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An oil is any
nonpolar In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, ...
chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ultimately composed of atoms, which ...
that is composed primarily of
hydrocarbons In organic chemistry Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies the structure, properties and reactions of organic compounds, which contain carbon in covalent bonding.Clayden, J.; Greeves, N. and Warren, S. (2012) ''Organic Chemistry ...
and is both
hydrophobic In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound, compounds composed of at ...
(does not mix with
water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a ). It is vital for all known forms of , even though it provide ...

water
, literally "water fearing") and
lipophilicLipophilicity (from Greek language, Greek λίπος "fat" and :wikt:φίλος, φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene. Such non-polar ...
(mixes with other oils, literally "fat loving"). Oils are usually flammable and
surface active
surface active
. Most oils are unsaturated
lipids In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanis ...

lipids
that are liquid at room temperature. The general definition of oil includes classes of chemical compounds that may be otherwise unrelated in structure, properties, and uses. Oils may be
animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells ...
,
vegetable Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still commonly used and is applied to plants collectively to refer to all edible plant matter, including the edible flower, flowers, ...
, or
petrochemical Petrochemicals (sometimes abbreviated as petchems) are the chemical products obtained from petroleum Petroleum (), also known as crude oil and oil, is a #Latent heat of vaporization, naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid found in geolo ...
in origin, and may be volatile or non-volatile. They are used for food (e.g.,
olive oil Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olive The olive, known by the botanical name ''Olea europaea'', meaning "European olive", is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and ...

olive oil
), fuel (e.g.,
heating oil Heating oil is any petroleum product Petroleum products are materials derived from crude oil (petroleum Petroleum (), also known as crude oil and oil, is a #Latent heat of vaporization, naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid found ...
), medical purposes (e.g.,
mineral oil Mineral oil is any of various colorless, odorless, light mixtures of higher alkanes from a mineral source, particularly a distillate of petroleum, as distinct from usually edible vegetable oils. The name 'mineral oil' by itself is imprecise, h ...
),
lubrication Lubrication is the process or technique of using a lubricant A lubricant is a substance that helps to reduce friction between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move. It may also have the f ...
(e.g.
motor oil Motor oil, engine oil, or engine lubricant is any one of various substances that consist of base oilBase oils are used to manufacture products including grease (lubricant), lubricating greases, motor oil and metalworking fluid, metal processing ...

motor oil
), and the manufacture of many types of paints, plastics, and other materials. Specially prepared oils are used in some religious ceremonies and rituals as purifying agents.


Etymology

First attested in English 1176, the word ''oil'' comes from
Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular o ...
''oile'', from
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
''oleum'', which in turn comes from the
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
(''elaion''), "olive oil, oil" and that from (''elaia''), "
olive The olive, botanical name ''Olea europaea'', meaning "European olive", is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodivers ...

olive
tree", "olive fruit". The earliest attested forms of the word are the
Mycenaean Greek Mycenaean Greek is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language Greek (modern , romanized: ''Elliniká'', Ancient Greek, ancient , ''Hellēnikḗ'') is an independent branch of the Indo-European languages, Indo-European family of lan ...
, ''e-ra-wo'' and , ''e-rai-wo'', written in the
Linear B Linear B is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek. The script predates the Greek alphabet The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late ninth or ...
syllabic script.


Types


Organic oils

Organic oils are produced in remarkable diversity by plants, animals, and other organisms through natural
metabolic Metabolism (, from el, μεταβολή ''metabolē'', "change") is the set of life Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that have biological processes, such as Cell signaling, signaling and self-sustaining ...
processes. ''
Lipid In and , a lipid is a macro that is soluble in solvents. are typically s used to dissolve other naturally occurring hydrocarbon lipid s that do not (or do not easily) dissolve in water, including s, es, s, fat-soluble s (such as vitamins A, ...
'' is the scientific term for the
fatty acid In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during ...
s,
steroid A steroid is a biologically active organic compound In , organic compounds are generally any s that contain - . Due to carbon's ability to (form chains with other carbon s), millions of organic compounds are known. The study of the prope ...

steroid
s and similar chemicals often found in the oils produced by living things, while oil refers to an overall mixture of chemicals. Organic oils may also contain chemicals other than lipids, including
protein Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and Sir John Cowdery Kendrew in 1958, for which they received a No ...

protein
s,
wax Waxes are a diverse class of organic compound In , organic compounds are generally any s that contain - . Due to carbon's ability to (form chains with other carbon s), millions of organic compounds are known. The study of the properties, ...
es (class of compounds with oil-like properties that are solid at common temperatures) and
alkaloid Alkaloids are a class of base (chemistry), basic, natural product, naturally occurring organic compounds that contain at least one nitrogen atom. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral and even weakly acidic properties. Som ...
s. Lipids can be classified by the way that they are made by an organism, their chemical structure and their limited
solubility In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound, compounds composed of atom ...

solubility
in water compared to oils. They have a high
carbon Carbon (from la, carbo "coal") is a with the C and 6. It is lic and —making four s available to form s. It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table. Carbon makes up only about 0.025 percent of Earth's crust. Three occur naturally, ...

carbon
and
hydrogen Hydrogen is the chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol H and atomic number 1. Hydrogen is the lightest element. At standard temperature and pressure, standard conditions hydrogen is a gas of diatomic molecules having the che ...

hydrogen
content and are considerably lacking in
oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an element is a pure substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same ...

oxygen
compared to other organic compounds and minerals; they tend to be relatively
nonpolar In chemistry Chemistry is the science, scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the Chemical element, elements that make up matter to the chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, ...
molecules, but may include both polar and nonpolar regions as in the case of
phospholipid Phospholipids, also known as phosphatides, are a class of lipid In and , a lipid is a macro that is soluble in solvents. are typically s used to dissolve other naturally occurring hydrocarbon lipid s that do not (or do not easily) disso ...

phospholipid
s and steroids.Alberts, Bruce; Johnson, Alexander; Lewis, Julian; Raff, Martin; Roberts, Keith; Walter, Peter. ''Molecular Biology of the Cell''. New York: Garland Science, 2002, pp. 62, 118-119.


Mineral oils

Crude oil, or
petroleum Petroleum, also known as crude oil and oil, is a naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric process, isoc ...

petroleum
, and its refined components, collectively termed ''
petrochemicals Petrochemicals (sometimes abbreviated as petchems) are the chemical products obtained from petroleum Petroleum (), also known as crude oil and oil, is a #Latent heat of vaporization, naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid found in geolo ...
'', are crucial resources in the modern economy. Crude oil originates from ancient
fossilized A fossil (from Classical Latin: , literally 'obtained by digging') is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age. Examples include bones, Seashell, shells, exoskeletons, stone imprints of ...
organic material Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter refers to the large source of carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial and aquatic environments. It is matter In classical physics and general chem ...
s, such as
zooplankton Zooplankton (; ) are heterotroph A heterotroph (; from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often ro ...

zooplankton
and
algae Algae (; singular alga ) is an informal term for a large and diverse group of s. It is a grouping that includes species from multiple distinct s. Included organisms range from , such as '','' and the s, to forms, such as the , a large whi ...

algae
, which
geochemical Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans. The realm of geochemistry extends beyond the Earth, encompassing the en ...
processes convert into oil. The name "mineral oil" is a
misnomer A misnomer is a name that is incorrectly or unsuitably applied. Misnomers often arise because something was named long before its correct nature was known, or because an earlier form of something has been replaced by a later form to which the nam ...
, in that minerals are not the source of the oil—ancient plants and animals are. Mineral oil is organic. However, it is classified as "mineral oil" instead of as "organic oil" because its organic origin is remote (and was unknown at the time of its discovery), and because it is obtained in the vicinity of rocks, underground traps, and sands. ''
Mineral oil Mineral oil is any of various colorless, odorless, light mixtures of higher alkanes from a mineral source, particularly a distillate of petroleum, as distinct from usually edible vegetable oils. The name 'mineral oil' by itself is imprecise, h ...
'' also refers to several specific distillates of crude oil.


Applications


Cooking

Several edible vegetable and animal oils, and also
fat In nutrition Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. A sub-discipline of both chemistry and biology, biochemistry may be divided ...

fat
s, are used for various purposes in cooking and food preparation. In particular, many foods are fried in oil much hotter than boiling water. Oils are also used for flavoring and for modifying the texture of foods (e.g.
Stir Fry Stir frying () is a Chinese cooking techniques, Chinese cooking technique in which ingredients are fried in a small amount of very hot oil while being stirred or tossed in a wok. The technique originated in China and in recent centuries has spr ...
). Cooking oils are derived either from animal fat, as
butter Butter is a dairy product Dairy products or milk products are a type of food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contai ...

butter
,
lard Lard is a semi-solid white fat In nutrition Nutrition is the biochemical and physiological process by which an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any indivi ...
and other types, or plant oils from the
olive The olive, botanical name ''Olea europaea'', meaning "European olive", is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodivers ...

olive
,
maize Maize ( ; ''Zea mays'' subsp. ''mays'', from es, maíz after tnq, mahiz), also known as corn (North American North America is a continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be ...

maize
,
sunflower ''Helianthus'' () is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil organisms as well as Virus classification#ICTV classification, vi ...

sunflower
and many other species.


Cosmetics

Oils are applied to hair to give it a lustrous look, to prevent tangles and roughness and to stabilize the hair to promote growth. See
hair conditioner Hair conditioner is a hair care product used to improve the feel, appearance and manageability of hair Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis. Hair is one of the defining characteristics of mammals. The ...
.


Religion

Oil has been used throughout history as a religious medium. It is often considered a spiritually purifying agent and is used for
anointing Anointing is the ritual act of pouring aromatic oil over a person's head or entire body. By extension, the term is also applied to related acts of sprinkling, dousing, or smearing a person or object with any perfume Perfume (, ; french: parf ...
purposes. As a particular example,
holy anointing oil The holy anointing oil (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans ...
has been an important ritual liquid for
Judaism Judaism is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, monotheism, monotheistic, and ethnic religion comprising the collective religious, cultural, and legal tradition and civilization of the Jewish people. It has its roots as an organized religion ...
and
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. It is the Major religious groups, world's ...

Christianity
.


Painting

Color
pigments A pigment is a colored material that is completely or nearly insoluble in water. In contrast, dyes are typically soluble, at least at some stage in their use. Generally dyes are often organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compou ...

pigments
are easily suspended in oil, making it suitable as a supporting medium for
paints Paint is any pigmented liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric process, isochoric flow) refers to a fluid flow, flow in which the material den ...

paints
. The oldest known extant oil paintings date from 650 AD.


Heat transfer

Oils are used as coolants in
oil cooling Oil cooling is the use of engine oil as a coolant A coolant is a substance, typically liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformation (mechanics), deforms (flows) under an ...
, for instance in electric
transformers ''Transformers'' is a produced by American toy company and Japanese toy company . It follows the battles of sentient, living autonomous robots, often the s and the s, who can transform into other forms, such as vehicles and animals. The franc ...

transformers
. Heat transfer oils are used both as
coolant A coolant is a substance, typically liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformation (mechanics), deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress, or external force. Fluids are ...

coolant
s (see
oil cooling Oil cooling is the use of engine oil as a coolant A coolant is a substance, typically liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformation (mechanics), deforms (flows) under an ...
), for heating (e.g. in
oil heater An oil heater, also known as an oil-filled heater, oil-filled radiator, or column heater, is a common form of convection heater used in domestic heating upHot water central heating unit, using wood as fuel A central heating system provides warm ...

oil heater
s) and in other applications of heat transfer.


Lubrication

Given that they are non-polar, oils do not easily adhere to other substances. This makes them useful as
lubricants A lubricant is a substance that helps to reduce friction Friction is the force In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is th ...
for various engineering purposes. Mineral oils are more commonly used as machine lubricants than biological oils are.
Whale oil Whale oil is oil An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All ev ...
is preferred for lubricating clocks, because it does not evaporate, leaving dust, although its use was banned in the USA in 1980. It is a long-running myth that
spermaceti Spermaceti (from Greek ''sperma'' meaning "seed", and '' ceti'', the genitive form of "whale") is a wax , a typical wax ester. Image:Beeswax foundation.jpg, Commercial honeycomb foundation, made by pressing beeswax between patterned metal roller ...

spermaceti
from whales has still been used in NASA projects such as the
Hubble Telescope The Hubble Space Telescope (often referred to as HST or Hubble) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation. It was not the first space telescope, but it is one of the largest and most vers ...
and the
Voyager Voyager may refer to: Computing and communications * LG Voyager The LG VX10000, also known as the Verizon Voyager or LG VX10K, is an Internet-enabled multimedia phone designed by LG Electronics and carried by Verizon Wireless, Telus, and Bel ...
probe because of its extremely low freezing temperature. Spermaceti is not actually an oil, but a mixture mostly of wax esters, and there is no evidence that NASA has used whale oil.


Fuel

Some oils
burn A burn is a type of injury Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage Damage is any change in a thing, often a physical object, that degrades it away from its initial state. It can broadly be defined as "changes introduced into a ...
in liquid or
aerosol An aerosol (abbreviation of "aero-solution") is a suspension Suspension or suspended may refer to: Science and engineering * Suspension (topology), in mathematics * Suspension (dynamical systems), in mathematics * Suspension of a ring, in mathe ...

aerosol
form, generating
light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visual perception, perceived by the human eye. Visible light is usually defined as having wavelengths in the range of 400–700 nan ...

light
, and
heat In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy, entropy, and the physical properties of matter and radiation. The behavior of these ...

heat
which can be used directly or converted into other forms of energy such as electricity or mechanical work. In order to obtain many fuel oils,
crude oil Petroleum, also known as crude oil and oil, is a naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric process, isoc ...
is pumped from the ground and is shipped via
oil tanker An oil tanker, also known as a petroleum tanker, is a ship A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep Sea lane, waterways, carrying goods or passengers, or in support of specialized missions, suc ...
or a
pipeline Pipeline may refer to: Electronics, computers and computing * Pipeline (computing), a chain of data-processing stages or a CPU optimization found on ** Instruction pipelining, a technique for implementing instruction-level parallelism within a si ...
to an
oil refinery An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial processes, industrial process Factory, plant where petroleum (crude oil) is transformed and refining, refined into useful products such as gasoline (petrol), diesel fuel, asphalt, asphalt ba ...
. There, it is converted from crude oil to
diesel fuel Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel Liquid fuels are combustible or energy-generating molecules that can be harnessed to create mechanical energy In physical sciences Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies abi ...
(petrodiesel),
ethane Ethane ( or ) is an Organic compound, organic chemical compound with chemical formula . At Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, standard temperature and pressure, ethane is a colorless, odourless gas. Like many hydrocarbons, ethane ...
(and other short-chain
alkanes , the simplest alkane In organic chemistry Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies the structure, properties and reactions of organic compounds, which contain carbon in covalent bonding.Clayden, J.; Greeves, N. and Warren, S. (20 ...

alkanes
),
fuel oil Fuel oil (also known as heavy oil, marine fuel, bunker, furnace oil, or gasoil) is a fraction A fraction (from Latin ', "broken") represents a part of a whole or, more generally, any number of equal parts. When spoken in everyday English, a fr ...
s (heaviest of commercial fuels, used in ships/furnaces),
gasoline Gasoline () or petrol () (see the #Etymology, etymology for naming differences and the use of the term ''gas'') is a transparent, petroleum-derived flammable liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in most spark-ignition engine, spark-ignite ...

gasoline
(petrol),
jet fuel Jet fuel or aviation turbine fuel (ATF, also abbreviated avtur) is a type of aviation fuel Aviation fuels are -based s, or petroleum and synthetic fuel blends, used to power . They have more stringent requirements than fuels used for ground use ...
,
kerosene Kerosene, paraffin, or lamp oil is a combustible , Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = G ...

kerosene
,
benzene Benzene is an organic Organic may refer to: * Organic, of or relating to an organism, a living entity * Organic, of or relating to an anatomical organ (anatomy), organ Chemistry * Organic matter, matter that has come from a once-living organi ...

benzene
(historically), and
liquefied petroleum gas Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, LP gas, or condensate), is a flammable , Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official lan ...
. A barrel of crude oil produces approximately of diesel, of jet fuel, of gasoline, of other products, split between heavy fuel oil and liquified petroleum gases,U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)
— Retrieved 2011-10-02.
and of heating oil. The total production of a barrel of crude into various products results in an increase to . In the 18th and 19th centuries,
whale oil Whale oil is oil An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All ev ...
was commonly used for lamps, which was replaced with natural gas and then electricity.


Chemical feedstock

Crude oil can be refined into a wide variety of component
hydrocarbons In organic chemistry Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies the structure, properties and reactions of organic compounds, which contain carbon in covalent bonding.Clayden, J.; Greeves, N. and Warren, S. (2012) ''Organic Chemistry ...
. ''
Petrochemicals Petrochemicals (sometimes abbreviated as petchems) are the chemical products obtained from petroleum Petroleum (), also known as crude oil and oil, is a #Latent heat of vaporization, naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid found in geolo ...
'' are the refined
components of crude oil Petroleum (), also known as crude oil and oil, is a #Latent heat of vaporization, naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth, Earth's surface. It is commonly refined into various types of fuels. ...
and the chemical products made from them. They are used as ,
fertilizers A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; American and British English spelling differences#-ise, -ize (-isation, -ization), see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin that is applied to soil ...
,
medicines A medication (also called medicament, medicine, pharmaceutical drug, medicinal drug or simply drug) is a drug File:Aspirine macro shot.jpg, Uncoated aspirin Tablet (pharmacy), tablets, consisting of about 90% acetylsalicylic acid, along w ...

medicines
,
paints Paint is any pigmented liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric process, isochoric flow) refers to a fluid flow, flow in which the material den ...

paints
,
plastics Plastics are a wide range of syntheticA synthetic is an artificial material produced by organic chemistry, organic chemical synthesis. Synthetic may also refer to: In the sense of both "combination" and "artificial" * Synthetic chemical or s ...

plastics
,
synthetic fiber Synthetic fiber or synthetic fibre (in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codi ...
s, and
synthetic rubber A synthetic rubber is any artificial elastomer An elastomer is a polymer A polymer (; Greek ''wikt:poly-, poly-'', "many" + ''wikt:-mer, -mer'', "part") is a Chemical substance, substance or material consisting of very large molecules, or mac ...
. Organic oils are another important chemical feedstock, especially in
green chemistry Green chemistry, also called sustainable chemistry, is an area of chemistry and chemical engineering focused on the design of products and processes that minimize or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. While environmental chem ...
.


See also

*
Emulsifier An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable) owing to liquid-liquid phase separation. Emulsions are part of a more general class of two-phase systems of matter In classical phys ...
, a chemical which allows oil and water to mix


References


External links

*
Petroleum Online e-Learning resource from IHRDC
{{Authority control Chemical substances