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Various measures of
paper Paper is a thin sheet material produced by mechanically or chemically processing cellulose fibres derived from wood, Textile, rags, poaceae, grasses or other vegetable sources in water, draining the water through fine mesh leaving the fibre ev ...

paper
quantity have been and are in use. Although there are no S.I. units such as quires and bales, there are
ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), such as Codex Alimentarius in food, the World Health Or ...
''ISO 4046-3:2002 Paper, board, pulps and related terms – Vocabulary – Part 3: Paper-making terminology'' (2002), quoted in ''ISO 22414:2004(E) Paper – Cut-size office paper – Measurement of edge quality'' (2004) Geneva:ISO. and DIN''Papier und Pappe: DIN 6730:2011-02: Begriffe'' (''Paper and board: vocabulary'') (2011) (in German). Berlin: Beuth Verlag. standards for the ream. Expressions used here include U.S. Customary Units.


Units

; Writing paper measurements : 25 sheets = 1 quire : 500 sheets = 20 quires = 1 ream : 1,000 sheets = 40 quires = 2 reams = 1 bundle : 5,000 sheets = 200 quires = 10 reams = 5 bundles = 1 bale ; 'Short' paper measurements : 24 sheets = 1 'short' quire : 480 sheets = 20 'short' quires = 1 'short' ream : 960 sheets = 40 'short' quires = 2 'short' reams = 1 'short' bundle : 4,800 sheets = 200 'short' quires = 10 'short' reams = 5 'short' bundles = 1 'short' bale ; Posters and printing measurements : 516 sheets (= 21½ 'short' quires) = 1 printer's ream : 1,032 sheets = 2 printer's reams = 1 printer's bundle : 5,160 sheets = 5 printer's bundles = 1 printer's bale ; Cover and index paper : 250 sheets = 1 ream


Quire

A quire of paper is a measure of paper quantity. The usual meaning is 25 sheets of the same size and quality: of a ream of 500 sheets. Quires of 25 sheets are often used for machine-made paper, while quires of 24 sheets are often used for handmade or specialised paper of 480-sheet reams. (As an old UK and US measure, in some sources, a quire was originally 24 sheets.) Quires of 15, 18 or 20 sheets have also been used, depending on the type of paper.


Nomenclature

The current word ''quire'' derives from
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventu ...
or , from
Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the Latin spok ...
, , (cf. modern
French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consistin ...

French
), from
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the ...

Latin
, 'by fours', 'fourfold'. Later, when bookmaking switched to using paper and it became possible to easily stitch 5 to 7 sheets at a time, the association of with ''four'' was quickly lost.


History

In the Middle Ages, a quire (also called a " gathering") was most often formed of four folded sheets of
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vellum
or
parchment Parchment is a writing material made from specially prepared Tanning (leather), untanned skins of animals—primarily sheep, calves, and goats. It has been used as a writing medium for over two millennia. Vellum is a finer quality parchment made ...

parchment
, i.e. eight leaves, 16 sides. The term ''quaternion'' (or sometimes ) designates such a quire. A quire made of a single folded sheet (i.e. two leaves, four sides) is a bifolium (plural ''bifolia''); a binion is a quire of two sheets (i.e. four leaves, eight sides); and a quinion is five sheets (ten leaves, 20 sides). This last meaning is preserved in the modern Italian term for quire, . Formerly, when paper was packed at the
paper mill . When built, this was the world's largest mill. of paper mill in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. Pulp and paper manufacture involves a great deal of humidity, which presents a preventive maintenance and corrosion challenge. A paper mill is a factory d ...
, the top and bottom quires were made up of slightly damaged sheets ("outsides") to protect the good quires ("insides"). These outside quires were known as cassie quires (from French , 'broken'), or "cording quires" and had only 20 sheets to the quire. The printer
William Caslon William Caslon I (1692/1693 – 23 January 1766), also known as William Caslon the Elder, was an England, English Type foundry, typefounder. The distinction and legibility of his type secured him the patronage of the leading printers of the d ...
in a book published in 1770 mentions both 24- and 25-sheet quires; he also details printer's wastage, and the sorting and recycling of damaged ''cassie'' quires. An 1826 French manual on typography complained that cording quires (usually containing some salvageable paper) from the Netherlands barely contained a single good sheet.A note on the flyleaf of this copy states that this edition was pirated from Didot's 1st ed. of 1825; see pp. 235–236, especially in respect of the examples of proof-reader's corrections on pp. 162–163 It also became the name for any booklet small enough to be made from a single quire of paper.
Simon Winchester Simon Winchester, (born 28 September 1944) is a British-American author and journalist. In his career at ''The Guardian'' newspaper, Winchester covered numerous significant events, including Bloody Sunday (1972), Bloody Sunday and the Watergate S ...
, in ''
The Surgeon of Crowthorne ''The Surgeon of Crowthorne: A Tale of Murder, Madness and the Love of Words'' is a non-fiction history book by British writer Simon Winchester Simon Winchester, (born 28 September 1944) is a British-American author and journalist. In his care ...
'', cites a specific number, defining quire as "a booklet eight pages thick." Several European words for quire keep the meaning of "book of paper":
Geman
Geman
,
Danish Danish may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Denmark * A national or citizen of Denmark, also called a "Dane", see Demographics of Denmark * Danish people or Danes, people with a Danish ancestral or ethnic identity * Danis ...
,
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
. In blankbook binding, ''quire'' is a term indicating 80 pages.


Ream

A ream of paper is a quantity of sheets of the same
size File:Comparison of planets and stars (sheet by sheet) (Oct 2014 update).png, A size comparison illustration comparing the sizes of various planets and stars. In each grouping after the first, the last object from the previous group is presented a ...
and quality.
International standards are technical standards developed by international organization ''International Organization'' is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the entire field of international relations, international affairs. It was established in 194 ...
organizations define the ream as 500 identical sheets.ISO 4046 (see References) defines the ream as "a pack of 500 identical sheets of paper" and appends a note: "In many countries it is common practice to use the term "ream" for other quantities, for example 480 sheets, thus affecting the quire. For quantities other than 500 sheets, a different term, such as "pack", should be used." This ream of 500 sheets (20 quires of 25 sheets) is also known as a 'long' ream, and is gradually replacing the old value of 480 sheets, now known as a 'short' ream. Reams of 472 and 516 sheets are still current, but in
retail Retail is the sale of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (e ...

retail
outlets paper is typically sold in reams of 500. As an old UK and US unit, a perfect ream was equal to 516 sheets. Certain types of specialist papers such as tissue paper, greaseproof paper, handmade paper, and blotting paper are still sold (especially in the UK) in 'short' reams of 480 sheets (20 quires of 24 sheets). However, the commercial use of the word 'ream' for quantities of paper other than 500 is now deprecated by such standards as ISO 4046. In Europe, the DIN 6730 standard for Paper and Board includes a definition of 1 ream of A4 80
gsm GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a European standard for mobile devices. GSM may also refer to: Education * GSM London, a higher education provider * Guildhall School of Music and Drama The Guildhall School of Music and Drama i ...
(80 g/m2) paper equals 500 sheets.


Nomenclature

The word 'ream' derives from
Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the Latin spok ...
, from
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_an ...

Spanish
, from
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...
'bundle' (of paper), from , 'collect into a bundle'. (The Moors brought manufacture of cotton paper to Spain.) The early variant ''rym'' (late 15c.) suggests a Dutch influence. (cf. Dutch ), probably during the time of .


History

The number of sheets in a ream has varied locally over the centuries, often according to the size and type of paper being sold. Reams of 500 sheets (20 quires of 25 sheets) were known in England in c1594; in 1706 a ream was defined as 20 quires, either 24 or 25 sheets to the quire. In 18th- and 19th-century Europe, the size of the ream varied widely. In
Lombardy (man), (woman) lmo, lombard, links=no (man), (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = ...
a ream of music paper was 450 or 480 sheets; in Britain, Holland and Germany a ream of 480 sheets was common; in the
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Veneto
it was more frequently 500. Some paper manufacturers counted 546 sheets (21 quires of 26 sheets). 's manuscript paper at
Weimar Weimar (; la, Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany. It is located in Central Germany between Erfurt in the west and Jena in the east, approximately southwest of Leipzig, north of Nuremberg and west of ...

Weimar
was ordered by the ream of 480 sheets. In 1840, a ream in
Lisbon Lisbon (; pt, Lisboa ) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 544,851 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. Grande Lisboa, Lisbon's urban area extends beyond the city's admini ...

Lisbon
was 17 quires and three sheets = 428 sheets, and a double ream was 18 quires and two sheets = 434 sheets; and in
Bremen Bremen (, also ; Low German also: ''Breem'' or ''Bräm''), officially the City Municipality of Bremen (german: Stadtgemeinde Bremen, ), is the capital of the Germany, German States of Germany, state Bremen (state), Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (' ...
, blotting or packing paper was sold in reams of 300 (20 quires of 15 sheets). A mid-19th century
Milanese Milanese (endonym in traditional orthography ''Milanes'', ''Meneghin'') is the central variety of the Western dialect of the Lombard language spoken in Milan, the rest of its Metropolitan City of Milan, metropolitan city, and the northernmost p ...
-Italian dictionary has an example for a (ream) as being either 450 or 480 sheets. In the UK in 1914, paper was sold using the following reams: *472 sheets – mill ream (18 short quires of 24 sheets of 'insides', two cording quires of 20 sheets of 'outsides') *480 sheets – (20 short quires of 24 sheets) – now called 'short' ream (as an old UK and US measure, in some sources, a ream was previously equal to 480 sheets.) *500 sheets – (20 quires of 25 sheets) – now also called 'long' ream *504 sheets – stationer's ream (21 short quires) *516 sheets – printer's ream (21½ short quires) – also called 'perfect ream' Reams of 500 sheets were mostly used only for newsprint. Since the late 20th century, the 500-sheet ream has become the
de facto ''De facto'' ( ; , "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even though they are not officially recognized by laws. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with '' de jure'' ("by law"), which refers to th ...
international standard.


Bundle

A paper bundle is a quantity of sheets of paper, currently standardized as 1,000 sheets. A bundle consists of two reams or 40 quires. As an old UK and US measure, it was previously equal to 960 sheets. When referring to
chipboard Chipboard may refer to: * A type of paperboard, made from reclaimed paper stock * White lined chipboard, a grade of paperboard * Particle board, a type of engineered wood known as chipboard in some countries {{disambiguation ...
, there are two standards in the US. In general, a package of approximately 50 pounds of chipboard is called a bundle. Thus, a bundle of 22 point chipboard (0.022" thick) 24" × 38", with each sheet weighing 0.556 pounds, contains 90 sheets. However, chipboard sold in size 11" × 17" and smaller is packaged and sold as bundles of 25 pounds.


Bale

A paper bale is a quantity of sheets of paper, currently standardized as 5,000 sheets. A bale consists of five bundles, ten reams or 200 quires. As an old UK and US measure, it was previously equal to 4800 sheets.


See also

*
History of paper Paper Paper is a thin sheet material produced by mechanically and/or chemically processing cellulose fibres derived from wood, Textile, rags, poaceae, grasses or other vegetable sources in water, draining the water through fine mesh leaving ...
*
History of printing The history of printing starts as early as 3500 BCE, when the proto-Elamite and Sumerian civilizations used cylinder seals to certify documents written in clay. Other early forms include block seals, hammered coinage, pottery imprints, and cloth p ...
*
Paper density Paper density is a paper Paper is a thin sheet material produced by mechanically and/or chemically processing cellulose fibres derived from wood, Textile, rags, poaceae, grasses or other vegetable sources in water, draining the water through f ...
*
Paper size Paper size standards Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrology), an object that bears a define ...
*
Book size 365px, Comparison of some book sizes based on American Library Association. The size of a book is generally measured by the height against the width of a leaf, or sometimes the height and width of its cover. A series of terms is commonly used by lib ...
*
Octavo Octavo, a Latin word meaning "in eighth" or "for the eighth time", (abbreviated 8vo, 8º, or In-8) is a technical term describing the format of a book, which refers to the size of leaves produced from folding a full sheet of paper on which multipl ...


Notes


References


External links


ream (rm)
a



a
The Online Quantinary
(yet see als

at the same site for historical evidence of 500-sheet reams as early as 1590.)

on Paper Dictionary {{DEFAULTSORT:Units Of Paper Quantity Units of amount Paper fr:Rame