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An audit is an "independent examination of financial information of any entity, whether profit oriented or not, irrespective of its size or legal form when such an examination is conducted with a view to express an opinion thereon.” Auditing also attempts to ensure that the books of accounts are properly maintained by the concern as required by law. Auditors consider the propositions before them, obtain evidence, and evaluate the propositions in their auditing report. Audits provide third-party assurance to various stakeholders that the subject matter is free from
material Material is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition * Matter, anything that has mass and t ...
misstatement. The term is most frequently applied to audits of the financial information relating to a
legal person In law, a legal person is any person or 'thing' (less ambiguously, any legal entity) that can do the things a human person is usually able to do in law – such as enter into contracts, lawsuit, sue and be sued, ownership, own property, and so o ...
. Other commonly audited areas include: secretarial and compliance, internal controls, quality management, project management, water management, and energy conservation. As a result of an audit, stakeholders may evaluate and improve the effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance over the subject matter. Auditing has been a safeguard measure since ancient times, and has since expanded to encompass so many areas in the public and corporate sectors that academics have started identifying an "Audit Society".


Etymology

The word "audit" derives from the Latin word ''audire'' which means "to hear".


History

During medieval times, when manual bookkeeping was prevalent, auditors in Britain used to hear the accounts read out for them and checked that the organization's personnel were not negligent or fraudulent. In 1951, Moyer identified that the most important duty of the auditor was to detect fraud. Chatfield documented that early United States auditing was viewed mainly as verification of bookkeeping detail. The
Central Auditing Commission of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Central Auditing Commission (CAC), (russian: Центральная ревизионная комиссия КПСС), Centralnaya revizionnaya komissiya) was a supervisory organ within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Similar organs existe ...
( ru , Центральная ревизионная комиссия КПСС) operated from 1921 to 1990.


Information technology audit

An information technology audit, or information systems audit, is an examination of the management controls within an Information technology (IT)
infrastructure Infrastructure is the set of fundamental facilities and systems that support the sustainable functionality of households and firms. Serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy An eco ...

infrastructure
. The evaluation of obtained evidence determines if the information systems are safeguarding assets, maintaining
data integrityData integrity is the maintenance of, and the assurance of, data accuracy and consistency over its entire life-cycle and is a critical aspect to the design, implementation, and usage of any system that stores, processes, or retrieves data. The term ...
, and operating effectively to achieve the organization's goals or objectives. These reviews may be performed in conjunction with a
financial statement audit A financial audit is conducted to provide an opinion whether "financial statements Financial statements (or financial reports) are formal records of the financial activities and position of a business, person, or other entity. Relevant financi ...
,
internal audit Internal auditing is an independent, objective assurance services, assurance and Consultant, consulting activity designed to add value to and improve an organization's operations. It may help an organization accomplish its objectives by bringing a ...
, or other form of attestation engagement.


Accounting

Financial auditives (including
taxation A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act accord ...
,
missellingMisselling is the deliberate, reckless, or negligent sale of products or services in circumstances where the contract is either misrepresented, or the product or service is unsuitable for the customer's needs. For example, selling life insurance Lif ...
and other forms of fraud) to misstate financial information, auditing has become a legal requirement for many entities who have the power to exploit financial information for personal gain. Traditionally, audits were mainly associated with gaining information about financial systems and the financial records of a company or a business. Financial audits are performed to ascertain the
validity Validity or Valid may refer to: Science/mathematics/statistics: * Validity (logic), a property of a logical argument * Scientific: ** Internal validity, the validity of causal inferences within scientific studies, usually based on experiments ** ...
and
reliability Reliability, reliable, or unreliable may refer to: Science, technology, and mathematics Computing * Data reliability (disambiguation), Data reliability, a property of some disk arrays in computer storage * High availability * Reliability (computer ...
of information, as well as to provide an
assessment Assessment may refer to: Healthcare *Health assessment, identifies needs of the patient and how those needs will be addressed *Nursing assessment, gathering information about a patient's physiological, psychological, sociological, and spiritual st ...
of a system's
internal controlInternal control, as defined by accounting Accounting or Accountancy is the measurement ' Measurement is the number, numerical quantification (science), quantification of the variable and attribute (research), attributes of an object or event, w ...
. As a result, a third party can express an opinion of the person / organization / system (etc.) in question. The opinion given on financial statements will depend on the
audit evidence Audit evidence is evidence Evidence for a proposition is what supports this proposition. It is usually understood as an indication that the supported proposition is true. What role evidence plays and how it is conceived varies from field to fiel ...
obtained. A statutory audit is a legally required review of the accuracy of a company's or government's financial statements and records. The purpose of a statutory audit is to determine whether an organization provides a fair and accurate representation of its financial position by examining information such as bank balances, bookkeeping records, and financial transactions. Due to constraints, an audit seeks to provide only reasonable assurance that the statements are free from
material Material is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition * Matter, anything that has mass and ...
error. Hence, statistical sampling is often adopted in audits. In the case of
financial audit A 'financial audit' is conducted to provide an opinion whether "financial statements Financial statements (or financial reports) are formal records of the financial activities and position of a business, person, or other entity. Relevant fin ...
s, a set of
financial statements Financial statements (or financial reports) are formal records of the financial activities and position of a business, person, or other entity. Relevant financial information is presented in a structured manner and in a form which is easy to un ...
are said to be true and fair when they are free of material misstatements – a concept influenced by both quantitative (numerical) and qualitative factors. But recently, the argument that auditing should go beyond just true and fair is gaining momentum. And the US
Public Company Accounting Oversight Board The Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) is a nonprofit corporation created by the Sarbanes–Oxley Act Sen. MD)_(left)_and_United_States_House_of_Representatives.html" ;"title="Maryland.html" ;"title="Democratic_Party_(United_St ...
has come out with a concept release on the same.
Cost accounting Cost accounting is defined as "a systematic set of procedures for recording and reporting measurements of the cost of manufacturing goods and performing services in the aggregate and in detail. It includes methods for recognizing, classifying, all ...
is a process for verifying the cost of manufacturing or producing of any article, on the basis of accounts measuring the use of material, labor or other items of cost. In simple words, the term, '' cost audit'' means a systematic and accurate verification of the cost accounts and records, and checking for adherence to the cost accounting objectives. According to the Institute of Cost and
Management Accountant In management accounting or managerial accounting, managers use accounting Accounting or Accountancy is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial and non financial information about economic entity, economic entities such a ...
s, cost audit is "an examination of cost accounting records and verification of facts to ascertain that the cost of the product has been arrived at, in accordance with principles of cost accounting." In most nations, an audit must adhere to generally accepted standards established by governing bodies. These standards assure third parties or external users that they can rely upon the auditor's opinion on the fairness of financial statements or other subjects on which the auditor expresses an opinion. The audit must therefore be precise and accurate, containing no additional misstatements or errors.


Integrated audits

In the US, audits of
publicly traded A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public limited company is a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, ...
companies are governed by rules laid down by the
Public Company Accounting Oversight Board The Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) is a nonprofit corporation created by the Sarbanes–Oxley Act Sen. MD)_(left)_and_United_States_House_of_Representatives.html" ;"title="Maryland.html" ;"title="Democratic_Party_(United_St ...
(PCAOB), which was established by Section 404 of the
Sarbanes–Oxley Act The Sarbanes–Oxley Act of 2002 is a United States federal law The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or inter ...
of 2002. Such an audit is called an integrated audit, where auditors, in addition to an opinion on the financial statements, must also express an opinion on the ''effectiveness'' of a company's ''internal control'' over financial reporting, in accordance with PCAOB Auditing Standard No. 5. There are also new types of integrated auditing becoming available that use unified compliance material (see the unified compliance section in
Regulatory compliance In general, compliance means conforming to a rule, such as a specification, policy Policy is a deliberate system of guideline A guideline is a statement by which to determine a course of action. A guideline aims to streamline particular p ...
). Due to the increasing number of regulations and need for operational transparency, organizations are adopting
risk-based audit Risk-based auditing is a style of auditing which focuses upon the analysis and management of risk. In the UK, the 1999 Turnbull Report on corporate governance required directors to provide a statement to shareholders of the significant risks to the ...
s that can cover multiple regulations and standards from a single audit event. This is a very new but necessary approach in some sectors to ensure that all the necessary
governance Governance is all the processes of interactions be they through the laws Law is a system of rules created and law enforcement, enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Crimes against humanity ...

governance
requirements can be met without duplicating effort from both audit and audit hosting resources.


Assessments

The purpose of an assessment is to measure something or calculate a value for it. An auditor's objective is to determine whether financial statements are presented fairly, in all material respects, and are free of material misstatement. Although the process of producing an assessment may involve an audit by an independent professional, its purpose is to provide a measurement rather than to express an opinion about the fairness of statements or quality of performance.


Auditors

Auditors of financial statements & non-financial information (including compliance audit) can be classified into various categories: *
External auditor An external auditor performs an audit An audit is an "independent examination of financial information of any entity, whether profit oriented or not, irrespective of its size or legal form when such an examination is conducted with a view to e ...

External auditor
/
Statutory auditor Statutory auditor is a title used in various countries to refer to a person or entity with an audit An audit is an "independent examination of financial information of any entity, whether profit oriented or not, irrespective of its size or le ...
is an independent firm engaged by the client subject to the audit to express an opinion on whether the company's
financial statements Financial statements (or financial reports) are formal records of the financial activities and position of a business, person, or other entity. Relevant financial information is presented in a structured manner and in a form which is easy to un ...
are free of material misstatements, whether due to fraud or error. For
publicly traded companies A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public limited company A public limited company (legally abbreviated to PLC or plc) is a type of public company under United Kingdom company law, som ...
, external auditors may also be required to express an opinion on the effectiveness of
internal controlsInternal control, as defined by accountancy, accounting and auditing, is a process for assuring of an organization's objectives in operational effectiveness and Operational efficiency, efficiency, reliable financial reporting, and compliance with law ...
over
financial reporting Financial statements (or financial reports) are formal records of the financial activities and position of a business, person, or other entity. Relevant financial information is presented in a structured manner and in a form which is easy to un ...
. External auditors may also be engaged to perform other agreed-upon procedures, related or unrelated to financial statements. Most importantly, external auditors, though engaged and paid by the company being audited, should be regarded as independent and remain third party. * Cost auditor/Statutory cost auditor is an independent firm engaged by the client subject to the cost audit to express an opinion on whether the company's cost statements and cost sheet are free of material misstatements, whether due to fraud or error. For
publicly traded companies A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public limited company A public limited company (legally abbreviated to PLC or plc) is a type of public company under United Kingdom company law, som ...
, external auditors may also be required to express an opinion on the effectiveness of
internal controlsInternal control, as defined by accountancy, accounting and auditing, is a process for assuring of an organization's objectives in operational effectiveness and Operational efficiency, efficiency, reliable financial reporting, and compliance with law ...
over cost reporting. These are Specialized Persons called Cost Accountants in India & CMA globally either Cost & Management Accountants or Certified Management Accountants. *Government Auditors review the finances and practices of federal agencies. These auditors report their finds to congress, which uses them to create and manage policies and budgets. Government auditors work for the U.S. Government Accountability Office, and most state governments have similar departments to audit state and municipal agencies. *Secretarial
auditor An auditor is a person or a firm appointed by a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Legal person, legal or a mixture of both, with ...
/Statutory secretarial auditor is an independent firm engaged by the client subject to the audit of secretarial and applicable laws/compliances of other applicable laws to express an opinion on whether the company's secretarial records and compliance of applicable laws are free of material misstatements, whether due to fraud or error and inviting heavy fines or penalties. For bigger public companies, external secretarial auditors may also be required to express an opinion on the effectiveness of
internal controlsInternal control, as defined by accountancy, accounting and auditing, is a process for assuring of an organization's objectives in operational effectiveness and Operational efficiency, efficiency, reliable financial reporting, and compliance with law ...
over compliances system management of the company. These are Specialized Persons called Company Secretaries in India who are the members of Institute of Company Secretaries of India and holding Certificate of Practice. (http://www.icsi.edu/) *
Internal auditor Internal auditing is an independent, objective assurance and consulting A consultant (from la, consultare "to deliberate") is a professional A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified pr ...
s are employed by the organizations they audit. They work for government agencies (federal, state and local); for publicly traded companies; and for non-profit companies across all industries. The internationally recognized standard setting body for the profession is the Institute of Internal Auditors - IIA (www.theiia.org). The IIA has defined internal auditing as follows: "Internal auditing is an independent, objective assurance and consulting activity designed to add value and improve an organization's operations. It helps an organization accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance processes". Thus professional internal auditors provide independent and objective audit and consulting services focused on evaluating whether the board of directors, shareholders, stakeholders, and corporate executives have reasonable assurance that the organization's governance, risk management, and control processes are designed adequately and function effectively. Internal audit professionals ( Certified Internal Auditors - CIAs) are governed by the international professional standards and code of conduct of the Institute of Internal Auditors. While internal auditors are not independent of the companies that employ them, independence and objectivity are a cornerstone of the IIA professional standards; and are discussed at length in the standards and the supporting practice guides and practice advisories. Professional internal auditors are mandated by the IIA standards to be independent of the business activities they audit. This independence and objectivity are achieved through the organizational placement and reporting lines of the internal audit department. Internal auditors of publicly traded companies in the United States are required to report functionally to the board of directors directly, or a sub-committee of the board of directors (typically the audit committee), and not to management except for administrative purposes. As described often in the professional literature for the practice of internal auditing (such as Internal Auditor, the journal of the IIA) -, or other similar and generally recognized frameworks for management control when evaluating an entity's governance and control practices; and apply COSO's "Enterprise Risk Management-Integrated Framework" or other similar and generally recognized frameworks for entity-wide risk management when evaluating an organization's entity-wide risk management practices. Professional internal auditors also use
control self-assessment Control self-assessment is a technique developed in 1987 that is used by a range of organisations including corporations, charities and government departments, to assess the effectiveness of their risk management and control processes. A "control ...
(CSA) as an effective process for performing their work. *Consultant auditors are external personnel contracted by the firm to perform an audit following the firm's
auditing standards An audit is an "independent examination of financial information of any entity, whether profit oriented or not, irrespective of its size or legal form when such an examination is conducted with a view to express an opinion thereon.” Auditing ...
. This differs from the
external auditor An external auditor performs an audit An audit is an "independent examination of financial information of any entity, whether profit oriented or not, irrespective of its size or legal form when such an examination is conducted with a view to e ...

external auditor
, who follows their own auditing standards. The level of independence is therefore somewhere between the internal auditor and the external auditor. The consultant auditor may work independently, or as part of the audit team that includes internal auditors. Consultant auditors are used when the firm lacks sufficient expertise to audit certain areas, or simply for staff augmentation when staff are not available. The most commonly used external audit standards are the US
GAAS Gallium Gallium is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Ga and atomic number 31. Discovered by France, French chemist Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1875, Gallium is in boron group, group 13 of the periodic ta ...
of the
American Institute of Certified Public Accountants The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) is the national professional organization of Certified Public Accountants (CPAs) in the United States, with more than 418,000 members in 143 countries in business and industry, publi ...
and the
International Standards on Auditing International Standards on Auditing (ISA) are professional standards for the financial audit, auditing of financial information. These standards are issued by the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) through the International Auditing and ...
(ISA) developed by the International Auditing and Assurance Standard.


Performance audits

Performance auditPerformance audit refers to an independent examination of a program, function, operation or the management systems and procedures of a governmental or non-profit entity to assess whether the entity is achieving economy, efficiency and effectiveness i ...
refers to an independent examination of a program, function, operation or the management systems and procedures of a governmental or non-profit entity to assess whether the entity is achieving economy, efficiency and effectiveness in the employment of available resources. Safety, security, information systems performance, and environmental concerns are increasingly the subject of audits. There are now audit professionals who specialize in
security audit An information security audit is an audit An audit is an "independent examination of financial information of any entity, whether profit oriented or not, irrespective of its size or legal form when such an examination is conducted with a view ...
s and information systems audits. With nonprofit organizations and
government agencies A government or state agency, sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of government The machinery of government (sometimes abbreviated as MoG) is the interconnected structures and proce ...
, there has been an increasing need for performance audits, examining their success in satisfying mission objectives.


Quality audits

Quality audits are performed to verify conformance to standards through review of objective evidence. A system of quality audits may verify the effectiveness of a quality management system. This is part of certifications such as
ISO 9001 The ISO 9000 family of quality management systems A quality management system (QMS) is a collection of business process A business process, business method or business function is a collection of related, structured activities or tasks by ...

ISO 9001
. Quality audits are essential to verify the existence of objective evidence showing conformance to required processes, to assess how successfully processes have been implemented, and to judge the effectiveness of achieving any defined target levels. Quality audits are also necessary to provide evidence concerning reduction and elimination of problem areas, and they are a hands-on management tool for achieving continual improvement in an organization. To benefit the organization, quality auditing should not only report non-conformance and corrective actions but also highlight areas of good practice and provide evidence of conformance. In this way, other departments may share information and amend their working practices as a result, also enhancing continual improvement.


Project audit

A project audit provides an opportunity to uncover issues, concerns and challenges encountered during the project lifecycle. Conducted midway through the project, an audit affords the project manager, project sponsor and project team an interim view of what has gone well, as well as what needs to be improved to successfully complete the project. If done at the close of a project, the audit can be used to develop success criteria for future projects by providing a forensic review. This review identifies which elements of the project were successfully managed and which ones presented challenges. As a result, the review will help the organization identify what it needs to do to avoid repeating the same mistakes on future projects Projects can undergo 2 types of Project audits:Different Types of Audits (June 2013
Auditronix Guidance Note
* Regular Health Check Audits: The aim of a regular health check audit is to understand the current state of a project in order to increase project success. * Regulatory Audits: The aim of a regulatory audit is to verify that a project is compliant with regulations and standards. Best practices of NEMEA Compliance Centre describe that, the regulatory audit must be accurate, objective, and independent while providing oversight and assurance to the organization. Other forms of Project audits: Formal: Applies when the project is in trouble, sponsor agrees that the audit is needed, sensitivities are high, and need to be able prove conclusions via sustainable evidence. Informal: Apply when a new project manager is provided, there is no indication the projects in trouble and there is a need to report whether the project is as opposed to where its supposed to Informal audits can apply the same criteria as formal audit but there is no need for such a in depth report or formal report.


Energy audits

An energy audit is an inspection, survey and analysis of energy flows for
energy conservation Energy conservation is the effort made to reduce the energy consumption, consumption of energy by using less of an energy service. This can be achieved either by efficient energy use, using energy more efficiently (using less energy for a constan ...
in a building, process or system to reduce the amount of energy input into the system without negatively affecting the output(s).


Operations audit

An operations audit is an examination of the operations of the client's business. In this audit the auditor thoroughly examines the efficiency, effectiveness and economy of the operations with which the management of the entity (client) is achieving its objective. The operational audit goes beyond the internal controls issues since management does not achieve its objectives merely by compliance of satisfactory system of internal controls. Operational audits cover any matters which may be commercially unsound. The objective of operational audit is to examine Three E's, namely: Effectiveness – doing the right things with least wastage of resources. Efficiency – performing work in least possible time. Economy – balance between benefits and costs to run the operations A
control self-assessment Control self-assessment is a technique developed in 1987 that is used by a range of organisations including corporations, charities and government departments, to assess the effectiveness of their risk management and control processes. A "control ...
is a commonly used tool for completing an operations audit.


Forensic audits

Also refer to forensic accountancy,
forensic accountant Forensic accountants are experienced auditors, accountants, and Detective, investigators of legal document, legal and financial documents that are hired to look into possible suspicions of fraudulent activity within a company; or are hired by a comp ...
or
forensic accounting Forensic accounting, forensic accountancy or financial forensics is the specialty practice area of accounting that investigates whether firms engage in Accounting scandals, financial reporting misconduct. Forensic accountants apply a range of ...
. It refers to an investigative audit in which accountants with specialized on both accounting and investigation seek to uncover frauds, missing money and negligence.


See also

* Logistics Audit *
Academic audit In academia An academy (Attic Greek Attic Greek is the Greek language, Greek dialect of the regions of ancient Greece, ancient region of Attica, including the ''polis'' of classical Athens, Athens. Often called classical Greek, it was the pre ...
*
Accounting Accounting or Accountancy is the measurement ' Measurement is the number, numerical quantification (science), quantification of the variable and attribute (research), attributes of an object or event, which can be used to compare with other ob ...
* Audit plan *
Big Four accounting firms The Big Four is the nickname used to refer collectively to the four largest professional services network A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns a living from a specified professional activity. The term also describe ...
* Clinical audit *
Comptroller A comptroller is a management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English; American and British English spelling diff ...
,
Comptroller General A comptroller is a management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit, non-profit organization, or a government body. It is the art and science of managing resources. Mana ...
, and
Comptroller General of the United States The Comptroller General of the United States is the director of the Government Accountability Office The U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) is a government agency that provides ing, , and investigative services for the . It is the ...
* Continuous auditing *
Cost auditing A cost audit An audit is an "independent examination of financial information of any entity, whether profit oriented or not, irrespective of its size or legal form when such an examination is conducted with a view to express an opinion thereon ...
* COSO framework,
Risk management Risk management is the identification, evaluation, and prioritization of risk In simple terms, risk is the possibility of something bad happening. Risk involves uncertainty Uncertainty refers to Epistemology, epistemic situations involving ...

Risk management
*
EarthCheck EarthCheck (previously known as EC3 Global), an international tourism advisory group. It is headquartered in Brisbane, Queensland and was developed by the Sustainable Tourism CRC, a research centre specialising in sustainable tourism and research. ...
*
Financial audit A 'financial audit' is conducted to provide an opinion whether "financial statements Financial statements (or financial reports) are formal records of the financial activities and position of a business, person, or other entity. Relevant fin ...
,
External auditor An external auditor performs an audit An audit is an "independent examination of financial information of any entity, whether profit oriented or not, irrespective of its size or legal form when such an examination is conducted with a view to e ...

External auditor
,
Certified Public Accountant Certified Public Accountant (CPA) is the title of qualified accountants in numerous countries in the English-speaking world. It is generally equivalent to the title of chartered accountant Chartered accountants were the first accountant ...
(CPA), and Audit risk *
Information technology auditAn information technology audit, or information systems audit, is an examination of the management controls within an Information technology (IT) infrastructure Infrastructure is the set of fundamental facilities and systems that support the sustai ...
, History of information technology auditing, and Information security audit *
Internal audit Internal auditing is an independent, objective assurance and consulting A consultant (from la, consultare "to deliberate") is a professional A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified pr ...
*
International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions The International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions (INTOSAI) is an intergovernmental organization whose members are supreme audit institution, supreme audit institutions. Nearly every supreme audit institution in the world is a member ...
(INTOSAI) * Lead auditor, under the Chief audit executive or Director of audit * Mainframe audit * Management auditing *
Operational auditing Operational audit is a systematic review of effectiveness, efficiency and economy of operation. Operational audit is a future-oriented, systematic, and independent evaluation of organizational activities. In Operational audit financial data may b ...
*
Peer review Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field Field may r ...
*
Quality audit Quality may refer to: Concepts *Quality (business) In business, engineering, and manufacturing, quality – or high quality – has a pragmatic interpretation as the non-inferiority or wikt:superiority, superiority of something; it's also defin ...
* Risk-based internal audit * Technical audit * SOFT audit


References

https://www.hallmarkauditors.com https://www.hallmarkauditors.com/about-us/ https://www.hallmarkauditors.com/services/audit-and-assurance/external-auditing/ https://www.hallmarkauditors.com/services/accounting-firms-in-dubai/accounting-services-in-dubai/ https://www.hallmarkauditors.com/services/accounting-firms-in-dubai/accounting-outsourcing-in-dubai/ https://www.hallmarkauditors.com/services/tax-vat-services-in-uae/ https://www.hallmarkauditors.com/services/audit-and-assurance/internal-auditing-in-dubai/ https://www.hallmarkauditors.com/services/accounting-firms-in-dubai/cfo-services-in-dubai/ https://www.hallmarkauditors.com/services/business-incorporation/company-formation-in-dubai/ https://www.hallmarkauditors.com/services/business-incorporation/company-liquidation-in-dubai/ https://www.hallmarkauditors.com/services/uae-economic-substance-regulations/ https://www.hallmarkauditors.com/auditing-firms-in-dubai/


Further reading

* Amat, O. (2008)
Earnings management and audit adjustments: An empirical study of IBEX 35 constituents
''Available at SSRN 1374232''. {{Authority control