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Open Data is the idea that some data should be freely available to everyone to use and republish as they wish, without restrictions from copyright, patents or other mechanisms of control. The goals of the open-source data movement are similar to those of other "open(-source)" movements such as open-source software,
hardware Hardware may refer to: Technology Computing and electronics * Computer hardware, physical parts of a computer * Digital electronics, electronics that operate on digital signals * Electronic component, device in an electronic system used to affect e ...
,
open content
open content
, open specifications,
open education Open education is an educational movement founded on openness Openness is an overarching concept or philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, ...
,
open educational resources Open educational resources (OER) are freely accessible, openly licensed text, media, and other digital assets that are useful for teaching, learning, and assessing as well as for research purposes. The term OER describes publicly accessible mate ...
,
open government Open government is the governing doctrine Doctrine (from la, doctrina, meaning "teaching, instruction") is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a giv ...
,
open knowledge Open knowledge (or free knowledge) is knowledge that is free to use, reuse, and redistribute without legal, social or technological restriction. Open knowledge organisations and activists have proposed principles and methodologies related to the pr ...
,
open access Open access (OA) is a set of principles and a range of practices through which research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis o ...
,
open science One definition of Open science holds that it is the movement to make scientific research (including publications, data, physical samples, and software) and its dissemination accessible to all levels of an inquiring society, amateur or profession ...
, and the open web. Paradoxically, the growth of the open data movement is paralleled by a rise in intellectual property rights. The philosophy behind open data has been long established (for example in the Mertonian tradition of science), but the term "open data" itself is recent, gaining popularity with the rise of the Internet and
World Wide Web The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information system An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical Sociotechnical systems (STS) in organizational development is an approach to complex organizational ...
and, especially, with the launch of open-data government initiatives such as Data.gov, Data.gov.uk and Data.gov.in. Open data can also be
linked data In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and soft ...
; when it is, it is linked open data. One of the most important forms of open data is open government data (OGD), which is a form of open data created by ruling government institutions. Open government data's importance is borne from it being a part of citizens' everyday lives, down to the most routine/mundane tasks that are seemingly far removed from government. The abbreviation is sometimes used to indicate that the dataset or database in question complies with the principles of
FAIR data right FAIR data are data which meet principles of findability, accessibility Accessibility in the sense considered here refers to the design of products, devices, services, or environments so as to be usable by people with disabilities. ...
and also carries an explicit data‑capable
open license A free license or open license is a license agreement A license (American English) or licence (British English) is an official permission or permit to do, use, or own something (as well as the document of that permission or permit). A lice ...
.


Overview

The concept of open data is not new, but a formalized definition is relatively new. Conceptually, open data as a phenomenon denotes that governmental data should be available to anyone with a possibility of redistribution in any form without any copyright restriction. One more definition is the Open Definition which can be summarized in the statement that "A piece of data is open if anyone is free to use, reuse, and redistribute it – subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and/or share-alike." Other definitions, including the
Open Data Institute The Open Data Institute (ODI) is a Nonprofit organization, non-profit private company limited by guarantee, based in the United Kingdom. Founded by Sir Tim Berners-Lee and Sir Nigel Shadbolt in 2012, the ODI’s mission is to connect, equip and i ...
's "Open data is data that anyone can access, use or share", have an accessible short version of the definition but refer to the formal definition. Open data may include non-textual material such as
map A map is a symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an , , or . Symbols allow people to go beyond what is n or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different s and s. A ...

map
s,
genome In the fields of molecular biology Molecular biology is the branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, M ...

genome
s,
connectome A connectome () is a comprehensive map of Biological neural network, neural connections in the brain, and may be thought of as its "wiring diagram". More broadly, a connectome would include the mapping of all neural connections within an organi ...

connectome
s,
chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held together by chemical bonds. A homonuclear molecule, m ...
s, mathematical and scientific formulae, medical data, and practice, bioscience and biodiversity. Problems often arise because these are commercially valuable or can be aggregated into works of value. Access to, or re-use of, the data is controlled by organisations, both public and private. Control may be through access restrictions,
licenses A license (American English) or licence (British English) is an official permission or permit to do, use, or own something (as well as the document of that permission or permit). A license is granted by a party to another party as an element of ...
,
copyright Copyright is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. ...

copyright
,
patents A patent is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depe ...
and charges for access or re-use. Advocates of open data argue that these restrictions are against the common good and that these data should be made available without restriction or fee. In addition, it is important that the data are re-usable without requiring further permission, though the types of re-use (such as the creation of derivative works) may be controlled by a license. A typical depiction of the need for open data: Creators of data often do not consider the need to state the conditions of ownership, licensing and re-use; instead presuming that not asserting copyright puts the data into the
public domain The public domain consists of all the creative work A creative work is a manifestation of creativity, creative effort including Work of art, fine artwork (sculpture, paintings, drawing, Sketch (drawing), sketching, performance art), dance, wr ...

public domain
. For example, many scientists do not regard the published data arising from their work to be theirs to control and consider the act of publication in a journal to be an implicit release of data into the
commons The commons is the culture, cultural and nature, natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth. These resources are held in common, not owned privately. Commons c ...

commons
. However, the lack of a license makes it difficult to determine the status of a
data set A data set (or dataset) is a collection of data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sense, data are a set of values of qualitative property, qualitative or quantity, quantit ...
and may restrict the use of data offered in an "Open" spirit. Because of this uncertainty it is also possible for public or private organizations to aggregate said data, claim that it is protected by copyright and then resell it. The issue of
indigenous knowledge Traditional knowledge, indigenous knowledge and local knowledge generally refer to knowledge systems embedded in the cultural traditions of region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical ...
(IK) poses a great challenge in terms of capturing, storage and distribution. Many societies in third-world countries lack the technicality processes of managing the IK. At his presentation at the XML 2005 conference, Connolly displayed these two quotations regarding open data: * "I want my data back." (Jon Bosak circa 1997) * "I've long believed that customers of any application own the data they enter into it." (This quote refers to Veen's own heart-rate data.)


Major sources

Open data can come from any source. This section lists some of the fields that publish (or at least discuss publishing) a large amount of open data.


In science

The concept of open access to scientific data was institutionally established with the formation of the
World Data Center The World Data Centre (WDC) system was created to archive and distribute data collected from the observational programmes of the 1957-1958 International Geophysical Year by the International Council of Science (ICSU). The WDCs were funded and maint ...
system, in preparation for the
International Geophysical Year The International Geophysical Year (IGY; french: Année géophysique internationale) was an international scientific project that lasted from 1 July 1957 to 31 December 1958. It marked the end of a long period during the Cold War when scientific in ...
of 1957–1958. The International Council of Scientific Unions (now the
International Council for Science The International Council for Science (ICSU, after its former name, International Council of Scientific Unions) was an international non-governmental organization An international non-governmental organization (INGO) is an organization which ...
) oversees several World Data Centres with the mandate to minimize the risk of data loss and to maximize data accessibility. While the open-science-data movement long predates the Internet, the availability of fast, ubiquitous networking has significantly changed the context of
Open science dataOpen science data or Open Research Data is a type of open data focused on publishing observations and results of scientific activities available for anyone to analyze and reuse. A major purpose of the drive for open data is to allow the verification ...
, since publishing or obtaining data has become much less expensive and time-consuming. The
Human Genome Project The Human Genome Project (''HGP'') was an international scientific research The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at least the 17th cen ...
was a major initiative that exemplified the power of open data. It was built upon the so-called Bermuda Principles, stipulating that: "All human genomic sequence information … should be freely available and in the public domain in order to encourage research and development and to maximize its benefit to society'. More recent initiatives such as the Structural Genomics Consortium have illustrated that the open data approach can also be used productively within the context of industrial R&D. In 2004, the Science Ministers of all nations of the
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; french: Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 38 member countries, founded in 1961 to st ...

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD), which includes most developed countries of the world, signed a declaration which essentially states that all publicly funded archive data should be made publicly available. Following a request and an intense discussion with data-producing institutions in member states, the OECD published in 2007 the ''OECD Principles and Guidelines for Access to Research Data from Public Funding'' as a ''soft-law'' recommendation. Examples of open data in science: * The Dataverse Network Project – archival repository software promoting
data sharing Data are units of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an entity is" and thus defines both its essence and the nature of its characteristics. The concept of ''inform ...
, persistent data citation, and reproducible research * data.uni-muenster.de – Open data about scientific artifacts from the University of Muenster, Germany. Launched in 2011. * linkedscience.org/data – Open scientific datasets encoded as
Linked Data In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and soft ...
. Launched in 2011, ended 2018. * systemanaturae.org – Open scientific datasets related to wildlife classified by animal species. Launched in 2015.


In government

There are a range of different arguments for government open data. For example, some advocates contend that making government information available to the public as machine readable open data can facilitate government transparency, accountability and public participation. "Open data can be a powerful force for public accountability—it can make existing information easier to analyze, process, and combine than ever before, allowing a new level of public scrutiny." Governments that enable public viewing of data can help citizens engage within the governmental sectors and "add value to that data." Some make the case that opening up official information can support technological innovation and economic growth by enabling third parties to develop new kinds of digital applications and services. Several national governments have created websites to distribute a portion of the data they collect. It is a concept for a collaborative project in the municipal Government to create and organize culture for Open Data or Open government data. Additionally, other levels of government have established open data websites. There are many government entities pursuing
Open Data in Canada Open data in Canada describes the capacity for the Canadian Federal Government The Government of Canada (french: gouvernement du Canada) is the body responsible for the federal administration of Canada Canada is a country in the northern ...
. Data.gov lists the sites of a total of 40 US states and 46 US cities and counties with websites to provide open data; e.g. the state of
Maryland Maryland ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware ...
, the state of
California, US
California, US
and
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
. At the international level, the United Nations has an open data website that publishes statistical data from member states and UN agencies, and the
World Bank The World Bank is an international financial institution An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence is subject to international law. Its o ...

World Bank
published a range of statistical data relating to developing countries. The
European Commission The European Commission (EC) is the executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (polity), state. The executive executes a ...

European Commission
has created two portals for the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
: the
EU Open Data Portal Before data.europa.eu, the EU Open Data Portal was the point of access to public data published by the EU institutions, agencies and other bodies. This function is now integrated in data.europa.eu, after merging with the European Data Portal: a ...
which gives access to open data from the EU institutions, agencies and other bodies and the PublicData portal that provides datasets from local, regional and national public bodies across Europe.
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
is the first country to release standard processes and guidelines under a
Creative Commons Creative Commons (CC) is an American non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collect ...

Creative Commons
license for spread usage in the Public Administration. The open model is called ODMC - Open Data Management Cycle and was adopted in several regions such as
Veneto it, Veneto (man) it, Veneta (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = ...

Veneto
and
Umbria it, Umbro (man) it, Umbra (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , ...

Umbria
Regions and main cities like
Reggio Calabria Reggio di Calabria ( scn, label= Southern Calabrian, Riggiu; el, label=Calabrian Greek The Calabrian dialect of Greek language, Greek, or Grecanico
and
Genova Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; locally ; lij, Zêna ; English, historically, and la, Genua) is the capital of the Regions of Italy, Italian region of Liguria and the List of cities in Italy, sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived ...
. In October 2015, the
Open Government Partnership
Open Government Partnership
launched the International Open Data Charter, a set of principles and best practices for the release of governmental open data formally adopted by seventeen governments of countries, states and cities during the OGP Global Summit in
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organi ...

Mexico
.


In non-profit organizations

Many
non-profit organizations A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, public or social benefit, in contrast with an entity that oper ...
offer more or less open access to their data, as long it does not undermine their users', members' or third party's
privacy rights The right to privacy is an element of various legal traditions to restrain governmental A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad as ...
. In comparison to
for-profit corporationA for-profit corporation is an organization An organization, or organisation ( Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is an entity – such as a company, an institution, or an association – comprising one or more people and ...
s, they do not seek to monetize their data. OpenNWT launched a website offering open data of elections. CIAT offers open data to anybody, who is willing to conduct big data analytics in order to enhance the benefit of international agricultural research.
DBLP DBLP is a computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the stud ...
, which is owned by a non-profit organization
Dagstuhl Dagstuhl is a computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the st ...

Dagstuhl
, offers its database of scientific publications from computer science as open data. Non-profit hospitality exchange services offer trustworthy teams of scientists access to their anonymized data for publication of insights to the benefit of humanity. Before becoming a
for-profit corporationA for-profit corporation is an organization An organization, or organisation ( Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is an entity – such as a company, an institution, or an association – comprising one or more people and ...
in 2011, Couchsurfing offered 4 research teams access to its
social network A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors (such as individuals or organizations), sets of Dyad (sociology), dyadic ties, and other Social relation, social interactions between actors. The social network perspectiv ...

social network
ing data. In 2015, non-profit hospitality exchange services
Bewelcome BeWelcome (BW) is a hospitality exchange service accessible via a website or a Android app. The platform is a gift economy; hosts are not allowed to charge for lodging. BeWelcome is operated by BeVolunteer, a nonprofit organization organized as ...
and
Warm Showers Warm Showers (WS) is a non-profit hospitality exchange service for people engaging in bicycle touring. The platform is a gift economy — hosts are not supposed to charge for lodging and are not bound. The platform is accessible via a mobile app a ...
provided their data for public research.


National policies and strategies

Germany launched an official strategy in July 2021.


Arguments for and against

The debate on open data is still evolving. The best open government applications seek to empower citizens, to help
small businesses Small businesses are privately owned corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the state to act as a single entity (a legal entity recognized by private and public law 'born out ...
, or to create value in some other positive, constructive way. Opening government data is only a way-point on the road to improving education, improving government, and building tools to solve other real world problems. While many arguments have been made categorically, the following discussion of arguments for and against open data highlights that these arguments often depend highly on the type of data and its potential uses. Arguments made on behalf of open data include the following: * "Data belongs to the
human race Human Race or The Human Race may refer to: * Human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, ...
". Typical examples are
genome In the fields of molecular biology Molecular biology is the branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, M ...

genome
s, data on organisms, medical science,
environmental dataEnvironmental data is that which is based on the measurement of environmental pressures, the state of the environment and the impacts on ecosystems. This is usually the "P", "S" and "I" of the DPSIR model where D = Drivers, P = Pressures, S = State, ...
following the
Aarhus Convention The UNECE Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters, usually known as the Aarhus Convention, was signed on 25 June 1998 in the Danish city of Aarhus. It entered int ...
*
Public money Government spending or expenditure includes all government consumption, investment, and transfer payments. In national income accounting, the acquisition by governments of goods and services for current use, to directly satisfy the individual or ...
was used to fund the work and so it should be universally available. * It was created by or at a government institution (this is common in US National Laboratories and government agencies) *
Fact A fact is something that is true True most commonly refers to truth Truth is the property of being in accord with fact or reality.Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionarytruth 2005 In everyday language, truth is typically ascribed to things ...
s cannot legally be copyrighted. * Sponsors of research do not get full value unless the resulting data are freely available. * Restrictions on data re-use create an anticommons. * Data are required for the smooth process of running communal human activities and are an important enabler of socio-economic development (health care, education,
economic productivity Productivity describes various measures of the efficiency Efficiency is the (often measurable) ability to avoid wasting materials, energy, efforts, money, and time in doing something or in producing a desired result. In a more general sense, i ...
, etc.)."Big Data for Development: From Information- to Knowledge Societies"
Martin Hilbert (2013), SSRN Scholarly Paper No. ID 2205145. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network; https://ssrn.com/abstract=2205145
* In scientific research, the rate of discovery is accelerated by better access to data. * Making data open helps combat "data rot" and ensure that scientific research data are preserved over time. * Statistical literacy benefits from open data. Instructors can use locally relevant data sets to teach statistical concepts to their students. It is generally held that factual data cannot be copyrighted. However, publishers frequently add copyright statements (often forbidding re-use) to scientific data accompanying publications. It may be unclear whether the factual data embedded in full text are part of the copyright. While the human abstraction of facts from paper publications is normally accepted as legal there is often an implied restriction on the machine extraction by robots. Unlike
open access Open access (OA) is a set of principles and a range of practices through which research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis o ...
, where groups of publishers have stated their concerns, open data is normally challenged by individual institutions. Their arguments have been discussed less in public discourse and there are fewer quotes to rely on at this time. Arguments against making all data available as open data include the following: * Government funding may not be used to duplicate or challenge the activities of the private sector (e.g.
PubChem PubChem is a database In computing, a database is an organized collection of Data (computing), data stored and accessed electronically from a computer system. Where databases are more complex they are often developed using formal #Design an ...
). * Governments have to be accountable for the efficient use of taxpayer's money: If public funds are used to aggregate the data and if the data will bring commercial (private) benefits to only a small number of users, the users should reimburse governments for the cost of providing the data. * Open data may lead to exploitation of, and rapid publication of results based on, data pertaining to developing countries by rich and well-equipped research institutes, without any further involvement and/or benefit to local communities ( helicopter research); similarly to the historical open access to tropical forests that has led to the disappropriation ("Global Pillage") of plant genetic resources from developing countries. * The revenue earned by publishing data can be used to cover the costs of generating and/or disseminating the data, so that the dissemination can continue indefinitely. * The revenue earned by publishing data permits non-profit organisations to fund other activities (e.g. learned society publishing supports the society). * The government gives specific legitimacy for certain organisations to recover costs (
NIST The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is a physical sciences Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies abiotic component, non-living systems, in contrast to life science. It in turn has many branches, e ...
in US,
Ordnance Survey , nativename_a = , nativename_r = , logo = Ordnance Survey 2015 Logo.svg , logo_width = 240px , logo_caption = , seal = , seal_width = , seal_caption = , picture = , picture_width = , picture_caption = , formed = , preceding1 = , di ...
in UK). * Privacy concerns may require that access to data is limited to specific users or to sub-sets of the data. * Collecting, 'cleaning', managing and disseminating data are typically labour- and/or cost-intensive processes – whoever provides these services should receive fair remuneration for providing those services. * Sponsors do not get full value unless their data is used appropriately – sometimes this requires quality management, dissemination and branding efforts that can best be achieved by charging fees to users. * Often, targeted end-users cannot use the data without additional processing (analysis, apps etc.) – if anyone has access to the data, none may have an incentive to invest in the processing required to make data useful (typical examples include biological, medical, and environmental data). * There is no control to the secondary use (aggregation) of open data.


Relation to other open activities

The goals of the Open Data movement are similar to those of other "Open" movements. *
Open access Open access (OA) is a set of principles and a range of practices through which research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis o ...

Open access
is concerned with making scholarly publications freely available on the internet. In some cases, these articles include open datasets as well. * Open specifications are documents describing file types or protocols, where the documents are openly licensed. Usually these specifications are primarily meant to improve different software handling the same file types or protocols, but monopolists forced by law into open specifications might make it more difficult. *
Open content Free content, libre content, or free information is any kind of functional work, work of art, or other creative Content (media and publishing), content that meets the definition of a Definition of Free Cultural Works, free cultural work. De ...

Open content
is concerned with making resources aimed at a human audience (such as prose, photos, or videos) freely available. *
Open knowledge Open knowledge (or free knowledge) is knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that i ...
.
Open Knowledge International Open Knowledge Foundation (OKF) is a global, non-profit network that promotes and shares information at no charge, including both content and data. It was founded by Rufus Pollock on 20 May 2004 and launched on 24 May 2004 in Cambridge, UK. It is ...
argues for openness in a range of issues including, but not limited to, those of open data. It covers (a) scientific, historical, geographic or otherwise (b) Content such as music, films, books (c) Government and other administrative information. Open data is included within the scope of the Open Knowledge Definition, which is alluded to in
Science Commons Science Commons (SC) was a Creative Commons project for designing strategies and tools for faster, more efficient web-enabled scientific research. The organization's goals were to identify unnecessary barriers to research, craft policy guideline ...
' Protocol for Implementing Open Access Data. * Open notebook science refers to the application of the Open Data concept to as much of the scientific process as possible, including failed experiments and raw experimental data. *
Open-source software Open-source software (OSS) is computer software Software is a collection of instructions Instruction or instructions may refer to: Computing * Instruction, one operation of a processor within a computer architecture instruction set * Co ...
is concerned with the
open-source license An open-source license is a type of license A license (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the Eng ...
s under which computer programs can be distributed and is not normally concerned primarily with data. *
Open educational resources Open educational resources (OER) are freely accessible, openly licensed instructional materials Instructional materials, also known as teaching/learning materials (TLM), are any collection of materials including animate and inanimate objects ...
are freely accessible, openly licensed documents and media that are useful for teaching, learning, and assessing as well as for research purposes. *
Open research Open research is research conducted in the spirit of free and open-source software. Much like open-source schemes that are built around a source code that is made public, the central theme of open research is to make clear accounts of the method ...
/
open science One definition of Open science holds that it is the movement to make scientific research (including publications, data, physical samples, and software) and its dissemination accessible to all levels of an inquiring society, amateur or profession ...
/
open science dataOpen science data or Open Research Data is a type of open data focused on publishing observations and results of scientific activities available for anyone to analyze and reuse. A major purpose of the drive for open data is to allow the verification ...
(linked open science) means an approach to open and interconnect scientific assets like data, methods and tools with
linked data In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and soft ...
techniques to enable transparent, reproducible and transdisciplinary research. *Open-GLAM (Galleries, Library, Archives, and Museums) is an initiative and network that supports exchange and collaboration between cultural institutions that support
open access Open access (OA) is a set of principles and a range of practices through which research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis o ...

open access
to their digitised collections. The GLAM-Wiki Initiative helps cultural institutions share their openly licensed resources with the world through collaborative projects with experienced
Wikipedia Wikipedia ( or ) is a free content Free content, libre content, or free information is any kind of functional work, work of art A work of art, artwork, art piece, piece of art or art object is an artistic creati ...

Wikipedia
editors. Open Heritage Data is associated with Open GLAM, as openly licensed data in the heritage sector is now frequently used in research, publishing, and programming, particularly in the
Digital Humanities Digital humanities (DH) is an area of scholarly activity at the intersection of computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorit ...
.


Funders' mandates

Several funding bodies which mandate Open Access also mandate Open Data. A good expression of requirements (truncated in places) is given by the
Canadian Institutes of Health Research The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR, french: Instituts de recherche en santé du Canada) is the major federal agency responsible for funding health and medical research in Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of Nor ...
(CIHR): * to deposit bioinformatics, atomic and molecular coordinate data, experimental data into the appropriate public database immediately upon publication of research results. * to retain original data sets for a minimum of five years after the grant. This applies to all data, whether published or not. Other bodies active in promoting the deposition of data as well as full text include the
Wellcome Trust The Wellcome Trust is a charitable foundation focused on health research based in London, in the United Kingdom. It was established in 1936 with legacies from the pharmaceutical magnate Henry Wellcome to fund research to improve human and animal ...
. An academic paper published in 2013 advocated that
Horizon 2020 The Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, also called Framework Programmes or abbreviated FP1 to FP9, are funding programmes created by the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic uni ...
(the science funding mechanism of the EU) should mandate that funded projects hand in their databases as "deliverables" at the end of the project, so that they can be checked for third party usability then shared.Galsworthy, M.J. & McKee, M. (2013). Europe's "Horizon 2020" science funding programme: How is it shaping up? Journal of Health Services Research and Policy. doi: 10.1177/1355819613476017
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Non-open data

Several mechanisms restrict access to or reuse of data (and several reasons for doing this are given above). They include: * making data available for a charge. * compilation in databases or websites to which only registered members or customers can have access. * use of a
proprietary {{Short pages monitor