachrome was widely used f ...
, the first modern "integral tripack" (or "monopack") color film, was introduced by
Kodak The Eastman Kodak Company (referred to simply as Kodak ) is an American public company that produces various products related to its historic basis in analogue photography. The company is headquartered in Rochester, New York Rochester ( ...

Kodak
in 1935. It captured the three color components in a multi-layer
emulsion An emulsion is a mixture In chemistry, a mixture is a material made up of two or more different chemical substances which are not chemically combined. A mixture is the physical combination of two or more substances in which the identities are ...
. One layer was sensitized to record the red-dominated part of the
spectrum A spectrum (plural ''spectra'' or ''spectrums'') is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary, without gaps, across a continuum Continuum may refer to: * Continuum (measurement) Continuum theories or models expla ...
, another layer recorded only the green part and a third recorded only the blue. Without special
film processing Photographic processing or photographic development is the chemical means by which photographic film Photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent film base coated on one side with a gelatin photographic emulsion, emulsion containing micr ...
, the result would simply be three superimposed black-and-white images, but
complementary A complement is often something that completes something else, or at least adds to it in some useful way. Thus it may be: * Complement (linguistics), a word or phrase having a particular syntactic role ** Subject complement, a word or phrase addi ...
cyan, magenta, and yellow dye images were created in those layers by adding color couplers during a complex processing procedure. Agfa's similarly structured
Agfacolor Agfacolor was the name of a series of products made by of Germany. The first Agfacolor, introduced in 1932, was a film-based version of their Agfa-Farbenplatte (Agfa color plate), a "screen plate" product similar to the French . In late 1936 ...
Neu was introduced in 1936. Unlike Kodachrome, the color couplers in Agfacolor Neu were incorporated into the emulsion layers during manufacture, which greatly simplified the processing. Currently, available color films still employ a multi-layer emulsion and the same principles, most closely resembling Agfa's product. Instant color film, used in a special camera which yielded a unique finished color print only a minute or two after the exposure, was introduced by Polaroid in 1963.
Color photography in 1855, taken in 1861 by Thomas Sutton (photographer), Thomas Sutton. The subject is a colored ribbon, usually described as a tartan ribbon. photograph of William Willoughby Cole Verner, Col. Willoughby Verner by Sarah Acland (photographer) ...
may form images as positive transparencies, which can be used in a
slide projector A slide projector is an opto-mechanical device for showing photographic slides. 35 mm slide projectors, direct descendants of the larger-format magic lantern The magic lantern, also known by its Latin name ''laterna magica'', is a ...

slide projector
, or as color negatives intended for use in creating positive color enlargements on specially coated paper. The latter is now the most common form of film (non-digital) color photography owing to the introduction of automated photo printing equipment. After a transition period centered around 1995–2005, color film was relegated to a niche market by inexpensive multi-megapixel digital cameras. Film continues to be the preference of some photographers because of its distinctive "look".


Digital

In 1981,
Sony , commonly known as Sony and stylized as SONY, is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from mult ...

Sony
unveiled the first consumer camera to use a
charge-coupled device A charge-coupled device (CCD) is an integrated circuit containing an array of linked, or coupled, capacitors. Under the control of an external circuit, each capacitor can transfer its electric charge to a neighboring capacitor. CCD sensors are a ...
for imaging, eliminating the need for film: the
Sony Mavica Mavica (''Magnetic Video Camera'') is a discontinued brand of Sony cameras which use removable disks as the main recording medium. On August 25th 1981, Sony unveiled a prototype of the Sony Mavica as the world's first electronic still camera. As ...

Sony Mavica
. While the Mavica saved images to disk, the images were displayed on television, and the camera was not fully digital. The first digital camera to both record and save images in a digital format was the Fujix DS-1P created by Fujfilm in 1988. In 1991, Kodak unveiled the DCS 100, the first commercially available digital single lens reflex camera. Although its high cost precluded uses other than
photojournalism Photojournalism is journalism that uses images to tell a news story. It usually only refers to still images, but can also refer to video used in broadcast journalism. Photojournalism is distinguished from other close branches of photography (such ...
and professional photography, commercial
digital photography Digital photography uses cameras A camera is an optical Optics is the branch of physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the ...
was born. Digital imaging uses an electronic
image sensor An image sensor or imager is a that detects and conveys information used to make an . It does so by converting the variable of light s (as they or objects) into , small bursts of that convey the information. The waves can be light or other ...
to record the image as a set of electronic data rather than as chemical changes on film. An important difference between digital and chemical photography is that chemical photography resists
photo manipulation Photograph manipulation involves the transformation or alteration of a photograph A photograph (also known as a photo) is an image An SAR radar image acquired by the SIR-C/X-SAR radar on board the Space Shuttle Endeavour show ...
because it involves
film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, ...
and
photographic paper Photographic paper is a coated paper, paper coated with a light-sensitive chemical formula, like photographic film, used for making photographic prints. When photographic paper is exposed to light, it captures a latent image that is then Film devel ...
, while digital imaging is a highly manipulative medium. This difference allows for a degree of image post-processing that is comparatively difficult in film-based photography and permits different communicative potentials and applications. Digital photography dominates the 21st century. More than 99% of photographs taken around the world are through digital cameras, increasingly through smartphones.


Techniques

A large variety of photographic techniques and media are used in the process of capturing images for photography. These include the camera; dualphotography; full-spectrum, ultraviolet and infrared media; light field photography; and other imaging techniques.


Cameras

The camera is the image-forming device, and a
photographic plate Photographic plates preceded photographic film Photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent film baseA film base is a transparent substrate which acts as a support medium for the photosensitive emulsion An emulsion is a mixtu ...
,
photographic film Photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent coated on one side with a containing microscopically small light-sensitive crystals. The sizes and other characteristics of the crystals determine the sensitivity, contrast, and of the ...
or a
silicon Silicon is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is a hard, brittle crystalline solid with a blue-grey metallic lustre, and is a Tetravalence, tetravalent metalloid and semiconductor. It is a member ...

silicon
electronic
image sensor An image sensor or imager is a that detects and conveys information used to make an . It does so by converting the variable of light s (as they or objects) into , small bursts of that convey the information. The waves can be light or other ...
is the capture medium. The respective recording medium can be the plate or film itself, or a digital magnetic or electronic memory. Photographers control the camera and lens to "expose" the light recording material to the required amount of light to form a "
latent image {{citations needed, date=November 2015 A latent image is an invisible image produced by the exposure to light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be visual perception ...

latent image
" (on plate or film) or RAW file (in digital cameras) which, after appropriate processing, is converted to a usable image.
Digital cameras A digital camera is a camera A camera is an optical Optics is the branch of physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behav ...
use an electronic image sensor based on light-sensitive electronics such as
charge-coupled device A charge-coupled device (CCD) is an integrated circuit containing an array of linked, or coupled, capacitors. Under the control of an external circuit, each capacitor can transfer its electric charge to a neighboring capacitor. CCD sensors are a ...
(CCD) or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The resulting digital image is stored electronically, but can be reproduced on a paper. The camera (or '
camera obscura A camera obscura (plural ''camerae obscurae'' or ''camera obscuras'', from Latin , "dark chamber") is a darkened room with a small hole or lens at one side through which an image is projected onto a wall or table opposite the hole. "Camera obs ...

camera obscura
') is a dark room or chamber from which, as far as possible, all light is excluded except the light that forms the image. It was discovered and used in the 16th century by painters. The subject being photographed, however, must be illuminated. Cameras can range from small to very large, a whole room that is kept dark while the object to be photographed is in another room where it is properly illuminated. This was common for reproduction photography of flat copy when large film negatives were used (see
Process camera A process camera is a specialised form of camera used for the reproduction of graphic material. Before the advent of color scanners, color process work was undertaken by the process camera, by a skilled operator. This was achieved by using various ...
). As soon as photographic materials became "fast" (sensitive) enough for taking candid or surreptitious pictures, small "detective" cameras were made, some actually disguised as a book or handbag or pocket watch (the ''Ticka'' camera) or even worn hidden behind an Ascot necktie with a tie pin that was really the lens. The
movie camera A movie camera (also film camera and cine-camera) is a type of photographic camera that rapidly takes a sequence of photographs, either on an image sensor An image sensor or imager is a that detects and conveys information used to make an . It ...
is a type of photographic camera which takes a rapid sequence of photographs on recording medium. In contrast to a still camera, which captures a single snapshot at a time, the movie camera takes a series of images, each called a "frame". This is accomplished through an intermittent mechanism. The frames are later played back in a movie projector at a specific speed, called the "frame rate" (number of frames per second). While viewing, a person's eyes and brain merge the separate pictures to create the illusion of motion.


Stereoscopic

Photographs, both monochrome and color, can be captured and displayed through two side-by-side images that emulate human stereoscopic vision. Stereoscopic photography was the first that captured figures in motion. While known colloquially as "3-D" photography, the more accurate term is stereoscopy. Such cameras have long been realized by using film and more recently in digital electronic methods (including cell phone cameras).


Dualphotography

Dualphotography consists of photographing a scene from both sides of a photographic device at once (e.g. camera for back-to-back dualphotography, or two networked cameras for portal-plane dualphotography). The dualphoto apparatus can be used to simultaneously capture both the subject and the photographer, or both sides of a geographical place at once, thus adding a supplementary narrative layer to that of a single image.


Full-spectrum, ultraviolet and infrared

Ultraviolet Ultraviolet (UV) is a form of electromagnetic radiation In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, ...
and
infrared Infrared (IR), sometimes called infrared light, is electromagnetic radiation In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior ...
films have been available for many decades and employed in a variety of photographic avenues since the 1960s. New technological trends in digital photography have opened a new direction in full spectrum photography, where careful filtering choices across the ultraviolet, visible and infrared lead to new artistic visions. Modified digital cameras can detect some ultraviolet, all of the visible and much of the near infrared spectrum, as most digital imaging sensors are sensitive from about 350 nm to 1000 nm. An off-the-shelf digital camera contains an infrared
hot mirror A hot mirror is a specialized dielectric mirror A dielectric mirror, also known as a Bragg mirror, is a type of mirror Grange, East Yorkshire, UK, from World War I. The mirror magnified the sound of approaching enemy Zeppelins for a micr ...
filter that blocks most of the infrared and a bit of the ultraviolet that would otherwise be detected by the sensor, narrowing the accepted range from about 400 nm to 700 nm. Replacing a hot mirror or infrared blocking filter with an infrared pass or a wide spectrally transmitting filter allows the camera to detect the wider spectrum light at greater sensitivity. Without the hot-mirror, the red, green and blue (or cyan, yellow and magenta) colored micro-filters placed over the sensor elements pass varying amounts of ultraviolet (blue window) and infrared (primarily red and somewhat lesser the green and blue micro-filters). Uses of full spectrum photography are for
fine art photography Fine may refer to: Characters * Sylvia Fine (The Nanny), Sylvia Fine (''The Nanny''), Fran's mother on ''The Nanny'' * Fine/Officer Fine, character in Tales from the Crypt, played by Vincent Spano. Legal terms * Fine (penalty), money to be paid as ...
,
geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek ...
, History of forensic photography, forensics and law enforcement.


Layering

Layering is a photographic Composition (visual arts), composition technique that manipulates the foreground, subject or middle-ground, and background layers in a way that they all work together to tell a story through the image. Layers may be incorporated by altering the focal length, distorting the perspective by positioning the camera in a certain spot. People, movement, light and a variety of objects can be used in layering.


Light field

Digital methods of image capture and display processing have enabled the new technology of "light field photography" (also known as synthetic aperture photography). This process allows focusing at various depths of field to be selected ''after'' the photograph has been captured. As explained by Michael Faraday in 1846, the "light field" is understood as 5-dimensional, with each point in 3-D space having attributes of two more angles that define the direction of each ray passing through that point. These additional vector attributes can be captured optically through the use of microlenses at each pixel point within the 2-dimensional image sensor. Every pixel of the final image is actually a selection from each sub-array located under each microlens, as identified by a post-image capture focus algorithm.


Other

Besides the camera, other methods of forming images with light are available. For instance, a photocopy or xerography machine forms permanent images but uses the transfer of static Electric charge, electrical charges rather than photographic medium, hence the term electrophotography. Photograms are images produced by the shadows of objects cast on the photographic paper, without the use of a camera. Objects can also be placed directly on the glass of an image scanner to produce digital pictures.


Types


Amateur

Amateur photographers take photos for personal use, as a hobby or out of casual interest, rather than as a business or job. The quality amateur work can be comparable to that of many professionals. Amateurs can fill a gap in subjects or topics that might not otherwise be photographed if they are not commercially useful or salable. Amateur photography grew during the late 19th century due to the popularization of the hand-held camera. Twenty-first century social media and near-ubiquitous camera phones have made photographic and video recording pervasive in everyday life. In the mid-2010s smartphone cameras added numerous automatic assistance features like color management, autofocus face detection and image stabilization that significantly decreased skill and effort needed to take high quality images.


Commercial

Commercial photography is probably best defined as any photography for which the photographer is paid for
image An image (from la, imago) is an artifact that depicts visual perception Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment Environment most often refers to: __NOTOC__ * Natural environment, all living and non- ...

image
s rather than works of art. In this light, money could be paid for the subject of the photograph or the photograph itself. Wholesale, retail, and professional uses of photography would fall under this definition. The commercial photographic world could include: * Advertising photography: photographs made to illustrate and usually sell a service or product. These images, such as packshots, are generally done with an advertising agency, design firm or with an in-house corporate design team. *Architectural photography focuses on capturing photographs of buildings and architectural structures that are aesthetically pleasing and accurate in terms of representations of their subjects. *Event photography focuses on photographing guests and occurrences at mostly social events. * Fashion and glamour photography usually incorporates photographic model, models and is a form of advertising photography. Fashion photography, like the work featured in ''Harper's Bazaar'', emphasizes clothes and other products; glamour emphasizes the model and body form. Glamour photography is popular in advertising and men's magazines. Models in glamour photography sometimes work Nude photography, nude. * 360 product photography displays a series of photos to give the impression of a rotating object. This technique is commonly used by ecommerce websites to help shoppers visualise products. * Concert photography focuses on capturing candid images of both the artist or band as well as the atmosphere (including the crowd). Many of these photographers work freelance and are contracted through an artist or their management to cover a specific show. Concert photographs are often used to promote the artist or band in addition to the venue. * Crime scene photography consists of photographing scenes of crime such as robberies and murders. A black and white camera or an infrared camera may be used to capture specific details. * Still life photography usually depicts inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which may be either natural or man-made. Still life is a broader category for food and some natural photography and can be used for advertising purposes. * Real Estate photography focuses on the production of photographs showcasing a property that is for sale, such photographs requires the use of wide-lens and extensive knowledge in High-dynamic-range imaging photography. * Food photography can be used for editorial, packaging or advertising use. Food photography is similar to still life photography but requires some special skills. * Photojournalism can be considered a subset of editorial photography. Photographs made in this context are accepted as a documentation of a news story. * Paparazzi is a form of photojournalism in which the photographer captures candid images of athletes, celebrities, politicians, and other prominent people. * Portrait photography, Portrait and wedding photography: photographs made and sold directly to the end user of the images. * Landscape photography depicts locations. * Wildlife photography demonstrates the life of wild animals.


Art

During the 20th century, both
fine art photography Fine may refer to: Characters * Sylvia Fine (The Nanny), Sylvia Fine (''The Nanny''), Fran's mother on ''The Nanny'' * Fine/Officer Fine, character in Tales from the Crypt, played by Vincent Spano. Legal terms * Fine (penalty), money to be paid as ...
and documentary photography became accepted by the English language, English-speaking art world and the art gallery, gallery system. In the United States, a handful of photographers, including Alfred Stieglitz, Edward Steichen, John Szarkowski, F. Holland Day, and Edward Weston, spent their lives advocating for photography as a fine art. At first, fine art photographers tried to imitate painting styles. This movement is called Pictorialism, often using soft focus for a dreamy, 'romantic' look. In reaction to that, Weston, Ansel Adams, and others formed the Group f/64 to advocate 'straight photography', the photograph as a (sharply focused) thing in itself and not an imitation of something else. The aesthetics of photography is a matter that continues to be discussed regularly, especially in artistic circles. Many artists argued that photography was the mechanical reproduction of an image. If photography is authentically art, then photography in the context of art would need redefinition, such as determining what component of a photograph makes it beauty, beautiful to the viewer. The controversy began with the earliest images "written with light";
Nicéphore Niépce Joseph Nicéphore Niépce (; 7 March 1765 – 5 July 1833), commonly known or referred to simply as Nicéphore Niépce, was a French inventor, usually credited as the inventor of photography and a pioneer in that field. Niépce developed heliogr ...
,
Louis Daguerre Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre ( , ; 18 November 1787 – 10 July 1851) was a French artist and photographer, recognized for his invention of the eponymous daguerreotype Daguerreotype (; french: daguerréotype) was the first publicly avai ...

Louis Daguerre
, and others among the very earliest photographers were met with acclaim, but some questioned if their work met the definitions and purposes of art. Clive Bell in his classic essay ''Art'' states that only "significant form" can distinguish art from what is not art. On 7 February 2007, Sotheby's London sold the 2001 photograph ''99 Cent II Diptychon'' for an unprecedented $3,346,456 to an anonymous bidder, making it the most expensive at the time. Conceptual photography turns a concept or idea into a photograph. Even though what is depicted in the photographs are real objects, the subject is strictly abstract. In parallel to this development, the then largely separate interface between painting and photography was closed in the early 1970s with the work of the photo artists Pierre Cordier (Chimigramm), Chemigram and Josef H. Neumann, Chemogram. In 1974 the chemograms by Josef H. Neumann concluded the separation of the painterly background and the photographic layer by showing the picture elements in a symbiosis that had never existed before, as an unmistakable unique specimen, in a simultaneous painterly and at the same time real photographic perspective, using lenses, within a photographic layer, united in colors and shapes. This Neumann chemogram from the seventies of the 20th century thus differs from the beginning of the previously created cameraless chemigrams of a Pierre Cordier and the photogram Man Ray or László Moholy-Nagy of the previous decades. These works of art were almost simultaneous with the invention of photography by various important artists who characterized
Hippolyte Bayard Hippolyte Bayard (20 January 1801 – 14 May 1887) was a French photographer and pioneer in the history of photography. He invented his own process that produced direct positive paper prints in the camera and presented the world's first public ex ...
, Thomas Wedgwood, William Henry Fox Talbot in their early stages, and later Man Ray and László Moholy-Nagy in the twenties and by the painter in the thirties Edmund Kesting and Christian Schad by draping objects directly onto appropriately sensitized photo paper and using a light source without a camera.


Photojournalism

Photojournalism is a particular form of photography (the collecting, editing, and presenting of news material for publication or broadcast) that employs images in order to tell a news story. It is now usually understood to refer only to still images, but in some cases the term also refers to video used in broadcast journalism. Photojournalism is distinguished from other close branches of photography (e.g., documentary photography, social documentary photography, street photography or celebrity photography) by complying with a rigid ethical framework which demands that the work be both honest and impartial whilst telling the story in strictly journalistic terms. Photojournalists create pictures that contribute to the news media, and help communities connect with one other. Photojournalists must be well informed and knowledgeable about events happening right outside their door. They deliver news in a creative format that is not only informative, but also entertaining.


Science and forensics

The camera has a long and distinguished history as a means of recording scientific phenomena from the first use by Daguerre and Fox-Talbot, such as astronomical events (Solar eclipse#Photography, eclipses for example), small creatures and plants when the camera was attached to the eyepiece of microscopes (in Micrograph, photomicroscopy) and for macro photography of larger specimens. The camera also proved useful in recording crime scenes and the scenes of accidents, such as the Wootton bridge collapse in 1861. The methods used in analysing photographs for use in legal cases are collectively known as forensic photography. Crime scene photos are taken from three vantage point. The vantage points are overview, mid-range, and close-up. In 1845 Francis Ronalds, the Honorary Director of the Kew Observatory, invented the first successful camera to make continuous recordings of meteorological and geomagnetic parameters. Different machines produced 12- or 24- hour photographic traces of the minute-by-minute variations of atmospheric pressure, temperature, humidity, atmospheric electricity, and the three components of Earth's magnetic field, geomagnetic forces. The cameras were supplied to numerous observatories around the world and some remained in use until well into the 20th century. Charles Brooke (surgeon), Charles Brooke a little later developed similar instruments for the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, Greenwich Observatory. Science uses image technology that has derived from the design of the Pin Hole camera. X-Ray machines are similar in design to Pin Hole cameras with high-grade filters and laser radiation. Photography has become universal in recording events and data in science and engineering, and at crime scenes or accident scenes. The method has been much extended by using other wavelengths, such as infrared photography and ultraviolet photography, as well as spectroscopy. Those methods were first used in the Victorian era and improved much further since that time. The first photographed atom was discovered in 2012 by physicists at Griffith University, Australia. They used an electric field to trap an "Ion" of the element, Ytterbium. The image was recorded on a CCD, an electronic photographic film.


Wildlife Photography

Wildlife photography involves capturing images of various forms of wildlife. Unlike other forms of photography such as product or food photography, successful wildlife photography requires a photographer to choose the right place and right time when specific wildlife are present and active. It often requires great patience and considerable skill and command of the right photographic equipment.


Social and cultural implications

There are many ongoing questions about different aspects of photography. In her ''On Photography'' (1977), Susan Sontag dismisses the objectivity of photography. This is a highly debated subject within the photographic community. Sontag argues, "To photograph is to appropriate the thing photographed. It means putting one's self into a certain relation to the world that feels like knowledge, and therefore like power."Sontag, S. (1977) ''On Photography'', Penguin, London, pp. 3–24, . Photographers decide what to take a photo of, what elements to exclude and what angle to frame the photo, and these factors may reflect a particular socio-historical context. Along these lines, it can be argued that photography is a subjective form of representation. Modern photography has raised a number of concerns on its effect on society. In Alfred Hitchcock's ''Rear Window'' (1954), the camera is presented as promoting voyeurism. 'Although the camera is an observation station, the act of photographing is more than passive observing'.
The camera doesn't rape or even possess, though it may presume, intrude, trespass, distort, exploit, and, at the farthest reach of metaphor, assassinate – all activities that, unlike the sexual push and shove, can be conducted from a distance, and with some detachment.
Digital imaging has raised ethical concerns because of the ease of manipulating digital photographs in post-processing. Many photojournalists have declared they will not Image cropping, crop their pictures or are forbidden from combining elements of multiple photos to make "photomontages", passing them as "real" photographs. Today's technology has made image editing relatively simple for even the novice photographer. However, recent changes of in-camera processing allow Device fingerprint, digital fingerprinting of photos to detect tampering for purposes of forensic photography. Photography is one of the new media forms that changes perception and changes the structure of society. Further unease has been caused around cameras in regards to desensitization. Fears that disturbing or explicit images are widely accessible to children and society at large have been raised. Particularly, photos of war and pornography are causing a stir. Sontag is concerned that "to photograph is to turn people into objects that can be symbolically possessed." Desensitization discussion goes hand in hand with debates about censored images. Sontag writes of her concern that the ability to censor pictures means the photographer has the ability to construct reality. One of the practices through which photography constitutes society is tourism. Tourism and photography combine to create a "tourist gaze" in which local inhabitants are positioned and defined by the camera lens. However, it has also been argued that there exists a "reverse gaze" through which indigenous photographees can position the tourist photographer as a shallow consumer of images.


Law

Photography is both restricted and protected by the law in many jurisdictions. Protection of photographs is typically achieved through the granting of copyright or moral rights to the photographer. In the United States, photography is protected as a First Amendment to the United States Constitution, First Amendment right and anyone is free to photograph anything seen in public spaces as long as it is in plain view. In the UK a recent law (Counter-Terrorism Act 2008) increases the power of the police to prevent people, even press photographers, from taking pictures in public places. In South Africa, any person may photograph any other person, without their permission, in public spaces and the only specific restriction placed on what may not be photographed by government is related to anything classed as national security. Each country has different laws.


See also

* Outline of photography * Science of photography * List of photographers * List of photography awards * Astrophotography * Image editing * Imaging * Minilab, Photolab and minilab * Visual arts


References


Further reading


Introduction

* Barrett, T 2012, Criticizing Photographs: an introduction to understanding images, 5th edn, McGraw-Hill, New York. * Bate, D. (2009), Photography: The Key Concepts, Bloomsbury, New York. * Berger, J. (Dyer, G. ed.), (2013), Understanding a Photograph, Penguin Classics, London. * Bright, S 2011, Art Photography Now, Thames & Hudson, London. * Cotton, C. (2015), The Photograph as Contemporary Art, 3rd edn, Thames & Hudson, New York. * Heiferman, M. (2013), Photography Changes Everything, Aperture Foundation, US. * Shore, S. (2015), The Nature of Photographs, 2nd ed. Phaidon, New York. * Wells, L. (2004), ''Photography. A Critical Introduction'' [Paperback], 3rd ed. Routledge, London.


History

* ''A New History of Photography'', ed. by Michel Frizot, Köln : Könemann, 1998 * Franz-Xaver Schlegel, ''Das Leben der toten Dinge – Studien zur modernen Sachfotografie in den USA 1914–1935'', 2 Bände, Stuttgart/Germany: Art in Life 1999, .


Reference works

* * Hans-Michael Koetzle: ''Das Lexikon der Fotografen: 1900 bis heute'', Munich: Knaur 2002, 512 p., * John Hannavy (ed.): ''Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography'', 1736 p., New York: Routledge 2005 * Lynne Warren (Hrsg.): ''Encyclopedia of Twentieth-Century Photography'', 1719 p., New York: Routledge, 2006 * ''The Oxford Companion to the Photograph'', ed. by Robin Lenman, Oxford University Press 2005 * "The Focal Encyclopedia of Photography", Richard Zakia, Leslie Stroebel, Focal Press 1993, *


Other books

* ''Photography and The Art of Seeing'' by Freeman Patterson, Key Porter Books 1989, . * ''The Art of Photography:'' An Approach to Personal Expression by Bruce Barnbaum, Rocky Nook 2010, . * ''Image Clarity: High Resolution Photography'' by John B. Williams, Focal Press 1990, .


External links


World History of Photography
From The History of Art.
Daguerreotype to Digital: A Brief History of the Photographic Process
From the State Library & Archives of Florida. {{Authority control Photography, French inventions 19th-century inventions Imaging Audiovisual introductions in 1822