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Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for profit. While organized crime is generally thought of as a form of illegal business, some criminal organizations, such as
terrorist group A number of national governments and two international organisations have created lists of organisations that they designate as terrorist. The following list of designated terrorist groups lists groups designated as terrorist by current and for ...
s, rebel forces, and
separatist Separatism is the advocacy of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group. As with secession, separatism conventionally refers to full political separation. Groups simply seeking greater ...
s, are politically motivated. Sometimes criminal organizations force people to do business with them, such as when a gang extorts money from shopkeepers for "
protection Protection is any measure taken to guard a thing against damage caused by outside forces. Protection can be provided to physical objects, including organisms, to systems, and to intangible things like civil and political rights. Although th ...
".
Street gangs A gang is a group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, label. The original examples are the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and so forth. Numbers can be repre ...
may often be deemed organized crime groups or, under stricter definitions of organized crime, may become disciplined enough to be considered ''organized''. A criminal organization can also be referred to as a gang, mafia, mob, ring, or syndicate; the network, subculture, and community of criminals involved in organized crime may be referred to as the underworld. Sociologists sometimes specifically define a "mafia" as a type of organized crime group that specializes in the supply of extra-legal protection and quasi-law enforcement. Academic studies of the original "Mafia", the
Sicilian Mafia The Sicilian Mafia, also simply known as the Mafia and frequently referred to as La Cosa Nostra (, ; "our thing") by its members, is an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, ...
, which predates the other groups, generated an economic study of organized crime groups and exerted great influence on studies of the
Russian mafia Russian organized crime or Russian mafia (, ), otherwise known as Bratva (), is a collective A collective is a group of entities that share or are motivated by at least one common issue or interest, or work together to achieve a common obj ...
, the Chinese Triads, the Hong Kong Triads, and the Japanese
Yakuza , also known as , are members of transnational organized crime syndicates originating in Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an in . It is situated in the northwest , and is bordered on the west by the , while extend ...
. Other organizations — including states, churches, militaries, police forces, and corporations — may sometimes use organized-crime methods to conduct their activities, but their powers derive from their status as formal social institutions. There is a tendency to distinguish “traditional” organized crime (which is often
gang A gang is a group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, label. The original examples are the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and so forth. Numbers can be repre ...

gang
-like and more working-class in nature, frequently involves secret subcultures, and is often formed around shared ethnic, regional, territorial, or cultural identities) from certain other forms of crime that also usually involve organized or group criminal acts, such as
white-collar crime The term "white-collar crime" refers to financially motivated, nonviolent or non directly violent crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Litera ...
,
financial crimes Financial crime is crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition,Farmer, Lindsay: " ...
,
political crime In criminology Criminology (from Latin , "accusation", and Ancient Greek , ''-logia'', from λόγος ''logos'' meaning: "word, reason") is the study of crime and Deviance (sociology), deviant behaviour. Criminology is an interdisciplin ...
s,
war crimes A war crime is a violation of the laws of war The law of war is the component of international law that regulates the conditions for initiating war (''jus ad bellum'') and the conduct of warring parties (''jus in bello''). Laws of war d ...
, state crimes, and
treason Treason is the crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition,Farmer, Lindsay: "Cr ...
. This distinction is not always apparent and academics continue to debate the matter. For example, in
failed state A failed state is a political body that has disintegrated to a point where basic conditions and responsibilities of a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old ...
s that can no longer perform basic functions such as education, security, or governance (usually due to fractious violence or to extreme poverty), organized crime, governance, and war sometimes complement each other. The term "
oligarchy Oligarchy (; ) is a form of power structure A power structure is an overall system of influence between any individual and every other individual within any selected group of people. A description of a power structure would capture the way in ...
" has been used to describe democratic countries whose political, social, and economic institutions come under the control of a few families and
business oligarch A business oligarch is generally a business magnate A business magnate is someone who has achieved great success and enormous wealth through the ownership of multiple lines of enterprise. The term characteristically refers to a wealthy entrepre ...
s that may be deemed or may devolve into organized crime groups in practice. By their very nature,
kleptocracies Kleptocracy (from Ancient Greek, Greek κλέπτης ''kléptēs'', "thief", κλέπτω ''kléptō'', "I steal", and -κρατία -''kratía'' from κράτος ''krátos'', "power, rule") is a government whose Corruption, corrupt leaders ...
,
mafia state :''This article refers to a systematic corruption of a government by major organized crime syndicates. For the greater connotation that literally means "rule by thieves", see Kleptocracy.'' In politics, a mafia state is a Sovereign state, state sys ...
s,
narco-state Narco-state (also narco-capitalism or narco-economy) is a political and economic term applied to countries where all legitimate institutions become penetrated by the power and wealth of the illegal drug trade. The term was first used to describe ...
s or narcokleptocracies, and states with high levels of
clientelism Clientelism or client politics is the exchange of goods and services for political support, often involving an implicit or explicit quid-pro-quo. Clientelism involves an asymmetric relationship between groups of political actors described as ''pat ...
and
political corruption Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain. Forms of corruption vary, but can include bribery, lobbying, extortion, cronyism, nepotism, parochialism, patronage, infl ...
are either heavily involved with organized crime or tend to foster organized crime within their own governments. In the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, the
Organized Crime Control Act The Organized Crime Control Act of 1970 (, October 15, 1970), was an Act of Congress An Act of Congress is a statute A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislature, legislative authority that governs the legal entities of a city, S ...
(1970) defines organized crime as " e unlawful activities of ..a highly organized, disciplined association ... Criminal activity as a structured process is referred to as
racketeering Racketeering is a type of organized crime Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for profit. While organized ...
. In the UK, police estimate that organized crime involves up to 38,000 people operating in 6,000 various groups. Historically, the largest organized crime force in the United States has been La Cosa Nostra (
Italian-American Mafia The American Mafia, commonly referred to in North America as the Italian-American Mafia, the Mafia, or the Mob, is a highly organized Italian-American Italian Americans ( it, italoamericani or ''italo-americani'', ) are citizens of the United ...
), but other transnational criminal organizations have also risen in prominence in recent decades. A 2012 article in a U.S. Department of Justice journal stated that: "Since the end of the Cold War, organized crime groups from Russia, China, Italy, Nigeria, and Japan have increased their international presence and worldwide networks or have become involved in more transnational criminal activities. Most of the world's major international organized crime groups are present in the United States." The US
Drug Enforcement Administration The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA; ) is a Federal law enforcement in the United States, United States federal law enforcement agency under the U.S. Department of Justice tasked with combating drug trafficking and distribution within th ...

Drug Enforcement Administration
's 2017 ''National Drug Threat Assessment'' classified Mexican transnational criminal organizations (TCOs) as the "greatest criminal drug threat to the United States," citing their dominance "over large regions in Mexico used for the cultivation, production, importation, and transportation of illicit drugs" and identifying the
Sinaloa Sinaloa (), officially the Estado Libre y Soberano de Sinaloa ( en, Free and Sovereign State of Sinaloa), is one of the 31 states which, along with , comprise the of . It is divided into and its capital city is . It is located in Northwestern ...
, Jalisco New Generation, Juárez,
Gulf A gulf is a large inlet from the ocean into the landmass, typically with a narrower opening than a bay (geography), bay, but that is not observable in all geographic areas so named. The term gulf was traditionally used for large highly-indented ...
,
Los Zetas Los Zetas (, Spanish for "The Zs") is a Mexican criminal syndicate Financial crime is crime committed against property, involving the unlawful conversion (law), conversion of the ownership of property (belonging to one person) to one's own perso ...
, and Beltrán-Leyva cartels as the six Mexican TCO with the greatest influence in
drug trafficking A drug is any chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched ...
to the United States. The United Nations
Sustainable Development Goal 16 Sustainable Development Goal 16 (SDG 16 or Global Goal 16) is about "peace, justice and strong institutions." One of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) or Global Goals are a collection of 17 inter ...

Sustainable Development Goal 16
has a target to combat all forms of organised crime as part of the
2030 Agenda The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) or Global Goals are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a "blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing w ...

2030 Agenda
. In some countries,
football hooligans Football hooliganism or soccer hooliganism constitutes barbaric behaviour perpetrated by spectators at association football events. Football hooliganism normally involves conflict between gangs, in English known as football List of hooligan firm ...
can be considered a criminal organization if it engages in illicit and violent activities.


Models of organized crime

Various models have been proposed to describe the structure of criminal organizations.


Organizational


Patron-client networks

Patron-client networks are defined by fluid interactions. They produce crime groups that operate as smaller units within the overall network, and as such tend towards valuing significant others, familiarity of social and economic environments, or tradition. These networks are usually composed of: * Hierarchies based on 'naturally' forming family, social and cultural traditions; * 'Tight-knit' focus of activity/
labor Labour or labor may refer to: * Childbirth, the delivery of a baby * Labour (human activity), or work ** Manual labour, physical work ** Wage labour, a socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer Literature * Labor (journal), ''L ...

labor
; * Fraternal or nepotistic value systems; * Personalized activity; including family rivalries, territorial disputes, recruitment and training of family members, etc.; * Entrenched belief systems, reliance of tradition (including religion, family values, cultural expectations, class politics, gender roles, etc.); and, * Communication and rule enforcement mechanisms dependent on organizational structure, social etiquette, history of criminal involvement, and collective decision-making.


Bureaucratic/corporate operations

Bureaucratic/corporate organized crime groups are defined by the general rigidity of their internal structures. They focus more on how the operations works, succeeds, sustains itself or avoids retribution, they are generally typified by: * A complex authority structure; * An extensive division of labor between classes within the organization; * Meritocratic (as opposed to cultural or social attributes); * Responsibilities carried out in an impersonal manner; * Extensive written rules/regulations (as opposed to cultural praxis dictating action); and, * 'Top-down' communication and rule enforcement mechanisms. However, this model of operation has some flaws: * The 'top-down' communication strategy is susceptible to interception, more so further down the hierarchy being communicated to; * Maintaining written records jeopardizes the security of the organization and relies on increased security measures; * Infiltration at lower levels in the hierarchy can jeopardize the entire organization (a '
house of cards A house of cards (also known as a card tower, card castle) is a structure created by stacking playing cards on top of each other, often in the shape of a pyramid. "House of cards" is also an Expression (language), expression that dates back to 16 ...

house of cards
' effect); and, * Death, injury, incarceration or internal power struggles dramatically heighten the insecurity of operations. While bureaucratic operations emphasize business processes and strongly authoritarian hierarchies, these are based on enforcing power relationships rather than an overlying aim of protectionism, sustainability or growth.


Youth and street gangs

An estimate on youth street gangs nationwide provided by Hannigan, et al., marked an increase of 35% between 2002 and 2010. A distinctive gang culture underpins many, but not all, organized groups; this may develop through recruiting strategies, social learning processes in the corrective system experienced by youth, family or peer involvement in crime, and the coercive actions of criminal authority figures. The term “street gang” is commonly used interchangeably with “youth gang,” referring to neighborhood or street-based youth groups that meet “gang” criteria. Miller (1992) defines a street gang as “a self-formed association of peers, united by mutual interests, with identifiable leadership and internal organization, who act collectively or as individuals to achieve specific purposes, including the conduct of illegal activity and control of a particular territory, facility, or enterprise." Some reasons youth join gangs include to feel accepted, attain status, and increase their self-esteem. A sense of unity brings together many of the youth gangs that lack the family aspect at home. "Zones of transition" are deteriorating neighborhoods with shifting populations. In such areas, conflict between groups, fighting, "turf wars", and theft promote solidarity and cohesion. Cohen (1955): working class teenagers joined gangs due to frustration of inability to achieve status and goals of the middle class; Cloward and Ohlin (1960): blocked opportunity, but unequal distribution of opportunities lead to creating different types of gangs (that is, some focused on robbery and property theft, some on fighting and conflict and some were retreatists focusing on drug taking); Spergel (1966) was one of the first criminologists to focus on ''evidence-based practice'' rather than intuition into gang life and culture. Participation in gang-related events during adolescence perpetuate a pattern of maltreatment on their own children years later. Klein (1971) like Spergel studied the effects on members of social workers’ interventions. More interventions actually lead to greater gang participation and solidarity and bonds between members. Downes and Rock (1988) on Parker's analysis: strain theory applies, labeling theory (from experience with police and courts), control theory (involvement in trouble from early childhood and the eventual decision that the costs outweigh the benefits) and conflict theories. No ethnic group is more disposed to gang involvement than another, rather it is the status of being marginalized, alienated or rejected that makes some groups more vulnerable to gang formation, and this would also be accounted for in the effect of social exclusion, especially in terms of recruitment and retention. These may also be defined by age (typically youth) or peer group influences, and the permanence or consistency of their criminal activity. These groups also form their own symbolic identity or public representation which are recognizable by the community at large (include colors, symbols, patches, flags and tattoos). Research has focused on whether the gangs have formal structures, clear hierarchies and leadership in comparison with adult groups, and whether they are rational in pursuit of their goals, though positions on structures, hierarchies and defined roles are conflicting. Some studied street gangs involved in drug dealing - finding that their structure and behavior had a degree of organizational rationality. Members saw themselves as organized criminals; gangs were formal-rational organizations, Strong organizational structures, well defined roles and rules that guided members’ behavior. Also a specified and regular means of income (i.e., drugs). Padilla (1992) agreed with the two above. However some have found these to be loose rather than well-defined and lacking persistent focus, there was relatively low cohesion, few shared goals and little organizational structure. Shared norms, value and loyalties were low, structures "chaotic", little role differentiation or clear distribution of labor. Similarly, the use of violence does not conform to the principles behind protection rackets, political intimidation and drug trafficking activities employed by those adult groups. In many cases gang members graduate from youth gangs to highly developed OC groups, with some already in contact with such syndicates and through this we see a greater propensity for imitation. Gangs and traditional criminal organizations cannot be universally linked (Decker, 1998), however there are clear benefits to both the adult and youth organization through their association. In terms of structure, no single crime group is archetypal, though in most cases there are well-defined patterns of vertical integration (where criminal groups attempt to control the supply and demand), as is the case in arms, sex and drug trafficking.


Individual difference


Entrepreneurial

The entrepreneurial model looks at either the individual criminal or a smaller group of organized criminals, that capitalize off the more fluid 'group-association' of contemporary organized crime. This model conforms to social learning theory or differential association in that there are clear associations and interaction between criminals where knowledge may be shared, or values enforced, however, it is argued that rational choice is not represented in this. The choice to commit a certain act, or associate with other organized crime groups, may be seen as much more of an entrepreneurial decision - contributing to the continuation of a criminal enterprise, by maximizing those aspects that protect or support their own individual gain. In this context, the role of risk is also easily understandable, however it is debatable whether the underlying motivation should be seen as true entrepreneurship or entrepreneurship as a product of some social disadvantage. The criminal organization, much in the same way as one would assess pleasure and pain, weighs such factors as legal, social and economic risk to determine potential profit and loss from certain criminal activities. This decision-making process rises from the entrepreneurial efforts of the group's members, their motivations and the environments in which they work. Opportunism is also a key factor – the organized criminal or criminal group is likely to frequently reorder the criminal associations they maintain, the types of crimes they perpetrate, and how they function in the public arena (recruitment, reputation, etc.) in order to ensure efficiency, capitalization and protection of their interests.


Multi-model approach

Culture and ethnicity provide an environment where trust and communication between criminals can be efficient and secure. This may ultimately lead to a competitive advantage for some groups; however, it is inaccurate to adopt this as the only determinant of classification in organized crime. This categorization includes the
Sicilian Mafia The Sicilian Mafia, also simply known as the Mafia and frequently referred to as La Cosa Nostra (, ; "our thing") by its members, is an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, ...
, ’Ndrangheta, ethnic Chinese criminal groups, Japanese
Yakuza , also known as , are members of transnational organized crime syndicates originating in Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an in . It is situated in the northwest , and is bordered on the west by the , while extend ...
(or Boryokudan), Colombian drug trafficking groups,
Nigerian organized crime Organized crime in Nigeria includes activities by Confidence trick, fraudsters, bandits in northern Nigeria (such as looting and kidnappings on major highways), Illegal drug trade, drug traffickers and Racket (crime), racketeers, which have spre ...
groups,
Corsican mafia The Corsican mafia is a set of criminal groups originating from Corsica Corsica (, Upper , Southern , ; french: link=no, Corse ; lij, link=no, Còrsega) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the ...
, Korean criminal groups and Jamaican posses. From this perspective, organized crime is not a modern phenomenon - the construction of 17th and 18th century crime gangs fulfill all the present day criteria of criminal organizations (in opposition to the Alien Conspiracy Theory). These roamed the rural borderlands of central Europe embarking on many of the same illegal activities associated with today's crime organizations, with the exception of money laundering. When the French revolution created strong nation states, the criminal gangs moved to other poorly controlled regions like the Balkans and Southern Italy, where the seeds were sown for the Sicilian Mafia - the linchpin of organized crime in the New World.


Computational approach

While most of the conceptual frameworks used to model organised crime emphasize the role of ''actors'' and/or ''activities'', computational approaches built on the foundations of
data science #REDIRECT Data science#REDIRECT Data science Data science is an Interdisciplinarity, interdisciplinary field that uses scientific methods, processes, algorithms and systems to extract knowledge and insights from structured and unstructured data ...

data science
and
Artificial Intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concept Concepts are defined as abstra ...

Artificial Intelligence
are focusing on deriving new insights on organised crime from
big data Big data is a field that treats ways to analyze, systematically extract information from, or otherwise deal with data set A data set (or dataset) is a collection of data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of informati ...

big data
. For example, novel
machine learning Machine learning (ML) is the study of computer algorithms that can improve automatically through experience and by the use of data. It is seen as a part of artificial intelligence. Machine learning algorithms build a model based on sample data ...

machine learning
models have been applied to study and detect urban crime and online prostitution networks. Big Data have also been used to develop online tools predicting the risk for an individual to be a victim of online sex trade or getting drawn into online sex work. In addition, data from Twitter and
Google Trends Google Trends is a website by Google Google LLC is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body fro ...

Google Trends
have been used to study the public perceptions of organised crime.


Typical activities

Organized crime groups provide a range of illegal services and goods. Organized crime often victimizes businesses through the use of extortion or theft and fraud activities like hijacking cargo trucks and ships, robbing goods, committing bankruptcy fraud (also known as "bust-out"), insurance fraud or stock fraud (inside trading). Organized crime groups also victimize individuals by
car theft Motor vehicle theft (also called car theft and, in the United States, grand theft auto) is the criminal act of stealing Theft is the taking of another person's property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abs ...
(either for dismantling at "chop shops" or for export),
art theft Art theft, sometimes called artnapping, is the stealing of paintings Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (called the "matrix" or "support"). The medium is commonly applied to t ...
,
bank robbery Bank robbery is the crime of stealing money from a bank, specifically while bank employees and customers are subjected to force, violence, or a threat of violence. This refers to robbery of a bank Branch (banking), branch or Bank teller, telle ...
, burglary, jewelry and gems theft and heists,
shoplifting Shoplifting is the theft Theft is the taking of another person's property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature o ...
,
computer hacking A computer hacker is a computer expert who uses their technical knowledge to achieve a goal or overcome an obstacle, within a computerized system by non-standard means. Though the term "hacker" has become associated in popular culture with a "s ...
, credit card fraud,
economic espionage Industrial espionage, economic espionage, corporate spying or corporate espionage is a form of espionage Espionage or spying is the act of obtaining Secrecy, secret or Confidentiality, confidential information or divulging of the same withou ...
,
embezzlement Embezzlement is the act of withholding asset In financial accounting Financial accounting is the field of accounting Accounting or Accountancy is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial and non financial informa ...
,
identity theft Identity theft occurs when someone uses another person's personal identifying information, like their name, identifying number, or credit card number, without their permission, to commit fraud or other crimes. The term ''identity theft'' was coi ...

identity theft
, and
securities fraud Securities fraud, also known as stock fraud and investment fraud, is a deceptive practice in the stock or commodity market, commodities markets that induces investors to make purchase or sale decisions on the basis of false information, frequently ...
("
pump and dump "Pump and dump" (P&D) is a form of securities fraud Securities fraud, also known as stock fraud and investment fraud, is a deceptive practice in the stock or commodity market, commodities markets that induces investors to make purchase or sale ...
" scam). Some organized crime groups defraud national, state, or local governments by
bid rigging Bid rigging is a fraudulent scheme in procurement auctions resulting in non-competitive bids and can be performed by corrupt officials, by firms in an orchestrated act of collusion Collusion is a deceitful agreement or secret cooperation betwe ...
public projects, counterfeiting money, smuggling or manufacturing untaxed alcohol (
rum-running Rum-running or bootlegging is the illegal business of smuggling Smuggling is the illegal transportation of objects, substances, information or people, such as out of a house or buildings, into a prison, or across an international border, in v ...
) or cigarettes ( buttlegging), and providing immigrant workers to avoid taxes. Organized crime groups seek out
corrupt Corruption, as defined by the World Bank, is a form of dishonesty or criminal offense undertaken by a person or organization entrusted with a position of authority, to acquire illicit benefit or abuse power for one's private gain. Corruption ma ...

corrupt
public officials in executive, law enforcement, and judicial roles so that their criminal rackets and activities on the
black market A black market, underground economy or shadow economy, is a clandestine ''The ClanDestine'' (also known simply as ''ClanDestine'') is an appellation used to refer to the Destines, a fictional secret family of long-lived superhuman beings ...
can avoid, or at least receive early warnings about, investigation and prosecution. Activities of organized crime include loansharking of money at very high interest rates,
assassination Assassination is the act of murder, deliberately killing a prominent or important person, such as heads of state, head of government, heads of government, politicians, Monarchy, royalty, celebrity, celebrities, journalists, or CEOs. An assassin ...

assassination
,
blackmailing Blackmail is an act of coercion using the threat of revealing or publicizing either Substantial truth, substantially true or false information about a person or people unless certain demands are met. It is often damaging information, and may be ...
,
bombing A bomb is an explosive weapon that uses the Exothermic process, exothermic reaction of an explosive material to provide an extremely sudden and violent release of energy. Detonations inflict damage principally through ground- and atmosphere-tr ...
s,
bookmaking A bookmaker, bookie, or turf accountant is an organization or a person that accepts and pays off bets Gambling (also known as betting) is the wagering something of ("the stakes") on an with an uncertain outcome with the intent of winni ...
and
illegal gambling Gaming law is the set of rules and regulations that apply to the gaming or gambling Gambling (also known as betting) is the wagering something of Value (economics), value ("the stakes") on an Event (probability theory), event with an uncertai ...
,
confidence trick A confidence trick is an attempt to defraud In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and ...
s,
copyright infringement Copyright infringement (at times referred to as piracy) is the use of works Works may refer to: People * Caddy Works Pierce "Caddy" Works (January 2, 1896 – July 19, 1982) was an American basketball and baseball coach. He was the head b ...
,
counterfeiting Office of Field Operations agent checking the Authentication, authenticity of a travel document at an international airport using a stereo microscope To counterfeit means to imitate something authentic, with the intent to steal, destroy, or rep ...
of intellectual property,
fencing Fencing is a group of three related combat sports. The three disciplines in modern fencing are the foil (fencing), foil, the épée, and the sabre (fencing), sabre (also ''saber''); winning points are made through the weapon's contact with an ...
,
kidnapping In criminal law, kidnapping is the unlawful confinement of a person against their will, often including transportation/asportation. The asportation and abduction element is typically but not necessarily conducted by means of force or fear: the ...
,
prostitution Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging in sexual activity Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality Human sexualit ...
,
smuggling Smuggling is the illegal transportation of objects, substances, information or people, such as out of a house or buildings, into a prison A prison, also known as a jail or gaol (dated, English language in England, standard English, Austr ...
,
drug trafficking A drug is any chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched ...
,
arms trafficking Arms trafficking or gunrunning is the illicit trade of contraband small arms and ammunition, which constitutes part of a broad range of illegal activities often associated with transnational Criminal Organizations, criminal organizations. The illeg ...
, oil smuggling, antiquities smuggling,
organ trafficking Organ trade (also known as Red market) is the trading Trade involves the transfer of goods from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. Economists refer to a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or ...
,
contract killing Contract killing is a form of murder Murder is the of another without or valid , especially the unlawful killing of another human with . ("The killing of another person without justification or excuse, especially the crime of killing ...
,
identity document forgery Identity document forgery is the process by which identity documents issued by governing bodies are copied and/or modified by persons not authorized to create such documents or engage in such modifications, for the purpose of deceiving those w ...
,
money laundering Money laundering is the process of changing large amounts of money obtained from crimes, such as drug trafficking Uncoated tablets, consisting of about 90% acetylsalicylic acid, along with a minor amount of inert fillers and binders. Aspi ...
,
bribery Bribery is defined by ''Black's Law Dictionary ''Black's Law Dictionary'' is the most widely used law dictionary Image:Legal Dictionaries.jpg, 300px, Several English and Russian legal dictionaries A law dictionary (also known as legal dictionary) ...

bribery
,
seduction Seduction has multiple meanings. Platonically, it can mean "to persuade to disobedience or disloyalty", or "to lead astray, usually by persuasion or false promises". Strategies of seduction include conversation and sexual scripts, paralingual f ...
,
electoral fraud Forms of electoral fraud, sometimes referred to as election manipulation, voter fraud or vote rigging, involves illegal interference with the process of an election An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population ...
,
insurance fraud Insurance fraud is any act committed to defraud In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded ...
,
point shaving In organized sports, point shaving is a type of match fixing where the perpetrators try to prevent a team from covering a published spread betting, point spread. Unlike other forms of sports betting, spread betting invariably motivates point shavin ...
,
price fixing #REDIRECT Price fixing #REDIRECT Price fixing#REDIRECT Price fixing Price fixing is an agreement between participants on the same side in a market to buy or sell a product, service, or commodity only at a fixed price, or maintain the market cond ...
,
illegal taxicab operationIllegal taxicabs, sometimes known as pirate taxis or gypsy cabs, are taxicabs and other for-hire vehicles that are not duly licensed or permitted by the jurisdiction in which they operate. Most major cities worldwide require taxicabs to be licensed, ...
, illegal dumping of toxic waste, illegal trading of nuclear materials, military equipment smuggling, nuclear weapons smuggling, passport fraud, providing illegal immigration and cheap labor, people smuggling, trading in endangered species, and
trafficking in human beings Human trafficking is the trade Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. Economists refer to a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interre ...
. Organized crime groups also do a range of business and labor racketeering activities, such as skimming casinos, insider trading, setting up monopolies in industries such as garbage collecting, construction and cement pouring, bid rigging, getting "no-show" and "no-work" jobs,
political corruption Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain. Forms of corruption vary, but can include bribery, lobbying, extortion, cronyism, nepotism, parochialism, patronage, infl ...
and bullying.


Violence


Assault

The commission of violent crime may form part of a criminal organization's 'tools' used to achieve criminogenic goals (for example, its threatening, authoritative, coercive, terror-inducing, or rebellious role), due to psycho-social factors (cultural conflict, aggression, rebellion against authority, access to illicit substances, counter-cultural dynamic), or may, in and of itself, be crime rationally chosen by individual criminals and the groups they form.
Assault An assault is the act of inflicting physical harm or unwanted physical contact upon a person or, in some specific legal definitions, a threat or attempt to commit such an action. It is both a crime In ordinary language, a crime is an u ...

Assault
s are used for
coercive Coercion () is compelling a party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threat A threat is a ''communicated'' intent to inflict harm or loss on another person. Intimidation is widely observed in animal behavior (particularly in a rituali ...
measures, to "rough up" debtors, competition or recruits, in the commission of
robberies Robbery is the crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition,Farmer, Lindsay: "Cri ...

robberies
, in connection to other property offenses, and as an expression of counter-cultural authority; violence is normalized within criminal organizations (in direct opposition to mainstream society) and the locations they control. Whilst the intensity of violence is dependent on the types of crime the organization is involved in (as well as their organizational structure or cultural tradition) aggressive acts range on a spectrum from low-grade physical assaults to murder. Bodily harm and grievous bodily harm, within the context of organized crime, must be understood as indicators of intense social and cultural conflict, motivations contrary to the security of the public, and other psycho-social factors.


Murder

Murder Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification (jurisprudence), justification or valid excuse (legal), excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human with malice aforethought. ("The killing of another person w ...

Murder
has evolved from the honor and vengeance killings of the
Yakuza , also known as , are members of transnational organized crime syndicates originating in Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an in . It is situated in the northwest , and is bordered on the west by the , while extend ...
or
Sicilian mafia The Sicilian Mafia, also simply known as the Mafia and frequently referred to as La Cosa Nostra (, ; "our thing") by its members, is an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, ...
which placed large physical and symbolic importance on the act of murder, its purposes and consequences, to a much less discriminate form of expressing power, enforcing criminal authority, achieving retribution or eliminating competition. The role of the
hit man Contract killing is a form of murder in which one party hires another party to kill a targeted person or multiple people. It involves an illegal agreement between two or more parties in which one party agrees to kill the target in exchange for ...
has been generally consistent throughout the history of organized crime, whether that be due to the efficiency or expediency of hiring a professional assassin or the need to distance oneself from the commission of murderous acts (making it harder to prove criminal culpability). This may include the assassination of notable figures (public, private or criminal), once again dependent on authority, retribution or competition. Revenge killings, armed robberies, violent disputes over controlled territories and offenses against members of the public must also be considered when looking at the dynamic between different criminal organizations and their (at times) conflicting needs.


Vigilantism

In an ironic twist, criminal syndicates are often known to commit acts of vigilantism by enforcing laws, investigating certain criminal acts and punishing those who violate such rules. People who are often targeted by organized criminals tend to be individualistic criminals, people who committed crimes that are considered particularly heinous by society, rivals and/or terrorist groups. One reason why criminal groups might commit vigilantism in their neighborhoods is to prevent heavy levels of
community policing Community policing, or community-oriented policing (COP), is a strategy of policing that focuses on developing relationships with community members. It is a philosophy of full-service policing that is highly personal, where an officer patrols ...

community policing
, that could be harmful to their illicit businesses; additionally the vigilante acts could help the gangs to ingratiate themselves in their
communities A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as norms, religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, wor ...

communities
. During the roaring twenties, the
Ku Klux Klan The Ku Klux Klan (), commonly shortened to the KKK or the Klan, is an American white supremacist White supremacy or white supremacism is the belief that white people White is a racial classification and skin color specifier, gene ...
was known to be staunch enforcers of prohibition, as a result
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...
,
Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...
,
Polish Polish may refer to: * Anything from or related to Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Pol ...
, and Jewish mobsters would at times have violent confrontations against the KKK, on one occasion FBI informant and notorious mobster
Gregory Scarpa Gregory Scarpa Sr. (May 8, 1928 – June 4, 1994) nicknamed The Grim Reaper and also The Mad Hatter, was an American capo and hitman for the Colombo crime family and an informant for the FBI. During the 1970s and 1980s, Scarpa was the chie ...
kidnapped and tortured a local Klansmen into revealing the bodies of Civil rights workers who had been killed by the KKK. During World War II, America had a growing number of Nazi supporters that formed the
German American Bund The German American Bund, or German American Federation (german: Amerikadeutscher Bund; Amerikadeutscher Volksbund, AV), was a German-American German Americans (german: Deutschamerikaner, ) are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the ...

German American Bund
, which was known to be threatening to local Jewish people, as a result Jewish mobsters (such a
Meyer Lansky Meyer Lansky (born Meier Suchowlański; July 4, 1902 – January 15, 1983), known as the "Mob's Accountant", was an American organized crime Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized en ...
,
Bugsy Siegel ''Bugsy'' is a 1991 American biographical film, biographical crime film chronicling the life of American mobster Bugsy Siegel and his relationship with Virginia Hill. It is directed by Barry Levinson, written by James Toback, and stars Warren Bea ...

Bugsy Siegel
and
Jack Ruby Jack Leon Ruby (born Jacob Leon Rubenstein; March 25, 1911January 3, 1967) was an American nightclub A nightclub, music club, or simply club, is an entertainment music venue, venue and bar (establishment), bar that usually operates lat ...
) were often hired by the American Jewish community to help defend against the Nazi bund, even going as far as attacking and killing Nazi sympathizers during bund meetings. Vigilante groups such as the
Black Panther Party The Black Panther Party (BPP), originally the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, was a Black Power Black Power is a political slogan The following is a list of notable 18th, 19th, 20th and 21st-century political slogan A slogan i ...
,
White Panther Party The White Panthers were an anti-racist political collective founded in November, 1968 by Pun Plamondon, Leni Sinclair, and John Sinclair. It was started in response to an interview where Huey P. Newton, co-founder of the Black Panther Party, ...
and
Young Lords The Young Lords (formerly the Young Lords Organization (YLO) or Young Lords Party) was a Chicago-based group that became a civil and human rights organization. The group aims to fight for neighborhood empowerment and self-determination for Puert ...
have been accused of committing crimes in order to fund their political activities. While protection racketeering is often seen as nothing more than extortion, criminal syndicates that participate in protection rackets have at times provided genuine protection against other criminals for their clients, the reason for this is because the criminal organization would want the business of their clients to do better so that the gang can demand even more protection money, additionally if the gang has enough knowledge of the local fencers, they may even be able to track down and retrieve any objects that were stolen from the business owner, to further help their clients the gang may also force out, disrupt, vandalize, steal from or shutdown competing businesses for their clients. In Colombia the insurgent groups were trying to steal land, kidnap family members, and extort money from the drug barons, as a result the drug lords of the
Medellín Cartel The Medellín Cartel ( es, Cartel de Medellín) was a powerful and highly organized Colombia Colombia ( , ; ), officially the Republic of Colombia (), is a country in South America with Insular region of Colombia, territories in North Amer ...
formed a paramilitary vigilante group known as
Muerte a Secuestradores Muerte a Secuestradores (English: ''Death to Kidnappers'') or MAS, was a Colombian paramilitary group supported by drug cartels, U.S. corporations, Colombian politicians, and wealthy landowners during the 1980s to protect their economic interests a ...
("Death to Kidnappers") to defend the cartel against the
FARC The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia—People's Army ( es, link=no, Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia—Ejército del Pueblo, FARC–EP and FARC) is a guerrilla group involved in the continuing Colombian conflict The Colomb ...
and M-19, even kidnapping and torturing the leader of M-19 before leaving him chained in front of a police station. During the Medellín Cartel's war against the Colombian government, the
Cali Cartel The Cali Cartel ( es, Cartel de Cali) was a drug cartel based in southern Colombia, around the city of Cali Santiago de Cali (), or Cali, is the capital of the Valle del Cauca department, and the most populous city in southwest Colombia, wi ...
formed and operated a vigilante group called
Los Pepes Los Pepes, a name derived from the Spanish phrase "Perseguidos por Pablo Escobar" ("Persecuted by Pablo Escobar"), was a vigilante Vigilantism is the act of enforcement, investigation or punishment of perceived offenses without legal authority. ...
(which also comprised members of the Colombian government, police and former members of the Medellín Cartel) to bring about the downfall of Pablo Escobar, they did so by bombing the properties of the Medellín Cartel and kidnapping, torturing and/or killing Escobar's associates as well as working alongside the
Search Bloc The Search Bloc ( es, Bloque de Búsqueda) is the name of three different ad hoc Ad hoc is a Latin phrase Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communicatio ...
, which would eventually lead to the dismantling of the Medellín Cartel and the death of Pablo Escobar. Because of the high levels of corruption, the
Oficina de Envigado La Oficina de Envigado ( en, The Office of Envigado) is a drug cartel and criminal organization originally founded as an enforcement and collections arm of Pablo Escobar's Medellín Cartel. Despite being noted for its historical affiliation with dru ...
would do things to help the police and vice versa, to the point where the police and the cartel would do operations together against other criminals, additionally the leaders of La Oficina would often act as judges to mediate disputes between the various different drug gangs throughout Colombia, which according to some helped prevent a lot of disputes from turning violent. On Somalia coastline many people rely on fishing for economic survival, because of this
Somali pirates Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia, Somali Region in Ethiopia, Djibouti, Somaliland, or North Eastern Province (Kenya), North Eastern Province in Kenya. Horn of Africa * Somalis, an inhabitant or ethnicity assoc ...
are often known to attack foreign vessels who partake in
illegal fishing Illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing (IUU) is an issue around the world. Fishing industry The fishing industry includes any industry or activity concerned with taking, culturing, processing, preserving, storing, transporting, marketing o ...
and
overfishing Overfishing is the removal of a species of fish Fish are Aquatic animal, aquatic, craniate, gill-bearing animals that lack Limb (anatomy), limbs with Digit (anatomy), digits. Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, an ...
in their waters and vessels that illegally dump waste into their waters, as a result marine biologists say that the local
fishery Fishery can mean either the enterprise of raising or harvesting fish Fish are , , -bearing animals that lack with . Included in this definition are the living , s, and and as well as various extinct related groups. Around 99% of living ...

fishery
is recovering. In Mexico a vigilante group called Grupos de autodefensa comunitaria was formed to counter the , the La Familia Michoacana Cartel and the Knights Templar Cartel, as they grew they were being joined by former cartel members and as they got bigger they began to sell drugs in order to buy weapons, the Knights Templar Cartel was eventually defeated and dissolved by the vigilantes actions but they ended up forming their own cartel called Los Viagras, which has links with the
Jalisco New Generation Cartel The Jalisco New Generation Cartel ( es, Cártel de Jalisco Nueva Generación) or CJNG, formerly known as ''Los Mata Zetas'', is a semi-militarized Mexican criminal group based in Jalisco Jalisco (, , ; Nahuatl: Xalixco), officially the Fre ...
. The
Minuteman Project The Minuteman Project was a vigilante organization started in August 2004 by a group of private individuals in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a count ...
is a
far-right Far-right politics, also referred to as the extreme right or right-wing extremism, are politics further on the right of the left–right political spectrum The left–right political spectrum is a system of classifying political positions c ...
paramilitary organization that seeks to prevent
illegal immigration Illegal immigration refers to the migration of people into a country in violation of the immigration law Immigration law refers to the national statuteA statute reffers to the body of law that are made by legislature of the nation with instrum ...

illegal immigration
across the US-Mexico border, however doing so is detrimental to gangs like Mara Salvatrucha, who make money through
people smuggling People smuggling (also called human smuggling), under U.S. law, is "the facilitation, transportation, attempted transportation or illegal entry of a person or persons across an international border, in violation of one or more countries' laws, eit ...
, as a result MS-13 is known to commit acts of violence against members of the Minutemen. Throughout the world there are various anti-gang vigilante groups, who profess to be fighting against gang influence, but share characteristics and acts similarly to gangs, including
Sombra Negra The ''Sombra Negra'' (Spanish language, Spanish for "Black Shadow"), also known as ''El Clan de Planta'' ("The Plant Clan"), are (as of 2014) death squad groups based in El Salvador, allegedly composed mostly of police and military personnel, th ...
, Friends Stand United,
People Against Gangsterism and Drugs People Against Gangsterism and Drugs (PAGAD) is a group formed in 1996 in the Cape Flats area of Cape Town, South Africa. The organisation came to prominence for acts of vigilante violence against gangsters, including arson and murder. Origins PAG ...
, OG Imba. Gangs that are involved in drug trafficking often commit violent acts to stop or force out independent dealers, drug dealers with no gang ties, to keep them from taking customers. In America there is an
animal welfare Animal welfare is the well-being of non-human animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as ...
organization called Rescue Ink, in which
outlaw biker gang An outlaw motorcycle club, commonly referred to as a biker gang, is a motorcycle subculture. It is generally centered on the use of power cruiser, cruiser motorcycles, particularly Harley-Davidsons and chopper (motorcycle), choppers, and a set of ...
members volunteer to rescue animals in need and combat against people who commit animal cruelty, such as stopping the killing stray
cats The cat (''Felis catus'') is a domestic Domestic may refer to: In the home * Anything relating to the human home A home, or domicile, is a space used as a permanent or semi-permanent residence for an individual, group or famil ...

cats
, breaking up
dog fighting Dog fighting is a type of blood sport A blood sport or bloodsport is a category of sport Sport pertains to any form of competitive Competition is a rivalry A rivalry is the state of two people or groups engaging in a lasting c ...
rings and rescuing
pets A pet, or companion animal, is an animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individua ...

pets
from abusive owners. In the American prison system,
prison gangs A prison gang is an inmate organization that operates within a prison system. It has a corporate entity and exists into perpetuity. Its membership is restrictive, mutually exclusive, and often requires a lifetime commitment. Prison officials and ot ...
are often known to physically harm and even kill inmates who have committed such crimes as
child murder Pedicide, child murder, or child homicide is the homicide Homicide is an act of a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life ...
, being
serial killers A serial killer is typically a person who murders three or more people,A serial killer is most commonly defined as a person who kills three or more people for psychological gratification; reliable sources over the years agree. See, for example: ...
,
pedophilia Pedophilia ( alternatively spelt paedophilia) is a psychiatric disorder in which an adult or older adolescent experiences a primary or exclusive sexual attraction Sexual attraction is attraction on the basis of sexual desire or the qualit ...
,
hate crimes A hate crime (also known as a bias-motivated crime or bias crime) is a prejudice Prejudice can be an affective Affect, in psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of consciousness, c ...
,
domestic violence Domestic violence (also called domestic abuse or family violence) is violence Violence is the use of physical force so as to injure, abuse, damage, or destroy. Other definitions are also used, such as the World Health Organization Th ...
,
rape Rape is a type of sexual assault Sexual assault is an act in which one intentionally sexually touches another person without that person's consent Consent occurs when one person voluntarily agrees to the proposal or desires of another. ...

rape
and inmates who have committed crimes against the elderly,
animals Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells ...
, the disabled, the poor and the less fortunate. In many minority communities and poor neighborhoods, residents often distrust law enforcement, as a result the often take over to "police" their neighborhoods by committing acts against people who had committed crimes such as
bullying Bullying is the use of force, coercion Coercion () is compelling a party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threat A threat is a communication of intent to inflict harm or loss on another person. Intimidation is widely observed ...

bullying
, muggings, home invasions, hate crimes,
stalking Stalking is unwanted and/or repeated surveillance by an individual or group toward another person. Stalking behaviors are interrelated to harassment Harassment covers a wide range of behavior Behavior (American English Amer ...

stalking
, rape, domestic violence and
child molestation Child sexual abuse, also called child molestation, is a form of child abuse Child abuse or child maltreatment is physical Physical may refer to: *Physical examination, a regular overall check-up with a doctor *Physical (album), ''Physical ...
, as well as mediating disputes between neighbors, the ways that the gangs would punish such individuals could range from forced apologies, being threatened, being forced to return stolen objects, vandalizing property, arson, being forced to Relocation (personal), move, being assault, assaulted and/or battery (crime), battered, kidnappings, false imprisonment, torture and/or being murderd. Some criminal syndicates have been known to hold their own "trials" for members of theirs who had been accused of wrongdoing, the punishments that the accused member would face if "found guilty" would vary depending on the offense.


Terrorism

In addition to what is considered traditional organized crime involving direct crimes of fraud swindles, scams, racketeering and other acts motivated for the accumulation of monetary gain, there is also non-traditional organized crime which is engaged in for political or ideological gain or acceptance. Such crime groups are often labelled List of designated terrorist groups, terrorist groups or Narcoterrorism, narcoterrorists.A GLOBAL OVERVIEW OF NARCOTICS-FUNDED TERRORIST AND OTHER EXTREMIST GROUPS
, May 2002, Library of Congress – Federal Research Division
There is no universally agreed, legally binding, criminal law definition of terrorism#In international law, definition of terrorism.Angus Martyn
The Right of Self-Defence under International Law-the Response to the Terrorist Attacks of 11 September
, Australian Law and Bills Digest Group, Parliament of Australia Web Site, 12 February 2002.
Common definitions of terrorism refer only to those violent acts which are intended to create fear (terror), are perpetrated for a religious, political or ideological goal, deliberately target or disregard the safety of non-combatants (e.g., Neutrality (international relations), neutral military personnel or civilians), and are committed by non-government agencies. Some definitions also include acts of Law, unlawful violence and war, especially crimes against humanity (''see the Nuremberg Trials''), Allied authorities deeming the German Nazi Party, its paramilitary and police organizations, and numerous associations subsidiary to the Nazi Party "criminal organizations". The use of similar tactics by criminal organizations for protection rackets or to enforce a code of silence is usually not labeled terrorism though these same actions may be labeled terrorism when done by a politically motivated group. Notable groups include the Medellin Cartel, Corleonesi Mafia, various Mexican cartel, Mexican Cartels, and Jamaican Posse.


Other

* Arms trafficking * Arson * Coercion * Extortion * Protection racket * Sexual assault


Financial crime

Organized crime groups generate large amounts of money by activities such as drug trafficking, arms smuggling, extortion, theft, and financial crime. These illegally sourced assets are of little use to them unless they can disguise it and convert it into funds that are available for investment into legitimate enterprise. The methods they use for converting its ‘dirty’ money into ‘clean’ assets encourages corruption. Organized crime groups need to hide the money's illegal origin. This allows for the expansion of OC groups, as the ‘laundry’ or ‘wash cycle’ operates to cover the money trail and convert proceeds of crime into usable assets. Money laundering is bad for international and domestic trade, banking reputations and for effective governments and rule of law. This is due to the methods used to hide the proceeds of crime. These methods include, but are not limited to: buying easily transported values, transfer pricing, and using "underground banks." Launderers will also co-mingle illegal money with revenue made from businesses in order to further mask their illicit funds. Accurate figures for the amounts of criminal proceeds laundered are almost impossible to calculate, rough estimates have been made, but only give a sense of the scale of the problem and not quite how great the problem truly is. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime conducted a study, they estimated that in 2009, money laundering equated to about 2.7% of global GDP being laundered; this is equal to about 1.6 trillion US dollars. The Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF), an intergovernmental body set up to combat money laundering, has stated that "A sustained effort between 1996 and 2000 by the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) to produce such estimates failed." However, anti-money laundering efforts that seize money laundered assets in 2001 amounted to $386 million. The rapid growth of money laundering is due to: * the scale of organized crime precluding it from being a cash business - groups have little option but to convert its proceeds into legitimate funds and do so by investment, by developing legitimate businesses and purchasing property; * globalization of communications and commerce - technology has made rapid transfer of funds across international borders much easier, with groups continuously changing techniques to avoid investigation; and, * a lack of effective financial regulation in parts of the global economy. Money laundering is a three-stage process: * Placement: (also called immersion) groups ‘smurf’ small amounts at a time to avoid suspicion; physical disposal of money by moving crime funds into the legitimate financial system; may involve bank complicity, mixing licit and illicit funds, cash purchases and smuggling currency to safe havens. * Layering: disguises the trail to foil pursuit. Also called ‘heavy soaping’. It involves creating false paper trails, converting cash into assets by cash purchases. * Integration: (also called ‘spin dry): Making it into clean taxable income by real-estate transactions, sham loans, foreign bank complicity and false import and export transactions. Means of money laundering: * Money transmitters, black money markets purchasing goods, gambling, increasing the complexity of the money trail. * Underground banking (flying money), involves clandestine ‘bankers’ around the world. * It often involves otherwise legitimate banks and professionals. The policy aim in this area is to make the financial markets transparent, and minimize the circulation of criminal money and its cost upon legitimate markets.


Counterfeiting

Counterfeiting money is another financial crime. The counterfeiting of money includes illegally producing money that is then used to pay for anything desired. In addition to being a financial crime, counterfeiting also involves manufacturing or distributing goods under assumed names. Counterfeiters benefit because consumers believe they are buying goods from companies that they trust, when in reality they are buying low quality counterfeit goods. In 2007, the OECD reported the scope of counterfeit products to include food, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, electrical components, tobacco and even household cleaning products in addition to the usual films, music, literature, games and other electrical appliances, software and fashion. A number of qualitative changes in the trade of counterfeit products: * a large increase in fake goods which are dangerous to health and safety; * most products repossessed by authorities are now household items rather than luxury goods; * a growing number of technological products; and, * production is now operated on an industrial scale.


Tax evasion

The economic effects of organized crime have been approached from a number of both theoretical and empirical positions, however the nature of such activity allows for misrepresentation. The level of taxation taken by a nation-state, rates of unemployment, mean household incomes and level of satisfaction with government and other economic factors all contribute to the likelihood of criminals to participate in tax evasion. As most organized crime is perpetrated in the liminal state between legitimate and illegitimate markets, these economic factors must adjusted to ensure the optimal amount of taxation without promoting the practice of tax evasion. As with any other crime, technological advancements have made the commission of tax evasion easier, faster and more globalized. The ability for organized criminals to operate fraudulent financial accounts, utilize illicit offshore bank accounts, access tax havens or tax shelters, and operating goods smuggling syndicates to evade importation taxes help ensure financial sustainability, security from law enforcement, general anonymity and the continuation of their operations.


Cybercrime


Internet fraud

Identity theft is a form of fraud or cheating of another person's identity in which someone pretends to be someone else by assuming that person's identity, typically in order to access resources or obtain credit and other benefits in that person's name. Victims of identity theft (those whose identity has been assumed by the identity thief) can suffer adverse consequences if held accountable for the perpetrator's actions, as can organizations and individuals who are defrauded by the identity thief, and to that extent are also victims. Internet fraud refers to the actual use of Internet services to present fraudulent solicitations to prospective victims, to conduct fraudulent transactions, or to transmit the proceeds of fraud to financial institutions or to others connected with the scheme. In the context of organized crime, both may serve as means through which other criminal activity may be successfully perpetrated or as the primary goal themselves. Email fraud, advance-fee fraud, romance scams, employment scams, and other phishing scams are the most common and most widely used forms of identity theft, though with the advent of social networking fake websites, accounts and other fraudulent or deceitful activity has become commonplace.


Copyright infringement

Copyright infringement is the unauthorized or prohibited use of works under copyright, infringing the copyright holder's exclusive rights, such as the right to reproduce or perform the copyrighted work, or to make derivative works. Whilst almost universally considered under civil procedure, the impact and intent of organized criminal operations in this area of crime has been the subject of much debate. Article 61 of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) requires that signatory countries establish criminal procedures and penalties in cases of willful trademark counterfeiting or copyright piracy on a commercial scale. More recently copyright holders have demanded that states provide criminal sanctions for all types of copyright infringement. Organized criminal groups capitalize on consumer complicity, advancements in security and anonymity technology, emerging markets and new methods of product transmission, and the consistent nature of these provides a stable financial basis for other areas of organized crime.


Cyberwarfare

Cyberwarfare refers to politically motivated Computer crime, hacking to conduct Cyber spying, sabotage and espionage. It is a form of information warfare sometimes seen as analogous to conventional warfare although this analogy is #Controversy over terms, controversial for both its accuracy and its political motivation. It has been defined as activities by a nation-state to penetrate another nation's computers or networks with the intention of causing civil damage or disruption.Clarke, Richard A. ''Cyber War'', HarperCollins (2010) Moreover, it acts as the "fifth domain of warfare,""Cyberwar: War in the Fifth Domain"
''Economist'', July 1, 2010
and William J. Lynn, U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense, states that "as a doctrinal matter, the Pentagon has formally recognized cyberspace as a new domain in warfare . . . [which] has become just as critical to military operations as land, sea, air, and space."Lynn, William J. III
"Defending a New Domain: The Pentagon's Cyberstrategy"
''Foreign Affairs'', September/October 2010, pp. 97-108
Cyber espionage is the practice of obtaining confidential, sensitive, proprietary or classified information from individuals, competitors, groups, or governments using illegal exploitation methods on internet, networks, software and/or computers. There is also a clear military, political, or economic motivation. Unsecured information may be intercepted and modified, making espionage possible internationally. The recently established Cyber Command is currently debating whether such activities as commercial espionage or theft of intellectual property are criminal activities or actual "breaches of national security." Furthermore, military activities that use computers and satellites for coordination are at risk of equipment disruption. Orders and communications can be intercepted or replaced. Power, water, fuel, communications, and transportation infrastructure all may be vulnerable to sabotage. According to Clarke, the civilian realm is also at risk, noting that the security breaches have already gone beyond stolen credit card numbers, and that potential targets can also include the electric power grid, trains, or the stock market."Clarke: More defense needed in cyberspace"
''HometownAnnapolis.com'', September 24, 2010


Computer viruses

The term "computer virus" may be used as an overarching phrase to include all types of true viruses, malware, including computer worms, Trojan horse (computing), Trojan horses, most rootkits, spyware, dishonest adware and other malicious and unwanted software (though all are technically unique), and proves to be quite financially lucrative for criminal organizations, offering greater opportunities for fraud and extortion whilst increasing security, secrecy and anonymity. Worms may be utilized by organized crime groups to exploit security vulnerability (computing), vulnerabilities (duplicating itself automatically across other computers a given network), while a Trojan horse is a program that appears harmless but hides malicious functions (such as retrieval of stored confidential data, corruption of information, or interception of transmissions). Worms and Trojan horses, like viruses, may harm a computer system's data or performance. Applying the Internet model of organized crime, the proliferation of computer viruses and other malicious software promotes a sense of detachment between the perpetrator (whether that be the criminal organization or another individual) and the victim; this may help to explain vast increases in cyber-crime such as these for the purpose of ideological crime or terrorism. In mid July 2010, security experts discovered a malicious software program that had infiltrated factory computers and had spread to plants around the world. It is considered "the first attack on critical industrial infrastructure that sits at the foundation of modern economies," notes the ''New York Times.''


White-collar crime and corruption


Corporate crime

Corporate crime refers to crimes committed either by a corporation (i.e., a business entity having a separate legal personality from the natural persons that manage its activities), or by individuals that may be identified with a corporation or other business entity (see vicarious liability (criminal), vicarious liability and corporate liability). Corporate crimes are motivated by either the individuals desire or the corporations desire to increase profits. The cost of corporate crimes to United States taxpayers is about $500 billion. Note that some forms of corporate corruption may not actually be criminal if they are not specifically illegal under a given system of laws. For example, some jurisdictions allow insider trading. The different businesses that organized crime figures have been known to operate is vast, including but not limited to pharmacy, pharmacies, import-export companies, Check-cashing business, check-cashing stores, Tattoo parlor, tattoo parlors, zoos, online dating service, online dating sites, Liquor store, liquor stores, motorcycle shops, bank, banks, hotels, ranches and plantations, Electronic store, electronic stores, Beauty salon, beauty salons, real estate company, real estate companies, daycare, daycares, Picture frame, framing stores, taxicab, taxicab companies, Phone companies, phone companies, Shopping mall, shopping malls, Jewellery store, jewelry stores, modeling agency, modeling agencies, Dry cleaner, dry cleaners, Pawn shop, pawn shops, Pool hall, pool halls, Clothing store, clothing stores, Freight company, freight companies, Charity (practice), charity foundations, Youth center, youth centers, Recording studio, recording studios, Sporting goods, sporting goods stores, furniture stores, gyms, insurance companies, Security company, security companies, law firms, and private military companies.


Labor racketeering

Labor Racketeering, as defined by the United States Department of Labor, is the infiltrating, exploiting, and controlling of employee benefit plan, union, employer entity, or workforce that is carried out through illegal, violent, or fraudulent means for profit or personal benefit. Labor racketeering has developed since the 1930s, affecting national and international construction, mining, energy production and transportation sectors immensely. Activity has focused on the importation of cheap or unfree labor, involvement with union and public officials (
political corruption Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain. Forms of corruption vary, but can include bribery, lobbying, extortion, cronyism, nepotism, parochialism, patronage, infl ...
), and
counterfeiting Office of Field Operations agent checking the Authentication, authenticity of a travel document at an international airport using a stereo microscope To counterfeit means to imitate something authentic, with the intent to steal, destroy, or rep ...
.


Political corruption

Political corruption is the use of legislated powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain. Misuse of government power for other purposes, such as Political repression, repression of political opponents and general police brutality, is not considered political corruption. Neither are illegal acts by private persons or corporations not directly involved with the government. An illegal act by an officeholder constitutes political corruption only if the act is directly related to their official duties. Forms of corruption vary, but include
bribery Bribery is defined by ''Black's Law Dictionary ''Black's Law Dictionary'' is the most widely used law dictionary Image:Legal Dictionaries.jpg, 300px, Several English and Russian legal dictionaries A law dictionary (also known as legal dictionary) ...

bribery
, extortion, cronyism, nepotism, patronage, Graft (politics), graft, and
embezzlement Embezzlement is the act of withholding asset In financial accounting Financial accounting is the field of accounting Accounting or Accountancy is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial and non financial informa ...
. While corruption may facilitate criminal enterprise such as
drug trafficking A drug is any chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched ...
,
money laundering Money laundering is the process of changing large amounts of money obtained from crimes, such as drug trafficking Uncoated tablets, consisting of about 90% acetylsalicylic acid, along with a minor amount of inert fillers and binders. Aspi ...
, and human trafficking, it is not restricted to these activities. The activities that constitute illegal corruption differ depending on the country or jurisdiction. For instance, certain political funding practices that are legal in one place may be illegal in another. In some cases, government officials have broad or poorly defined powers, which make it difficult to distinguish between legal and illegal actions. Worldwide, bribery alone is estimated to involve over 1 trillion US dollars annually. A state of unrestrained political corruption is known as a kleptocracy, literally meaning "rule by thieves".


Drug trafficking

There are three major regions that center around
drug trafficking A drug is any chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched ...
, known as the Golden Triangle (Southeast Asia), Golden Triangle (Burma, Laos, Thailand), Golden Crescent (Afghanistan) and Central and South America. There are suggestions that due to the continuing decline in opium production in South East Asia, traffickers may begin to look to Afghanistan as a source of heroin." With respect to organized crime and accelerating synthetic drug production in East and Southeast Asia, especially the Golden Triangle (Southeast Asia), Golden Triangle, Sam Gor, also known as The Company, is the most prominent international crime syndicate based in Asia-Pacific. It is made up of members of five different triads. Sam Gor is understood to be headed by Chinese-Canadian Tse Chi Lop. The Cantonese Chinese syndicate is primarily involved in drug trafficking, earning at least $8 billion per year. Sam Gor is alleged to control 40% of the Asia-Pacific methamphetamine market, while also trafficking heroin and ketamine. The organization is active in a variety of countries, including Myanmar, Thailand, New Zealand, Australia, Japan, China and Taiwan. Sam Gor previously produced meth in Southern China and is now believed to manufacture mainly in the Golden Triangle (Southeast Asia), Golden Triangle, specifically Shan State, Myanmar, responsible for much of the massive surge of crystal meth in recent years. The group is understood to be headed by Tse Chi Lop, a Chinese-Canadian gangster born in Guangzhou, China. Tse is a former member of the Hong Kong-based crime group, the Big Circle Gang. In 1988, Tse immigrated to Canada. In 1998, Tse was convicted of transporting heroin into the United States and served nine years behind bars. Tse has been compared in prominence to Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán and Pablo Escobar. The U.S. supply of heroin comes mainly from foreign sources which include Southeast Asia's Golden Triangle (Southeast Asia), Golden Triangle, Southwest Asia, and Latin America. Heroin comes in two forms. The first is its chemical base form which presents itself as brown and the second is a salt form that is white. The former is mainly produced in Afghanistan and some south-west countries while the latter had a history of being produced in only south-east Asia, but has since moved to also being produced in Afghanistan. There is some suspicion white Heroin is also being produced in Iran and Pakistan, but it is not confirmed. This area of Heroin production is referred to as the Golden Crescent. Heroin is not the only drug being used in these areas. The European market has shown signs of growing use in opioids on top of the long-term heroin use.


Human trafficking


Sex trafficking

Human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation is a major cause of contemporary sexual slavery and is primarily for prostituting woman, women and children into Prostitution, sex industries. Sexual slavery encompasses most, if not all, forms of forced prostitution. The terms "forced prostitution" or "enforced prostitution" appear in international and humanitarian conventions but have been insufficiently understood and inconsistently applied. "Forced prostitution" generally refers to conditions of control over a person who is coerced by another to engage in sexual activity. Official numbers of individuals in sexual slavery worldwide vary. In 2001 International Organization for Migration estimated 400,000, the Federal Bureau of Investigation estimated 700,000 and UNICEF estimated 1.75 million. The most common destinations for victims of human trafficking are Thailand, Japan, Israel, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Turkey and the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, according to a report by United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, UNODC.


Illegal immigration and people smuggling

''See Snakehead (gang), Coyotaje'' People smuggling is defined as "the facilitation, transportation, attempted transportation or illegal entry of a person or persons across an international border, in violation of one or more countries laws, either clandestinely or through deception, such as the use of fraudulent documents". The term is understood as and often used interchangeably with migrant smuggling, which is defined by the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime as "...the procurement, in order to obtain, directly or indirectly, a financial or other material benefit, of the illegal entry of a person into a state party of which the person is not a national". This practice has increased over the past few decades and today now accounts for a significant portion of illegal immigration in countries around the world. People smuggling generally takes place with the consent of the person or persons being smuggled, and common reasons for individuals seeking to be smuggled include employment and economic opportunity, personal and/or familial betterment, and escape from persecution or conflict.


Contemporary slavery and forced labor

The number of Slavery, slaves today remains as high as 12 million to 27 million. This is probably the smallest proportion of slaves to the rest of the world's population in history. Most are debt bondage, debt slaves, largely in South Asia, who are under debt bondage incurred by Loan sharks, lenders, sometimes even for generations. It is the fastest growing criminal industry and is predicted to eventually outgrow illegal drug trade, drug trafficking.


Historical origins


Pre-nineteenth century

Today, crime is sometimes thought of as an urban phenomenon, but for most of human history it was the rural interfaces that encountered the majority of crimes (bearing in mind the fact that for most of human history, rural areas were the vast majority of inhabited places). For the most part, within a village, members kept crime at very low rates; however, outsiders such as piracy, pirates, Highwayman, highwaymen and banditry, bandits attacked trade routes and roads, at times severely disrupting commerce, raising costs, insurance rates and prices to the consumer. According to criminologist Paul Lunde, "Piracy and banditry were to the pre-industrial world what organized crime is to modern society."Paul Lunde, ''Organized Crime'', 2004. As Lunde states, "Barbarian conquerors, whether Vandals, Goths, the Norsemen, Norse, Turkic peoples, Turks or Mongols are not normally thought of as organized crime groups, yet they share many features associated with thriving criminal organizations. They were for the most part non-ideological, predominantly ethnically based, used violence and intimidation, and adhered to their own codes of law." In Ancient Rome, there was an infamous outlaw called Bulla Felix who organized and led a gang of up to six hundred bandits. Terrorism is linked to organized crime, but has political aims rather than solely financial ones, so there is overlap but separation between terrorism and organized crime.


Fencing in Ming and Qing China

A fence or receiver (銷贓者), was a merchant who bought and sold Possession of stolen goods, stolen goods. Fences were part of the extensive network of accomplices in the criminal underground of Ming dynasty, Ming and Qing dynasty, Qing China. Their occupation entailed criminal activity, but as fences often acted as liaisons between the more respectable community to the underground criminals, they were seen as living a "precarious existence on the fringes of respectable society". A fence worked alongside banditry, bandits, but in a different line of work. The network of criminal accomplices that was often acquired was essential to ensuring both the safety and the success of fences. The path into the occupation of a fence stemmed, in a large degree, from necessity. As most fences came from the ranks of poorer people, they often took whatever work they could – both legal and illegal. Like most bandits operated within their own community, fences also worked within their own town or village. For example, in some satellite areas of the capital, military troops lived within or close to the commoner population and they had the opportunity to hold illegal trades with commoners. In areas like Baoding and Hejian, local peasants and community members not only purchased military livestock such as horses and cattle, but also helped to hide the "stolen livestock from military allured by the profits". Local peasants and community members became fences and they hid Crime, criminal activities from officials in return for products or money from these soldiers.


= Types of fences

= Most fences were not individuals who only bought and sold stolen goods to make a living. The majority of fences had other occupations within the "polite" society and held a variety of official occupations. These occupations included laborers, coolies, and peddlers. Such individuals often encountered criminals in markets in their line of work, and, recognizing a potential avenue for an extra source of income, formed acquaintances and temporary associations for mutual aid and protection with criminals. In one example, an owner of a tea house overheard the conversation between Deng Yawen, a criminal and others planning a robbery and he offered to help to sell the loot for an exchange of spoils. At times, the robbers themselves filled the role of fences, selling to people they met on the road. This may actually have been preferable for robbers in certain circumstances, because they would not have to pay the fence a portion of the spoils. Butchers were also prime receivers for stolen animals because of the simple fact that owners could no longer recognize their livestock once butchers slaughtered them. Animals were very valuable commodities within Ming China and a robber could potentially sustain a living from stealing livestock and selling them to butcher-fences. Although the vast majority of the time, fences worked with physical stolen property, fences who also worked as itinerant barbers also sold information as a good. Itinerant barbers often amassed important sources of information and news as they traveled, and sold significant pieces of information, often to criminals in search of places to hide or individuals to rob. In this way, itinerant barbers also served the role as a keeper of information that could be sold to both members of the criminal underground, as well as powerful clients in performing the function of a spy. He or she not only sold items such as jewelry and clothing but was also involved in human trafficking, trafficking hostages that bandits had kidnapped. Women and children were the easiest and among the most common "objects" the fences sold. Most of the female hostages were sold to fences and then sold as Prostitution, prostitutes, wives or concubinage, concubines. One example of human trafficking can be seen from Chen Akuei's gang who abducted a servant girl and sold her to Lin Baimao, who in turn sold her for thirty parts of silver as wives. In contrast to women, who required beauty to sell for a high price, children were sold regardless of their physical appearance or family background. Children were often sold as servants or entertainers, while young girls were often sold as prostitutes.


= Network of connections

= Like merchants of honest goods, one of the most significant tools of a fence was their network of connections. As they were the middlemen between robbers and clients, fences needed to form and maintain connections in both the "polite" society, as well as among criminals. However, there were a few exceptions in which members of the so-called "well-respected" society became receivers and harborers. They not only help bandits to sell the stolen goods but also acted as agents of bandits to collect protection money from local merchants and residents. These "part-time" fences with high social status used their connection with bandits to help themselves gain social capital as well as wealth. It was extremely important to their occupation that fences maintained a positive relationship with their customers, especially their richer gentry clients. When some members of the local elites joined the ranks of fences, they not only protect bandits to protect their business interests, they actively took down any potential threats to their illegal profiting, even government officials. In the Zhejiang, Zhejiang Province, the local elites not only got the provincial commissioner, Zhu Wan, dismissed from his office but also eventually "[drove] him to suicide". This was possible because fences often had legal means of making a living, as well as illegal activities and could threaten to turn in bandits to the authorities. It was also essential for them to maintain a relationship with bandits. However, it was just as true that bandits needed fences to make a living. As a result, fences often held dominance in their relationship with bandits and fences could exploit their position, cheating the bandits by manipulating the prices they paid bandits for the stolen property.


= Safe houses

= Aside from simply buying and selling stolen goods, fences often played additional roles in the criminal underground of early China. Because of the high floating population in public places such as inns and tea houses, they often became ideal places for bandies and gangs to gather to exchange information and plan for their next crime. Harborers, people who provided safe houses for criminals, often played the role of receiving stolen goods from their harbored criminals to sell to other customers. Safe houses included inns, tea houses, brothels, opium dens, as well as gambling parlors and employees or owners of such institutions often functioned as harborers, as well as fences. These safe houses locate in places where there are high floating population and people from all kinds of social backgrounds. Brothels themselves helped these bandits to hide and sell stolen goods because of the special Ming Law that exempted brothels from being held responsible "for the criminal actions of their clients." Even though the government required owners of these places to report any suspicious activities, lack of enforcement from the government itself and some of the owners being fences for the bandits made an ideal safe house for bandits and gangs. Pawnshops were also often affiliated with fencing stolen goods. The owners or employees of such shops often paid cash for stolen goods at a price a great deal below market value to bandits, who were often desperate for money, and resold the goods to earn a profit.


= Punishments for fences

= Two different Ming Laws, the ''Da Ming Lü'' 大明律 and the ''Da Gao'' 大诰, drafted by the Hongwu Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang, sentenced fences with different penalties based on the categories and prices of the products that were stolen. In coastal regions, illegal trading with foreigners, as well as smuggling, became a huge concern for the government during the middle to late Ming era. In order to prohibit this crime, the government passed a law in which illegal smugglers who traded with foreigners without the consent of the government would be punished with exile to the border for military service. In areas where military troops were stationed, stealing and selling military property would result in a more severe punishment. In the Jiaqing time, a case was recorded of stealing and selling military horses. The emperor himself gave direction that the thieves who stole the horses and the people who helped to sell the horses would be put on cangue and sent to labor in a border military camp. In the Salt in Chinese history, salt mines, the penalty for workers who stole salt and people who sold the stolen salt was the most severe. Anyone who was arrested and found guilty of stealing and selling government salt was put to death.


Nineteenth century

During the Victorian era, criminals and gangs started to form organizations which would collectively become London's criminal underworld. Criminal societies in the underworld started to develop their own ranks and groups which were sometimes called ''families'' and were often made up of lower-classes and operated on pick-pocketry, prostitution, forgery and counterfeiting, commercial burglary and even money laundering schemes. Unique also were the use of slang and argots used by Victorian criminal societies to distinguish each other, like those propagated by street gangs like the Peaky Blinders. One of the most infamous crime bosses in the Victorian underworld was Adam Worth, who was nicknamed "the Napoleon of the criminal world" or "the Napoleon of Crime" and became the inspiration behind the popular character of Professor Moriarty. Organized crime in the United States first came to prominence in the Old West and historians such as Brian J. Robb and Erin H. Turner traced the first organized crime syndicates to the Cochise County Cowboys, Coschise Cowboy Gang and the Butch Cassidy's Wild Bunch, Wild Bunch. The Cochise Cowboys, though loosely organized, were unique for their criminal operations in the Mexican border, in which they would steal and sell cattle as well smuggled contraband goods in between the countries. In the Old west there were other examples of gangs that operated in ways similar to an organized crime syndicate such as the Innocents (gang), Innocents gang, the Jim Miller (outlaw), Jim Miller gang, the Soapy Smith, Soapy Smith gang, the Belle Starr, Belle Starr gang and the Bob Dozier gang.


Twentieth century

Donald Cressey's Cosa Nostra model studied American Mafia, Mafia families exclusively and this limits his broader findings. Structures are formal and rational with allocated tasks, limits on entrance, and influence the rules established for organizational maintenance and sustainability. In this context there is a difference between organized and professional crime; there is well-defined hierarchy of roles for leaders and members, underlying rules and specific goals that determine their behavior and these are formed as a social system, one that was rationally designed to maximize profits and to provide forbidden goods. Albini saw organized criminal behavior as consisting of networks of patrons and clients, rather than rational hierarchies or secret societies. The networks are characterized by a loose system of power relations. Each participant is interested in furthering his own welfare. Criminal entrepreneurs are the patrons and they exchange information with their clients in order to obtain their support. Clients include members of gangs, local and national politicians, government officials and people engaged in legitimate business. People in the network may not directly be part of the core criminal organization. Furthering the approach of both Cressey and Albini, Ianni and Ianni studied Italian-American crime syndicates in New York and other cities. Kinship is seen as the basis of organized crime rather than the structures Cressey had identified; this includes fictive godparental and affinitive ties as well as those based on blood relations and it is the impersonal actions, not the status or affiliations of their members, that define the group. Rules of conduct and behavioral aspects of power and networks and roles include the following: * family operates as a social unit, with social and business functions merged; * leadership positions down to middle management are kinship based; * the higher the position, the closer the kinship relationship; * group assigns leadership positions to a central group of family members, including fictive god-parental relationship reinforcement; * the leadership group are assigned to legal or illegal enterprises, but not both; and, * transfer of money, from legal and illegal business, and back to illegal business is by individuals, not companies. Strong family ties are derived from the traditions of southern Italy, where family rather than the church or state is the basis of social order and morality.


The "disorganized crime" and choice theses

One of the most important trends to emerge in criminological thinking about OC in recent years is the suggestion that it is not, in a formal sense, "organized" at all. Evidence includes lack of centralized control, absence of formal lines of communication, fragmented organizational structure. It is distinctively disorganized. For example, Seattle's crime network in the 1970s and 80s consisted of groups of businessmen, politicians and of law enforcement officers. They all had links to a national network via
Meyer Lansky Meyer Lansky (born Meier Suchowlański; July 4, 1902 – January 15, 1983), known as the "Mob's Accountant", was an American organized crime Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized en ...
, who was powerful, but there was no evidence that Lansky or anyone else exercised centralized control over them. While some crime involved well-known criminal hierarchies in the city, criminal activity was not subject to central management by these hierarchies nor by other controlling groups, nor were activities limited to a finite number of objectives. The networks of criminals involved with the crimes did not exhibit organizational cohesion. Too much emphasis had been placed on the Mafia as controlling OC. The Mafia were certainly powerful but they "were part of a heterogeneous underworld, a network characterized by complex webs of relationships." OC groups were violent and aimed at making money but because of the lack of structure and fragmentation of objectives, they were "disorganized". Further studies showed neither bureaucracy nor kinship groups are the primary structure of organized crime, rather they were in partnerships or a series of joint business ventures. Despite these conclusions, all researchers observed a degree of managerial activities among the groups they studied. All observed networks and a degree of persistence, and there may be utility in focusing on the identification of organizing roles of people and events rather than the group's structure. There may be three main approaches to understand the organizations in terms of their roles as social systems: * organizations as rational systems: Highly formalized structures in terms of bureaucracy's and hierarchy, with formal systems of rules regarding authority and highly specific goals; * organizations as natural systems: Participants may regard the organization as an end in itself, not merely a means to some other end. Promoting group values to maintain solidarity is high on the agenda. They do not rely on profit maximization. Their perversity and violence in respect of relationships is often remarkable, but they are characterized by their focus on the connections between their members, their associates and their victims; and, * organizations open systems: High levels of interdependence between themselves and the environment in which they operate. There is no one way in which they are organized or how they operate. They are adaptable and change to meet the demands of their changing environments and circumstances. Organized crime groups may be a combination of all three.


International governance approach

International consensus on defining organized crime has become important since the 1970s due its increased prevalence and impact. e.g., UN in 1976 and EU 1998. OC is "...the large scale and complex criminal activity carried on by groups of persons, however loosely or tightly organized for the enrichment of those participating at the expense of the community and its members. It is frequently accomplished through ruthless disregard of any law, including offenses against the person and frequently in connection with political corruption." (UN) "A criminal organization shall mean a lasting, structured association of two or more persons, acting in concert with a view to committing crimes or other offenses which are punishable by deprivation of liberty or a detention order of a maximum of at least four years or a more serious penalty, whether such crimes or offenses are an end in themselves or a means of obtaining material benefits and, if necessary, of improperly influencing the operation of public authorities." (UE) Not all groups exhibit the same characteristics of structure. However, violence and corruption and the pursuit of multiple enterprises and continuity serve to form the essence of OC activity. There are eleven characteristics from the European Commission and Europol pertinent to a working definition of organized crime. Six of those must be satisfied and the four in italics are mandatory. Summarized, they are: * ''more than two people''; * their own appointed tasks; * activity over a ''prolonged or indefinite period of time''; * the use discipline or control; * perpetration of ''serious criminal offense''s; * operations on an international or transnational level; * the use violence or other intimidation; * the use of commercial or businesslike structures; * engagement in money laundering; * exertion of influence on politics, media, public administration, judicial authorities or the economy; and, * ''motivated by the pursuit of profit and/or power,'' with the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (the ''Palermo Convention'') having a similar definition: * organized criminal: structured group, three or more people, one or more serious crimes, in order to obtain financial or other material benefit; * serious crime: offense punishable by at least four years in prison; and, * structured group: Not randomly formed but doesn't need formal structure, Others stress the importance of power, profit and perpetuity, defining organized criminal behavior as: * nonideological: i.e., profit driven; * hierarchical: few elites and many operatives; * limited or exclusive membership: maintain secrecy and loyalty of members; * perpetuating itself: Recruitment process and policy; * willing to use illegal violence and bribery; * specialized division of labor: to achieve organization goal; * monopolistic: Market control to maximize profits; and, * has explicit rules and regulations: Codes of honor. Definitions need to bring together its legal and social elements. OC has widespread social, political and economic effects. It uses violence and corruption to achieve its ends: "OC when group primarily focused on illegal profits systematically commit crimes that adversely affect society and are capable of successfully shielding their activities, in particular by being willing to use physical violence or eliminate individuals by way of corruption." It is a mistake to use the term "OC" as though it denotes a clear and well-defined phenomenon. The evidence regarding OC "shows a less well-organized, very diversified landscape of organizing criminals…the economic activities of these organizing criminals can be better described from the viewpoint of 'crime enterprises' than from a conceptually unclear frameworks such as 'OC'." Many of the definitions emphasize the ‘group nature’ of OC, the ‘organization’ of its members, its use of violence or corruption to achieve its goals and its extra-jurisdictional character...OC may appear in many forms at different times and in different places. Due to the variety of definitions, there is “evident danger” in asking “what is OC?” and expecting a simple answer.


The locus of power and organized crime

Some espouse that all organized crime operates at an international level, though there is currently no international court capable of trying offenses resulting from such activities (the International Criminal Court's remit extends only to dealing with people accused of offenses against humanity, e.g., genocide). If a network operates primarily from one jurisdiction and carries out its illicit operations there and in some other jurisdictions it is ‘international,' though it may be appropriate to use the term ‘transnational’ only to label the activities of a major crime group that is centered in no one jurisdiction but operating in many. The understanding of organized crime has therefore progressed to combined internationalization and an understanding of social conflict into one of power, control, efficiency risk and utility, all within the context of organizational theory. The accumulation of social, economic and political power have sustained themselves as a core concerns of all criminal organizations: * social: criminal groups seek to develop social control in relation to particular communities; * economic: seek to exert influence by means of corruption and by coercion of legitimate and illegitimate praxis; and, * political: criminal groups use corruption and violence to attain power and status. Contemporary organized crime may be very different from traditional Mafia style, particularly in terms of the distribution and centralization of power, authority structures and the concept of 'control' over one's territory and organization. There is a tendency away from centralization of power and reliance upon family ties towards a fragmentation of structures and informality of relationships in crime groups. Organized crime most typically flourishes when a central government and civil society is disorganized, weak, absent or untrustworthy. This may occur in a society facing periods of political, economic or social turmoil or transition, such as a change of government or a period of rapid economic development, particularly if the society lacks strong and established institutions and the rule of law. The dissolution of the Soviet Union and the Revolutions of 1989 in Eastern Europe that saw the downfall of the Communist Bloc created a breeding ground for criminal organizations. The newest growth sectors for organized crime are
identity theft Identity theft occurs when someone uses another person's personal identifying information, like their name, identifying number, or credit card number, without their permission, to commit fraud or other crimes. The term ''identity theft'' was coi ...

identity theft
and online extortion. These activities are troubling because they discourage consumers from using the Internet for e-commerce. E-commerce was supposed to level the playing ground between small and large businesses, but the growth of online organized crime is leading to the opposite effect; large businesses are able to afford more Bandwidth (computing), bandwidth (to resist denial-of-service attacks) and superior security. Furthermore, organized crime using the Internet is much harder to trace down for the police (even though they increasingly deploy cybercops) since most police forces and list of law enforcement agencies, law enforcement agencies operate within a local or national jurisdiction while the Internet makes it easier for criminal organizations to operate across such boundaries without detection. In the past criminal organizations have naturally limited themselves by their need to expand, putting them in competition with each other. This competition, often leading to violence, uses valuable resources such as manpower (either killed or sent to prison), equipment and finances. In the United States, Whitey Bulger, James "Whitey" Bulger, the Irish Mob boss of the Winter Hill Gang in Boston turned informant for the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). He used this position to eliminate competition and consolidate power within the city of Boston which led to the imprisonment of several senior organized crime figures including Gennaro Angiulo, underboss of the Patriarca crime family. Infighting sometimes occurs within an organization, such as the Castellamarese war of 1930–31 and the Boston Irish Mob Wars of the 1960s and 1970s. Today criminal organizations are increasingly working together, realizing that it is better to work in cooperation rather than in competition with each other (once again, consolidating power). This has led to the rise of global criminal organizations such as Mara Salvatrucha, 18th Street gang and Barrio Azteca. The American Mafia, in addition to having links with organized crime groups in Italy such as the Camorra, the 'Ndrangheta, Sacra Corona Unita and
Sicilian Mafia The Sicilian Mafia, also simply known as the Mafia and frequently referred to as La Cosa Nostra (, ; "our thing") by its members, is an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, ...
, has at various times done business with the Irish Mob, Jewish-American organized crime, the Japanese
Yakuza , also known as , are members of transnational organized crime syndicates originating in Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an in . It is situated in the northwest , and is bordered on the west by the , while extend ...
, Organised crime in India, Indian mafia, the
Russian mafia Russian organized crime or Russian mafia (, ), otherwise known as Bratva (), is a collective A collective is a group of entities that share or are motivated by at least one common issue or interest, or work together to achieve a common obj ...
, Thief in law and Post-Soviet Organized crime groups, the Chinese Triads, Chinese Tong (organization), Tongs and Asian street gangs, Outlaw motorcycle club, Motorcycle Gangs and numerous White, Black and Hispanic prison and street gangs. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime estimated that organized crime groups held $322 billion in assets in 2005. This rise in cooperation between criminal organizations has meant that law enforcement agencies are increasingly having to work together. The FBI operates an organized crime section from its headquarters in Washington, D.C. and is known to work with other national (e.g., Polizia di Stato, Federal Security Service (Russia), Russian Federal Security Service (FSB) and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police), federal (e.g., Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives,
Drug Enforcement Administration The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA; ) is a Federal law enforcement in the United States, United States federal law enforcement agency under the U.S. Department of Justice tasked with combating drug trafficking and distribution within th ...

Drug Enforcement Administration
, United States Marshals Service, Immigration and Customs Enforcement, United States Secret Service, US Diplomatic Security Service, United States Postal Inspection Service, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, United States Border Patrol, and the United States Coast Guard), state (e.g., Massachusetts State Police Special Investigation Unit, New Jersey State Police organized crime unit, Pennsylvania State Police organized crime unit and the New York State Police Bureau of Criminal Investigation) and city (e.g., New York City Police Department Organized Crime Unit, Philadelphia Police Department Organized crime unit, Chicago Police Organized Crime Unit and the Los Angeles Police Department Special Operations Division) law enforcement agencies.


Academic analysis


Criminal psychology

Criminal psychology is defined as the study of the intentions, behaviors, and actions of a criminal or someone who allows themselves to participate in criminal behavior. The goal is understand what is going on in the criminal's head and explain why they are doing what they are doing. This varies depending on whether the person is facing the punishment for what they did, are roaming free, or if they are punishing themselves. Criminal psychologists get called to court to explain the inside the mind of the criminal.


Rational choice

This theory treats all individuals as rational operators, committing criminal acts after consideration of all associated risks (detection and punishment) compared with the rewards of crimes (personal, financial etc.). Little emphasis is placed on the offenders’ emotional state. The role of criminal organizations in lowering the perceptions of risk and increasing the likelihood of personal benefit is prioritized by this approach, with the organizations structure, purpose, and activity being indicative of the rational choices made by criminals and their organizers.


Deterrence

This theory sees criminal behavior as reflective of an individual, internal calculation by the criminal that the benefits associated with offending (whether financial or otherwise) outweigh the perceived risks. The perceived strength, importance or infallibility of the criminal organization is directly proportional to the types of crime committed, their intensity and arguably the level of community response. The benefits of participating in organized crime (higher financial rewards, greater socioeconomic control and influence, protection of the family or significant others, perceived freedoms from 'oppressive' laws or norms) contribute greatly to the psychology behind highly organized group offending.


Social learning

Criminals learn through associations with one another. The success of organized crime groups is therefore dependent upon the strength of their communication and the enforcement of their value systems, the recruitment and training processes employed to sustain, build or fill gaps in criminal operations. An understanding of this theory sees close associations between criminals, imitation of superiors, and understanding of value systems, processes and authority as the main drivers behind organized crime. Interpersonal relationships define the motivations the individual develops, with the effect of family or peer criminal activity being a strong predictor of inter-generational offending. This theory also developed to include the strengths and weaknesses of reinforcement, which in the context of continuing criminal enterprises may be used to help understand propensities for certain crimes or victims, level of integration into the mainstream culture and likelihood of recidivism / success in rehabilitation.


Enterprise

Under this theory, organized crime exists because legitimate markets leave many customers and potential customers unsatisfied. High demand for a particular good or service (e.g., drugs, prostitution, arms, slaves), low levels of risk detection and high profits lead to a conducive environment for entrepreneurial criminal groups to enter the market and profit by supplying those goods and services. For success, there must be: * an identified market; and, * a certain rate of consumption (demand) to maintain profit and outweigh perceived risks. Under these conditions competition is discouraged, ensuring criminal monopolies sustain profits. Legal substitution of goods or services may (by increasing competition) force the dynamic of organized criminal operations to adjust, as will deterrence measures (reducing demand), and the restriction of resources (controlling the ability to supply or produce to supply).


Differential association

Sutherland goes further to say that deviancy is contingent on conflicting groups within society, and that such groups struggle over the means to define what is criminal or deviant within society. Criminal organizations therefore gravitate around illegal avenues of production, profit-making, protectionism or social control and attempt (by increasing their operations or membership) to make these acceptable. This also explains the propensity of criminal organizations to develop protection rackets, to coerce through the use of violence, aggression and threatening behavior (at times termed 'terrorism'). Preoccupation with methods of accumulating profit highlight the lack of legitimate means to achieve economic or social advantage, as does the organization of
white-collar crime The term "white-collar crime" refers to financially motivated, nonviolent or non directly violent crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Litera ...
or
political corruption Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain. Forms of corruption vary, but can include bribery, lobbying, extortion, cronyism, nepotism, parochialism, patronage, infl ...
(though it is debatable whether these are based on wealth, power or both). The ability to effect social norms and practices through political and economic influence (and the enforcement or normalization of criminogenic needs) may be defined by differential association theory.


Critical criminology and sociology


Social disorganization

Social disorganization theory is intended to be applied to neighborhood level street crime, thus the context of gang activity, loosely formed criminal associations or networks, socioeconomic demographic impacts, legitimate access to public resources, employment or education, and mobility give it relevance to organized crime. Where the upper- and lower-classes live in close proximity this can result in feelings of anger, hostility, social injustice and frustration. Criminals experience poverty; and witness affluence they are deprived of and which is virtually impossible for them to attain through conventional means. The concept of neighborhood is central to this theory, as it defines the social learning, locus of control, cultural influences and access to social opportunity experienced by criminals and the groups they form. Fear of or lack of trust in mainstream authority may also be a key contributor to social disorganization; organized crime groups replicate such figures and thus ensure control over the counter-culture. This theory has tended to view violent or antisocial behavior by gangs as reflective of their social disorganization rather than as a product or tool of their organization.


Anomie

Sociologist Robert K. Merton believed deviance depended on society's definition of success, and the desires of individuals to achieve success through socially defined avenues. Criminality becomes attractive when expectations of being able to fulfill goals (therefore achieving success) by legitimate means cannot be fulfilled. Criminal organizations capitalize on states with a lack of norm by imposing criminogenic needs and illicit avenues to achieve them. This has been used as the basis for numerous meta-theories of organized crime through its integration of social learning, cultural deviance, and criminogenic motivations. If crime is seen as a function of anomie, organized behavior produces stability, increases protection or security, and may be directly proportional to market forces as expressed by entrepreneurship- or risk-based approaches. It is the inadequate supply of legitimate opportunities that constrains the ability for the individual to pursue valued societal goals and reduces the likelihood that using legitimate opportunities will enable them to satisfy such goals (due to their position in society).


Cultural deviance

Criminals violate the law because they belong to a unique subculture - the counter-culture - their values and norms conflicting with those of the working-, middle- or upper-classes upon which criminal laws are based. This subculture shares an alternative lifestyle, language and culture, and is generally typified by being tough, taking care of their own affairs and rejecting government authority. Role models include drug dealers, thieves and pimps, as they have achieved success and wealth not otherwise available through socially-provided opportunities. It is through modeling organized crime as a counter-cultural avenue to success that such organizations are sustained.


Alien conspiracy/queer ladder of mobility

The alien conspiracy theory and queer ladder of mobility theories state that ethnicity and 'outsider' status (immigrants, or those not within the dominant ethnocentric groups) and their influences are thought to dictate the prevalence of organized crime in society. The alien theory posits that the contemporary structures of organized crime gained prominence during the 1860s in Sicily and that elements of the Sicilian population are responsible for the foundation of most European and North American organized crime, made up of Italian-dominated crime families. Bell's theory of the 'queer ladder of mobility' hypothesized that 'Ethnic succession theory, ethnic succession' (the attainment of power and control by one more marginalized ethnic group over other less marginalized groups) occurs by promoting the perpetration of criminal activities within a disenfranchised or oppressed demographic. Whilst early organized crime was dominated by the Irish Mob (early 1800s), they were relatively substituted by the
Sicilian Mafia The Sicilian Mafia, also simply known as the Mafia and frequently referred to as La Cosa Nostra (, ; "our thing") by its members, is an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, ...
and
Italian-American Mafia The American Mafia, commonly referred to in North America as the Italian-American Mafia, the Mafia, or the Mob, is a highly organized Italian-American Italian Americans ( it, italoamericani or ''italo-americani'', ) are citizens of the United ...
, the Aryan Brotherhood (1960s onward), Colombian Medellin cartel and Cali cartel (mid-1970s - 1990s), and more recently the Mexican Tijuana Cartel (late 1980s onward), Mexican Los Zetas (late 1990s to onward), the Russian Mafia (1988 onward), terrorism-related organized crime Al-Qaeda (1988 onward), the Taliban (1994 onward), and Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) (2010s to onward) . Many argue this misinterprets and overstates the role of ethnicity in organized crime. A contradiction of this theory is that syndicates had developed long before large-scale Sicilian immigration in the 1860s, with these immigrants merely joining a widespread phenomenon of crime and corruption.


Legislative frameworks and policing measures

;International * Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (the 'Palermo Convention') - the international treaty against organized crime; includes the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children and the Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air ;Canada * Criminal Code (Canada), Criminal Code
RSC 1985, c C-46, ss 467.1 to 467.2
. ;India * Maharashtra Control of Organised Crime Act ;Republic of Ireland * Criminal Assets Bureau ;Italy *Article 41-bis prison regime ;United Kingdom * Serious Organised Crime and Police Act 2005 ;United States * Hobbs Act, Federal Anti-Racketeering Act (the 'Hobbs Act') 1946 * Federal Wire Act 1961 * Bank Secrecy Act 1970 *
Organized Crime Control Act The Organized Crime Control Act of 1970 (, October 15, 1970), was an Act of Congress An Act of Congress is a statute A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislature, legislative authority that governs the legal entities of a city, S ...
1970 * Title 21 of the United States Code 1970 * Continuing Criminal Enterprise (contemporary) * Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act, Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (the 'RICO Act') 1970 * Money Laundering Control Act 1986 * United States Patriot Act 2001 * Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act of 2009


By nation

* List of criminal enterprises, gangs and syndicates *Timeline of organized crime * Opium production in Afghanistan, Organized crime in Afghanistan * Albanian mafia, Organized crime in Albania * Organized crime in Australia * Bulgarian mafia, Organized crime in Bulgaria * :Organized crime in Canada * Organized crime in China * Milieu (organized crime in France), Organized crime in France * Greek mafia, Organized crime in Greece * Organized crime in India * Irish Mob, Organized crime in Ireland * Organized crime in Italy * Yakuza (organized crime in Japan), Organized crime in Japan * Mungiki, Organized crime in Kenya * Tulip Revolution, Organized crime in Kyrgyzstan * Lebanese mafia, Organized crime in Lebanon * Penose, Organized crime in the Netherlands * Organized crime in Nigeria * Organised crime in Pakistan, Organized crime in Pakistan * Russian mafia, Organized crime in Russia * Kkangpae, Organized crime in South Korea * Organized crime in Sweden * Turkish mafia, Organized crime in Turkey * Ukrainian mafia, Organized crime in Ukraine * Gangs in the United Kingdom, Organized crime in the United Kingdom * :Organized crime in the United States * History of Organized Crime in Saigon, Organized crime in Vietnam


References


External links


Mob Life: Gangster Kings of Crime
— slideshow by ''Life (magazine), Life'' magazine
UNODC - United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
— sub-section dealing with organised crime worldwide
"Organized Crime"
— Oxford Bibliographies Online: Criminology {{DEFAULTSORT:Organized Crime Organized crime, Illegal occupations