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A parish is a territorial entity in many
Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian'' derive from the Koi ...

Christian
denominations, constituting a division within a
diocese In Ecclesiastical polity, church governance, a diocese or bishopric is the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. History In the later organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided Roman province, prov ...
. A parish is under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of a
priest A priest is a religious leader authorized to perform the Sacred rite, sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deity, deities. They also have the authority or power to administer religious ...

priest
, often termed a parish priest, who might be assisted by one or more
curates A curate (, sometimes ) is a person who is invested with the ''care'' or ''cure'' (''cura'') ''of souls'' of a parish A parish is a territorial entity in many Christianity, Christian denominations, constituting a division within a diocese. A pa ...
, and who operates from a
parish church A parish church (or parochial church) in is the which acts as the religious centre of a . In many parts of the world, especially in areas, the parish church may play a significant role in community activities, often allowing its premises to ...
. Historically, a parish often covered the same geographical area as a
manor Manor may refer to: Land tenure *Manor, the land belonging to the Lord of the manor under manorialism in parts of medieval Europe, notably England *Manor house, the main residence of the lord of the manor *Lord of the manor, the landholder of a ma ...
. Its association with the parish church remains paramount. By extension the term ''parish'' refers not only to the territorial entity but to the people of its community or congregation as well as to church property within it. In England this church property was technically in ownership of the parish priest ''
ex-officio An ''ex officio'' member is a member of a body (notably a board, committee, council) who is part of it by virtue of holding another office. The term ''ex officio An ''ex officio'' member is a member of a body (notably a board, committee, council) ...
'', vested in him on his institution to that parish.


Etymology and use

First attested in English in the late, 13th century, the word ''parish'' comes from the
Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the Latin spok ...
''paroisse'', in turn from la, paroecia, the
latinisation Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: * Latinisation of names, the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style * Latinisation in the Soviet Union, the campaign in the USSR during the 1920s and 1930s to replace traditional writing sy ...
of the grc, παροικία, paroikia, "sojourning in a foreign land", itself from (''paroikos''), "dwelling beside, stranger, sojourner", which is a compound of (''pará''), "beside, by, near" and οἶκος (''oîkos''), "house". As an ancient concept, the term "parish" occurs in the long-established Christian denominations:
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Catholics Catholic Church by country, worldwide . As the wo ...

Catholic
,
Anglican Communion The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion Communion may refer to: Religion * The Eucharist (also called the Holy Communion or Lord's Supper), the Christian rite involving the eating of bread and drinking of wine, ree ...
, the
Eastern Orthodox Church The Eastern Orthodox Church, also called the Orthodox Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptised members. It operates as a Communion (Christ ...
, and
Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life ...
churches, and in some
Methodist Methodism, also called the Methodist movement, is a group of historically related denominations Denomination may refer to: * Religious denomination, such as a: ** Christian denomination ** Jewish denomination ** Islamic denomination ** Hindu d ...

Methodist
, Congregationalist and
Presbyterian Presbyterianism is a part of the Reformed tradition Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tr ...
administrations. The eighth Archbishop of Canterbury
Theodore of Tarsus Theodore of Tarsus ( gr, Θεόδωρος Ταρσοῦ; 60219 September 690). was Archbishop of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide ...
(c. 602–690) appended the parish structure to the
Anglo-Saxon township
Anglo-Saxon township
unit, where it existed, and where minsters catered to the surrounding district.


Territorial structure

Broadly speaking, the parish is the standard unit in
episcopal polity An episcopal polity is a hierarchical A hierarchy (from the Greek: , from , 'president of sacred rites') is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or ...
of church administration, although parts of a parish may be subdivided as a ''
chapelryA chapelry was a subdivision of an ecclesiastical parish A parish is a territorial entity in many Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monothe ...
'', with a
chapel of ease A chapel of ease (or chapel-of-ease) is a building other than the , built within the bounds of a for the attendance of those who cannot reach the parish church conveniently. Overview Often a chapel of ease is deliberately built as such, bei ...
or
filial churchA filial church, in the Roman Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion bapt ...
serving as the local place of worship in cases of difficulty to access the main parish church. In the wider picture of ecclesiastical polity, a ''parish'' comprises a division of a diocese or see. Parishes within a diocese may be grouped into a
deanery A deanery (or decanate) is an ecclesiastical entity in the Roman Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with 1. ...
or ''
vicariate forane
vicariate forane
'' (or simply ''vicariate''), overseen by a
dean Dean may refer to: People * Dean (given name) * Dean (surname), a surname of Anglo-Saxon English origin * Dean (South Korean singer), a stage name for singer Kwon Hyuk * Dean Delannoit, a Belgian singer most known by the mononym Dean Title ...
or ''vicar forane'', or in some cases by an
archpriest The ecclesiastical title of archpriest or archpresbyter belongs to certain priest A priest is a religious leader authorized to perform the Sacred rite, sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one o ...
. Some churches of the
Anglican Communion The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion Communion may refer to: Religion * The Eucharist (also called the Holy Communion or Lord's Supper), the Christian rite involving the eating of bread and drinking of wine, ree ...
have deaneries as units of an
archdeaconry An archdeacon is a senior clergy position in the Church of the East, Chaldean Catholic Church, Syriac Orthodox Church, Anglican Communion The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian Full communion, communion after the Catholi ...
.


Outstations

An outstation is a newly-created congregation, a term usually used where the church is
evangelical Evangelicalism (), evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide trans-denominational movement within Protestant Christianity that maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salv ...

evangelical
, or a
mission Mission may refer to: Religion *Mission (station) A religious mission or mission station is a location for missionary work, in particular Christian missions. History Historically, missions have been religious communities used to spread ...
and particularly in African countries, but also historically in Australia. They exist mostly within the
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Catholics Catholic Church by country, worldwide . As the wo ...

Catholic
and
Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia * ...
parishes. The Anglican Diocese of Cameroon describes their outstations as the result of
outreach Outreach is the activity of providing services to any population that might not otherwise have access to those services. A key component of outreach is that the group providing it is not stationary, but mobile; in other words, it involves meeting ...

outreach
work "initiated, sponsored and supervised by the mother parishes". Once there is a big enough group of worshippers in the same place, the outstation in named by the bishop of the diocese. They are run by "
catechist Catechesis (; from Greek: , "instruction by word of mouth", generally "instruction") is basic Christian religious education In secular usage, religious education is the teaching of a particular religion (although in the United Kingdom the ter ...
s/evangelists" or lay readers, and supervised by the creator parish or
archdeaconry An archdeacon is a senior clergy position in the Church of the East, Chaldean Catholic Church, Syriac Orthodox Church, Anglican Communion The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian Full communion, communion after the Catholi ...
. Outstations are not self-supporting, and in poor areas often consist of a very simple structure. The parish priest visits as often as possible. If and when the community has grown enough, the outstation may become a parish and have a parish priest assigned to it. The
Assemblies of God The Assemblies of God (AG), officially the World Assemblies of God Fellowship, is a group of over 144 autonomous self-governing national groupings of churches that together form the world's largest Pentecostal Pentecostalism or Classical Pente ...
denomination has churches and outstations throughout the world.


Church of England

The
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a List of Christian denominations, Christian church which is the established church of England. The archbishop of Canterbury is the most senior clergy, cleric, although the Monarchy of the United Kingdom, mona ...
geographical structure uses the local parish church as its basic unit. The parish system survived the
Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in ...
with the Anglican Church's secession from Rome remaining largely untouched, thus it shares its roots with the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1.3 billion Catholics . As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history ...

Catholic Church
's system described below. Parishes may extend into different counties or hundreds and historically many parishes comprised extra outlying portions in addition to its principal district, usually being described as 'detached' and intermixed with the lands of other parishes. Church of England parishes nowadays all lie within one of 44 dioceses divided between the provinces of
Canterbury Canterbury (, ) is a and , situated in the heart of the , a local government district of , England. It lies on the . The is the of the and the worldwide owing to the importance of , who served as the to the around the turn of the 7th ...
, 30 and
York York is a cathedral city with Roman origins at the confluence of the rivers River Ouse, Yorkshire, Ouse and River Foss, Foss in North Yorkshire, England. It is the historic county town of Yorkshire. The city has long-standing buildings and str ...
, 12. Each parish normally has its own parish priest (either a
vicar A vicar (; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...
or
rector Rector (Latin for the member of a vessel's crew who steers) may refer to: Style or title *Rector (ecclesiastical), a cleric who functions as an administrative leader in some Christian denominations *Rector (academia), a senior official in an educ ...
, owing to the vagaries of the feudal
tithe A tithe (; from : ''teogoþa'' "tenth") is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a contribution to a religious organization or compulsory to government. Today, tithes are normally voluntary and paid in or s, whereas historically tithes were ...
system: rectories usually having had greater income) and perhaps supported by one or more
curate A curate (, sometimes ) is a person who is invested with the ''care'' or ''cure'' (''cura'') ''of souls'' of a parish A parish is a territorial entity in many Christianity, Christian denominations, constituting a division within a diocese. A pa ...
s or
deacon A deacon is a member of the diaconate, an office in Christianity, Christian churches that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions. Major Christian churches, such as the C ...

deacon
s - although as a result of ecclesiastical pluralism some parish priests might have held more than one parish
living Living or The Living may refer to: Common meanings *Life, a condition that distinguishes organisms from inorganic objects and dead organisms ** extant taxon, Living species, one that is not extinct *Personal life, the course of an individual human ...
, placing a curate in charge of those where they do not reside. Now, however, it is common for a number of neighbouring parishes to be placed under one
benefice A benefice () or living is a reward received in exchange for services rendered and as a retainer for future services. The used the term as a benefit to an individual from the Empire for services rendered. Its use was adopted by the in the as a ...
in the charge of a priest who conducts services by rotation, with additional services being provided by
lay reader A licensed lay minister (LLM) or lay reader (in some jurisdictions simply reader) is a person authorized by a bishop in the Anglican Communion to lead certain Church service, services of worship (or parts of the service), to preach, and to carry ou ...
s or other non-ordained members of the church community. A
chapelryA chapelry was a subdivision of an ecclesiastical parish A parish is a territorial entity in many Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monothe ...
was a subdivision of an
ecclesiastical parish A parish is a territorial entity in many Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ ( ...
in
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
, and parts of
Lowland Scotland The Lowlands ( sco, Lallans or ; gd, a' Ghalldachd, , place of the foreigners, ) is a cultural and historical region of Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the Unit ...
up to the mid 19th century. It had a similar status to a
township A township is a kind of human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellings g ...
but was so named as it had a
chapel A chapel is a Christian place of prayer and worship that is usually relatively small. The term has several meanings. Firstly, smaller spaces inside a church that have their own altar are often called chapels; the Lady chapel is a common type ...
which acted as a subsidiary place of worship to the main parish church. In England
civil parishes In England, a civil parish is a type of Parish (administrative division), administrative parish used for Local government in England, local government. It is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts ...

civil parishes
and their governing parish councils evolved in the 19th century as ecclesiastical parishes began to be relieved of what became considered to be civic responsibilities. Thus their boundaries began to diverge. The word "parish" acquired a secular usage. Since 1895, a parish council elected by public vote or a (civil) parish meeting administers a civil parish and is formally recognised as the level of local government below a . The traditional structure of the Church of England with the parish as the basic unit has been exported to other countries and churches throughout the
Anglican Communion The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion Communion may refer to: Religion * The Eucharist (also called the Holy Communion or Lord's Supper), the Christian rite involving the eating of bread and drinking of wine, ree ...
and
Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existenc ...

Commonwealth
but does not necessarily continue to be administered in the same way.


Church of Scotland

The parish is also the basic level of church administration in the
Church of Scotland The Church of Scotland (CoS; sco, The Scots Kirk; gd, Eaglais na h-Alba), also known by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national National may refer to: Common uses * Nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis ...

Church of Scotland
. Spiritual oversight of each parish church in
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
is responsibility of the congregation's
Kirk Session A session (from the Latin word ''sessio'', which means "to sit", as in sitting to deliberate or talk about something; sometimes called ''consistory'' or ''church board'') is a body of elected elders governing each local church within presbyteria ...
. Patronage was regulated in 1711 ( Patronage Act) and abolished in 1874, with the result that
minister Minister may refer to: * Minister (Christianity)Image:LutheranClergy.JPG, upA Lutheran minister wearing a Geneva gown and Bands (neckwear), bands. In many churches, ministers wear distinctive clothing, called vestments, when presiding over service ...
s must be elected by members of the congregation. Many parish churches in Scotland today are "linked" with neighbouring parish churches served by a single minister. Since the abolition of parishes as a unit of civil government in Scotland in 1929, Scottish parishes have purely ecclesiastical significance and the boundaries may be adjusted by the local Presbytery.


Church in Wales

The church in Wales was disestablished in 1920 and is made up of six dioceses. Parishes were also civil administration areas until
communities A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as norms, religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, wor ...
were established in 1974.


Methodist Church

Although they are more often simply called congregations and have no geographic boundaries, in the
United Methodist Church The United Methodist Church (UMC) is a worldwide mainline Protestant The mainline Protestant churches (also called mainstream Protestant and sometimes oldline Protestant) are a group of Protestant denominations in the United States that contras ...

United Methodist Church
congregations are called parishes. A prominent example of this usage comes in ''The Book of Discipline of The United Methodist Church'', in which the committee of every local congregation that handles staff support is referred to as the committee on Pastor-Parish Relations. This committee gives recommendations to the bishop on behalf of the parish/congregation since it is the United Methodist Bishop of the episcopal area who appoints a pastor to each congregation. The same is true in the
African Methodist Episcopal Church The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the A.M.E. Church or AME, is a predominantly African-American Methodist Methodism, also called the Methodist movement, is a group of historically related denominations Denomination ma ...
and the
Christian Methodist Episcopal ChurchThe Christian Methodist Episcopal (C.M.E.) Church is a historically African American, black religious denomination, denomination within the broader context of Wesleyan Methodism founded and organized by John Wesley in England in 1844 and established ...
. In New Zealand, a local grouping of Methodist churches that share one or more ministers (which in the United Kingdom would be called a
circuitCircuit may refer to: Science and technology Electrical engineering * Electrical circuit, a complete electrical network with a closed-loop giving a return path for current ** Analog circuit, uses continuous signal levels ** Balanced circuit, p ...
) is referred to as a parish.


Catholic Church

In the Catholic Church, each parish normally has its own
parish priest A parish is a territorial entity in many Christianity, Christian denominations, constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of a priest#Christianity, priest, often termed a parish priest, ...
(in some countries called
pastor A pastor (abbreviated as "Pr" or "Ptr" , or "Ps" ) is the leader of a Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus ...

pastor
or
provost Provost may refer to: People * Provost (name)Provost is a surname of French origin, deriving from a civil or military official responsible for maintaining order. It moved to England with its conquering by William of Normandy in 1066. It is stil ...
), who has responsibility and canonical authority over the parish. What in most English-speaking countries is termed the "parish priest" is referred to as the "pastor" in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, where the term "parish priest" is used of any priest assigned to a parish even in a subordinate capacity. These are called "assistant priests", "parochial vicars", "
curates A curate (, sometimes ) is a person who is invested with the ''care'' or ''cure'' (''cura'') ''of souls'' of a parish A parish is a territorial entity in many Christianity, Christian denominations, constituting a division within a diocese. A pa ...

curates
", or, in the United States, "associate pastors" and "assistant pastors". Each diocese (administrative region) is divided into parishes, each with their own central church called the
parish church A parish church (or parochial church) in is the which acts as the religious centre of a . In many parts of the world, especially in areas, the parish church may play a significant role in community activities, often allowing its premises to ...
, where religious services take place. Some larger parishes or parishes that have been combined under one parish priest may have two or more such churches, or the parish may be responsible for
chapels 300px, schematic rendering of typical "side chapels" in the apse of a cathedral, surrounding the ambulatory. A chapel is a Christian place of prayer and worship Worship is an act of religion, religious wikt:devotion, devotion usually dire ...
(or chapels of ease) located at some distance from the
mother church Mother church or matrice is a term depicting the Christian Church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to b ...
for the convenience of distant parishioners. In addition to a parish church, each parish may maintain auxiliary organizations and their facilities such as a
rectory A clergy house is the residence, or former residence, of one or more priests or ministers of religion. Such residences are known by various names, including parsonage, manse A manse () is a inhabited by, or formerly inhabited by, a , usu ...

rectory
, parish hall,
parochial school A parochial school is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two deca ...
, or
convent A convent is a community of either priest A priest is a religious leader authorized to perform the Sacred rite, sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deity, deities. They also have th ...

convent
, frequently located on the same campus or adjacent to the church. Normally, a parish comprises all Catholics living within its geographically defined area, but non-territorial parishes can also be established within a defined area on a personal basis for Catholics belonging to a particular
rite A rite is an established, ceremonial A ceremony (, ) is a unified ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, performed in a sequestered place and according to a set sequence. Rituals may be pre ...
, language, nationality, or community. An example is that of personal parishes established in accordance with the 7 July 2007 ''
motu proprio In law, ''motu proprio'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power o ...
'' ''
Summorum Pontificum ''Summorum Pontificum'' (English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually bec ...
'' for those attached to the pre-
Vatican II The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, commonly known as the , or , was the 21st ecumenical council An ecumenical council (or oecumenical council; also general council) is a conference of ecclesiastical dignitaries and theological e ...
liturgy.''Summorum Pontificum'', article 10
/ref> Most Catholic parishes are part of
Latin Rite Latin liturgical rites, or Western liturgical rites, are Catholic rites of public worship employed by the Latin Church , native_name_lang = la , image = San Giovanni in Laterano - Rome.jpg , imagewidth = 250px , ...
diocese In Ecclesiastical polity, church governance, a diocese or bishopric is the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. History In the later organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided Roman province, prov ...
s, which together cover the whole territory of a country. There can also be overlapping parishes of eparchies of
Eastern Catholic Churches The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, Eastern Rite Catholicism, or simply the Eastern Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian Eastern Christianity comprises Christi ...
,
personal ordinariate A personal ordinariate, sometimes called a "personal ordinariate for former Anglicans" or more informally an "Anglican ordinariate", is a canonical structure within the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman ...
s or
military ordinariate A military ordinariate is an ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Gre ...
s. Parishes are generally territorial, but may be personal.


See also

*
Parish church A parish church (or parochial church) in Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Je ...
*
Parish pump Hand pumps are manually operated pumps; they use human power and mechanical advantage to move fluids or air from one place to another. They are widely used in every country in the world for a variety of industrial, marine, irrigation and leisu ...
*
Parish register A parish register in an ecclesiastical parish is a handwritten volume, normally kept in the parish church in which certain details of religious ceremonies marking major events such as baptism Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun β ...
s:
Birth certificate A birth certificate is a vital record Austrian marriage license (duplicate) from 1854. Vital records are records of life events kept under governmental authority, including birth certificates, marriage licenses (or marriage certificates), separati ...

Birth certificate
,
Marriage certificate A marriage certificate (sometimes: marriage lines) is an official statement that two people are married. In most jurisdictions, a marriage certificate is issued by a government official only after the civil registration of the marriage. In som ...

Marriage certificate
,
Death certificate A death certificate is either a legal document issued by a medical practitioner A physician (American English), medical practitioner (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English), medical doctor, or simply doctor, is a profe ...
* * *
Cathedral A cathedral is a church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) A church building, church house, or simply church, is a building used for Christian worship services and other Christian religious activities. The term is used ...

Cathedral
*
Parochial school A parochial school is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two deca ...


References


Citations


Sources

* Sidney Webb, Beatrice Potter. ''English Local Government from the Revolution to the Municipal Corporations.'' London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1906 * James Barry Bird. ''The laws respecting parish matters: containing the several offices and duties of churchwardens, overseers of the poor, constables, watchmen, and other parish officers : the laws concerning rates and assessments, settlements and removals of the poor, and of the poor in general.'' Publisher W. Clarke, 1799


Further reading

*Hart, A. Tindal (1959) ''The Country Priest in English History''. London: Phoenix House *--do.-- (1958) ''The Country Clergy in Elizabethan & Stuart Times, 1558-1660''. London: Phoenix House *--do.-- (1955) ''The Eighteenth Century Country Parson, circa 1689 to 1830'', Shrewsbury: Wilding & Son *--do.-- & Carpenter, E. F. (1954) ''The Nineteenth Century Country Parson; circa 1832-1900''. Shrewsbury: Wilding & Son


External links


''Crockford's Clerical Directory''

In praise of ... civil parishes
Editorial in ''The Guardian'', 2011-05-16. {{Authority control
Christian terminology Words or phrases used to refer to concepts associated with Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings o ...
Anglican organizations
Parishes A parish is a territorial entity in many Christianity, Christian denominations, constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of a priest#Christianity, priest, often termed a parish priest, ...