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A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation who regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include
hunter-gatherer A hunter-gatherer is a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use of culture, language and tools. T ...
s,
pastoral nomads Nomadic pastoralism is a form of pastoralism when livestock are herding, herded in order to seek for fresh pastures on which to Grazing, graze. True nomads follow an irregular pattern of movement, in contrast with transhumance where seasonal pastur ...
(owning
livestock Livestock are the domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable ...
), and
tinker Tinker or tinkerer is an archaic term for an itinerant tinsmith Tinware desk lamp, late 1930s, Bandelier National Monument. Made by a Civilian Conservation Corps tinsmith. A tinsmith is a person who makes and repairs things made of tin ...

tinker
s or
trader
trader
nomads. In the twentieth century, population of nomadic pastoral tribes slowly decreased, reaching to an estimated 30–40 million nomads in the world . Nomadic hunting and gathering—following seasonally available wild plants and game—is by far the oldest human subsistence method. Pastoralists raise herds, driving or accompanying in patterns that normally avoid depleting pastures beyond their ability to recover. Nomadism is also a
lifestyle Lifestyle often refers to: * Lifestyle (sociology), the way a person lives * ''Otium'', ancient Roman concept of a lifestyle * Style of life (german: Lebensstil), dealing with the dynamics of personality Lifestyle may also refer to: Business and ...
adapted to infertile regions such as
steppe File:Steppe of western Kazakhstan in the early spring.jpg, Steppe in Kazakhstan In physical geography, a steppe is an ecoregion characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes. Steppe biomes may in ...

steppe
,
tundra In physical geography Physical geography (also known as physiography) is one of the two fields of geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the ...

tundra
, or ice and sand, where mobility is the most efficient strategy for exploiting scarce resources. For example, many groups living in the tundra are
reindeer herders The reindeer (''Rangifer tarandus''), also known as caribou in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as the northern ...
and are semi-extra nomadic, following forage for their animals. Sometimes also described as "nomadic" are the various
itinerant An itinerant is a person who travels habitually. Itinerant may refer to: *"Travellers" or itinerant groups in Europe *Itinerant preacher, also known as itinerant minister *Travelling salespeople, see door-to-door, hawker (trade), hawker, and peddler ...
populations who move among densely populated areas to offer specialized services (
craft A craft or trade is a pastime or an occupation that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work. In a historical sense, particularly the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted ap ...
s or
trade Trade involves the transfer of goods from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. Economists refer to a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of ru ...

trade
s) to their residents—external
consultant A consultant (from la, consultare "to deliberate") is a professional A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified professional activity. The term also describes the standards of education and ...
s, for example. These groups are known as " peripatetic nomads".


Common characteristics

A nomad is a person with no settled home, moving from place to place as a way of obtaining food, finding pasture for livestock, or otherwise making a living. The word "nomad" comes ultimately from the classical Greek word νομάς (''nomás'', "roaming, wandering, especially to find pasture"), from Ancient Greek νομός (''nomós'', "pasture"). Most nomadic groups follow a fixed annual or seasonal pattern of movements and settlements. Nomadic peoples traditionally travel by animal or canoe or on foot. Animals include camels, horses and alpaca. Today, some nomads travel by motor vehicle. Some nomads may live in homes or homeless shelters, though this would necessarily be on a temporary or itinerant basis. Nomads keep moving for different reasons. Nomadic foragers move in search of game, edible plants, and water. Aboriginal Australians,
Negrito The Negrito () are several diverse ethnic groups who inhabit isolated parts of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of t ...

Negrito
s of Southeast Asia, and
San
San
of Africa, for example, traditionally move from camp to camp to hunt and gather wild plants. Some tribes of the Americas followed this way of life. Pastoral nomads, on the other hand, make their living raising livestock such as camels, cattle, goats, horses, sheep, or yaks; these nomads usually travel in search of pastures for their flocks. The Fulani and their cattle travel through the grasslands of
Niger ) , official_languages = French language, French , languages_type = National languages
in western Africa. Some nomadic peoples, especially herders, may also move to raid settled communities or to avoid enemies. Nomadic craftworkers and merchants travel to find and serve customers. They include the
LoharLohar or ''Lohara'' or Panchal or BlackSmith also called iron workers are social group of people in india. They are mainly associated with work as blacksmiths. The term lohar was mainly originated for blacksmith, weapon caster associated with hindu ...

Lohar
blacksmiths of India, the
Romani Romani may refer to: Ethnicities *Romani people The Romani (), also known as the Roma, are an Indo-Aryan people, traditionally nomadic itinerants living mostly in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several ...

Romani
traders, Scottish travelers, Irish travelers. Most nomads travel in groups of families, bands, or
tribes The term tribe is used in many different contexts to refer to a category of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intellig ...

tribes
. These groups are based on kinship and marriage ties or on formal agreements of cooperation. A council of adult males makes most of the decisions, though some tribes have chiefs. In the case of Mongolian nomads, a family moves twice a year. These two movements generally occur during the summer and winter. The winter destination is usually located near the mountains in a valley and most families already have fixed winter locations. Their winter locations have shelter for animals and are not used by other families while they are out. In the summer they move to a more open area that the animals can graze. Most nomads usually move in the same region and don't travel very far to a totally different region. Since they usually circle around a large area, communities form and families generally know where the other ones are. Often, families do not have the resources to move from one province to another unless they are moving out of the area permanently. A family can move on its own or with others; if it moves alone, they are usually no more than a couple of kilometers from each other. The geographical closeness of families is usually for mutual support. Pastoral nomad societies usually do not have a large population. One such society, the
Mongols The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the di ...

Mongols
, gave rise to the largest land empire in history. The Mongols originally consisted of loosely organized nomadic tribes in Mongolia, Manchuria, and Siberia. In the late 12th century,
Genghis Khan ''Chinggis Khaan'' ͡ʃʰiŋɡɪs xaːŋongol script: ''Chinggis Qa(gh)an/ Chinggis Khagan'' , birth_name = Temüjin ; xng, Temüjin, script=Latn; ., name=Temujin , successor = Ögedei Khan , spouse = , issue = , house = Borjigin , ...

Genghis Khan
united them and other nomadic tribes to found the
Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries was the List of largest empires, largest contiguous land empire in history and the second largest empire by landmass, second only to the British Empire. Originating in Mongolia in East Asia, the ...
, which eventually stretched the length of Asia. The nomadic way of life has become increasingly rare. Many countries have converted pastures into cropland and forced nomadic peoples into permanent settlements. Modern forms of nomadic peoples are variously referred to as "shiftless", "
gypsies The Romani people The Romani (), also known as the Roma, are an Indo-Aryan people, traditionally nomadic itinerants living mostly in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally id ...

gypsies
", "
rootless cosmopolitan Rootless cosmopolitan (russian: безродный космополит, translit=bezrodnyi kosmopolit) was a pejorative Soviet epithet which referred mostly to Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or ...
s", hunter-gatherers, refugees and urban
homeless Homelessness is lacking stable and appropriate housing. People can be categorized as homeless if they are: living on the streets (primary homelessness); moving between temporary shelters, including houses of friends, family and emergency accomm ...

homeless
or
street-people
street-people
, depending on their individual circumstances. These terms may be used in a derogatory sense.


Hunter-gatherers

Nomads (also known as foragers) move from campsite to campsite, following
game with separate sliding drawer, from 1390–1353 BC, made of glazed faience, dimensions: 5.5 × 7.7 × 21 cm, in the Brooklyn Museum (New York City) '', 1560, Pieter Bruegel the Elder File:Paul Cézanne, 1892-95, Les joueurs ...
and wild
fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds. Edible fruits, in particular, have propa ...

fruit
s and
vegetable Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still commonly used and is applied to plants collectively to refer to all edible plant matter, including the flowers, fruits, stems ...

vegetable
s. Hunting and gathering describes early people's subsistence living style. Following the development of agriculture, most hunter-gatherers were eventually either displaced or converted to farming or pastoralist groups. Only a few contemporary societies are classified as hunter-gatherers; and some of these supplement, sometimes extensively, their foraging activity with farming or keeping animals.


Warfare

According to Gérard Chaliand,
terrorism Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentional violence to achieve political aims. It is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime or in the context of war against non-combatants (mostly civilians and neu ...
originated in nomad-warrior cultures. He points to
Machiavelli
Machiavelli
's classification of war into two types, which Chaliand interprets as describing a difference between warfare in sedentary and nomadic societies:
There are two different kinds of war. The one springs from the ambition of princes or republics that seek to extend their empire; such were the wars of Alexander the Great, and those of the Romans, and those which two hostile powers carry on against each other. These wars are dangerous but never go so far as to drive all its inhabitants out of a province, because the conqueror is satisfied with the submission of the people...The other kind of war is when an entire people, constrained by famine or war, leave their country with their families for the purpose of seeking a new home in a new country, not for the purpose of subjecting it to their dominion as in the first case, but with the intention of taking absolute possession of it themselves and driving out or killing its original inhabitants.
Primary historical sources for nomadic steppe-style warfare are found in many languages: Chinese, Persian, Polish, Russian, Classical Greek, Armenian, Latin and Arabic. These sources concern both the true steppe nomads (
Mongols The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the di ...

Mongols
,
Huns The Huns were a nomadic people A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation which regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter-gatherers, pastoral ...

Huns
,
Magyars Hungarians, also known as Magyars ( ; hu, magyarok ), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Hungarian: Magyarország) and Kingdom of Hungary, historical Hungarian lands who share a common Hungarian culture, culture, Hungarian histor ...

Magyars
and
Scythians The Scythians (from grc, wiktionary:Σκύθης, Σκύθης , ) or Scyths, also known as Saka and Sakae ( ; egy, wiktionary:sk#Etymology 2, 𓋴𓎝𓎡𓈉, translit=sk, italic=no, ; grc, wikt:Σάκαι, Σάκαι ; la, Sacae), an ...
) and also the semi-settled people like Turks,
Crimean Tatars Crimean Tatars ( crh, , ) or Crimeans ( crh, , ), are a Turkic peoples, Turkic ethnic group and nation who are an indigenous people of Crimea. The formation and ethnogenesis of Crimean Tatars occurred during the 13th–17th centuries, from Cu ...
and
Russians , native_name_lang = ru , image = , caption = Wedding ceremony in the national Russian tradition. , population = 134 million , popplace = 117,319,000 , region1 = , pop1 = 7,170,000 ...

Russians
who retained or, in some cases, adopted the nomadic form of warfare.


Pastoralism

upright=1.15, A Sámi family in Norway around 1900. herded_for_centuries_by_several_Arctic_and_Subarctic_people_including_the_ herded_for_centuries_by_several_Arctic_and_Subarctic_people_including_the_Sami_people">Sámi_and_the_Nenets_people.html" ;"title="Sami_people.html" ;"title="Herding.html" ;"title="Reindeer have been Herding">herded for centuries by several Arctic and Subarctic people including the Sami people">Sámi and the Nenets people">Nenets. Pastoral nomads are nomads moving between pastures. Nomadic pastoralism is thought to have developed in three stages that accompanied population growth and an increase in the complexity of
social organization In sociology Sociology is a social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within those societies. The te ...
. Karim Sadr has proposed the following stages: * Pastoralism: This is a mixed economy with a
symbiosis Symbiosis (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 mil ...

symbiosis
within the family. * Agropastoralism: This is when symbiosis is between segments or clans within an
ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups. Those attributes can include common sets of traditions, ancest ...
. * True Nomadism: This is when symbiosis is at the regional level, generally between specialised nomadic and agricultural populations. The pastoralists are sedentary to a certain area, as they move between the permanent spring, summer, autumn and winter (or dry and wet season) pastures for their
livestock Livestock are the domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable ...
. The nomads moved depending on the availability of resources.


Origin

Nomadic pastoralism seems to have developed as a part of the secondary products revolution proposed by
Andrew Sherratt Andrew George Sherratt (8 May 1946 – 24 February 2006) was an English archaeologist Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch ...

Andrew Sherratt
, in which early
pre-pottery Neolithic The Pre-Pottery Neolithic (PPN) represents the early Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age, with a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen independently in several parts of the world. It i ...
cultures that had used animals as live meat ("on the hoof") also began using animals for their secondary products, for example,
milk Milk is a nutrient-rich liquid food produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals (including breastfeeding, breastfed human infants) before they are able to digestion, digest solid food. Earl ...

milk
and its associated
dairy products Dairy products or milk products are a type of food produced from or containing the milk of mammals, most commonly cattle, water buffaloes, dairy goat, goats, domestic sheep, sheep, and camels. Dairy products include food items such as yogurt, che ...
,
wool Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including Cashmere wool, cashmere and mohair from cashmere goat, goats, qiviut from muskoxen, Hide (skin), hide and Fur clothing, fur clothing from Bison, bison, Angora wool, ang ...
and other animal hair, hides and consequently
leather Leather is a strong, flexible and durable material obtained from the tanning Tanning may refer to: *Tanning (leather), treating animal skins to produce leather *Sun tanning, using the sun to darken pale skin **Indoor tanning, the use of artif ...

leather
,
manure Image:Hestemøj.jpg, Animal manure is often a mixture of animal feces and bedding straw, as in this example from a stable. Manure is organic matter that is used as organic fertilizer in agriculture. Most manure consists of animal feces; other so ...

manure
for
fuel A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as thermal energy Thermal radiation in visible light can be seen on this hot metalwork. Thermal energy refers to several distinct physical conc ...

fuel
and
fertilizer A fertilizer (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American En ...

fertilizer
, and traction. The first nomadic pastoral society developed in the period from 8,500 to 6,500 BCE in the area of the southern
Levant The Levant () is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Western Asia Western Asia, also West Asia, is the westernmost subregion of Asia. It is entirely a part of the G ...

Levant
. There, during a period of increasing aridity,
Pre-Pottery Neolithic B Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) is part of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic, a Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age, with a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen independently in several parts of ...
(PPNB) cultures in the Sinai were replaced by a nomadic, pastoral pottery-using culture, which seems to have been a cultural fusion between a newly arrived
Mesolithic The Mesolithic (Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 mi ...

Mesolithic
people from Egypt (the
Harifian Harifian is a specialized regional cultural development of the Epipalaeolithic of the Negev Desert. It corresponds to the latest stages of the Natufian culture. History Like the Natufian, Harifian is characterized by semi-subterranean house ...
culture), adopting their nomadic hunting lifestyle to the raising of stock.Patterns of Subsistence: Pastoralism
/ref> This lifestyle quickly developed into what Jaris Yurins has called the circum-
Arabian The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciati ...
nomadic pastoral techno-complex and is possibly associated with the appearance of
Semitic languages The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian or Hamito-Semitic or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family A language is a structured system of communication us ...

Semitic languages
in the region of the
Ancient Near East The ancient Near East was the home of early civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society that is characterized by urban development, social stratification, a form of government, and symbol A symbol is a mark ...
. The rapid spread of such nomadic pastoralism was typical of such later developments as of the
Yamnaya The Yamnaya culture (/ˈjamnaja/), from Russian Я́мная культу́ра, or Yamnaya Horizon, (mistakenly) Yamna culture, (translated) Pit Grave culture, or Ochre Grave culture, was a late Copper Age to early Bronze Age The Bronze ...
culture of the horse and cattle nomads of the Eurasian steppe, or of the
Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an East Asian people, East Asian ethnic group indigenous peoples, native to the Inner Mongolia, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China, Mongolia and ...

Mongol
spread of the later
Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similarly to the Post-classical, Post-classical period of global history. It began with the fall of the Western Roma ...
.
Trekboer The Trekboers ( af, Trekboere) were nomadic pastoralism, nomadic pastoralists descended from European settlers on the frontiers of the Dutch Cape Colony in Southern Africa. The Trekboers began migrating into the interior from the areas surroundin ...
in southern Africa adopted nomadism from the 17th century.


Increase in post-Soviet Central Asia

One of the results of the
break-up of the Soviet Union The dissolution of the Soviet Union, also negatively connoted as rus, Разва́л Сове́тского Сою́за, r=Razvál Sovétskovo Sojúza, ''Ruining of the Soviet Union''. (1988–1991) was the process of internal balkanization, ...
and the subsequent political independence and economic collapse of its
Central Asian Central Asia is a region in Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It shares the continent ...
republics has been the resurgence of pastoral nomadism. Taking the
Kyrgyz people The Kyrgyz people (also spelled Kyrghyz, Kirgiz, and Kirghiz) are a Turkic peoples, Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily Kyrgyzstan. Etymology There are several theories on the origin of ethnonym ''Kyrgyz''. It is often said t ...

Kyrgyz people
as a representative example, nomadism was the centre of their economy before Russian colonization at the turn of the 20th century, when they were settled into agricultural villages. The population became increasingly
urbanized ''Urbanized'' is a documentary film A documentary film is a non-fictional film, motion-picture intended to "document reality, primarily for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a Recorded history, historical record". Bill Nich ...
after World War II, but some people still take their herds of horses and cows to high pastures (''jailoo'') every summer, continuing a pattern of
transhumance Transhumance is a type of pastoralism or nomadism, a seasonal movement of livestock between fixed summer and winter pastures. In montane regions (''vertical transhumance''), it implies movement between higher pastures in summer and lower ...

transhumance
. Since the 1990s, as the cash economy shrank, unemployed relatives were reabsorbed into family farms, and the importance of this form of nomadism has increased. The symbols of nomadism, specifically the crown of the grey felt tent known as the
yurt Turkmen woman at the entrance to a yurt in Prokudin-Gorskii ">Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii">Prokudin-Gorskii A traditional yurt (from the Turkic languages The Turkic languages are a language family of at least 35 documented languag ...

yurt
, appears on the national flag, emphasizing the central importance of nomadism in the genesis of the modern nation of
Kyrgyzstan russian: Киргизская Республика, Kirgizskaya Respublika , image_flag = Flag of Kyrgyzstan.svg , image_coat = Emblem of Kyrgyzstan.svg , symbol_type = Emblem , motto = "" ...

Kyrgyzstan
.


Sedentarization

From 1920 to 2008, population of nomadic pastoral tribes slowly decreased from over a quarter of
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north ...

Iran
's population. Tribal pastures were nationalized during the 1960s. The National Commission of
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organ ...

UNESCO
registered the population of Iran at 21 million in 1963, of whom two million (9.5%) were nomads. Although the nomadic population of Iran has dramatically decreased in the 20th century, Iran still has one of the largest nomadic populations in the world, an estimated 1.5 million in a country of about 70 million. In
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
where the major agricultural activity was nomadic herding, forced collectivization under
Joseph Stalin Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin . ( – 5 March 1953) was a Georgia (country), Georgian revolutionary and the ruler of the Soviet Union from 1927 until 1953. He served as both General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922 ...
's rule met with massive resistance and major losses and confiscation of livestock. Livestock in Kazakhstan fell from 7 million cattle to 1.6 million and from 22 million sheep to 1.7 million. The resulting famine of 1931–1934 caused some 1.5 million deaths: this represents more than 40% of the total population at that time. In the 1950s as well as the 1960s, large numbers of
Bedouin The Bedouin, Beduin or Bedu (; , singular ) are nomad A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation which regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter ...

Bedouin
throughout the Middle East started to leave the traditional, nomadic life to settle in the cities of the Middle East, especially as home ranges have shrunk and population levels have grown. Government policies in
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identif ...
and
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...

Israel
, oil production in
Libya Libya (; ar, ليبيا, Lībiyā), officially the State of Libya ( ar, دولة ليبيا, Dawlat Lībiyā), is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to Egypt–Libya border, the ...

Libya
and the
Persian Gulf The Persian Gulf ( fa, خلیج فارس, translit=xalij-e fârs, lit=Gulf of Fars, ) is a mediterranean sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely en ...
, as well as a desire for improved standards of living, effectively led most Bedouin to become settled citizens of various nations, rather than stateless nomadic herders. A century ago nomadic Bedouin still made up some 10% of the total
Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233 The international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), such as Codex Alimentarius in food, the World Hea ...
population. Today they account for some 1% of the total. At independence in 1960,
Mauritania Mauritania (; ar, موريتانيا, ', french: Mauritanie; Berber languages, Berber: ''Agawej'' or ''Cengit''; Pulaar language, Pulaar: ''Moritani''; Wolof language, Wolof: ''Gànnaar''; Soninke language, Soninke: ''Murutaane''), officially ...

Mauritania
was essentially a nomadic society. The great
Sahel drought The Sahel (; ' , "coast, shore") is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic realm of Ecotone, transition in Africa between the Sahara to the north and the Sudanian savanna to the south. Having a semi-arid climate, it stretches across the south-central ...
s of the early 1970s caused massive problems in a country where 85% of its inhabitants were nomadic herders. Today only 15% remain nomads. As many as 2 million nomadic
Kuchis Kochis or Kuchis ( Pashto: کوچۍ Kuchis, ultimately from Turkic root "köç" - "to migrate") are a social group belonging primarily to the Ghilji Pashtuns. Some of the most notable Ghilji Kochi tribes include the Kharoti, Niazi, Andar ...
wandered over
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto/Dari language, Dari: , Pashto: , Dari: ), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country at the crossroads of Central Asia, Central and South Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan to the eas ...
in the years before the Soviet invasion, and most experts agreed that by 2000 the number had fallen dramatically, perhaps by half. The severe
drought A drought is an event of prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric (below-average precipitation), surface water or ground water Groundwater is the water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency a ...

drought
had destroyed 80% of the livestock in some areas.
Niger ) , official_languages = French language, French , languages_type = National languages
experienced a serious food crisis in 2005 following erratic rainfall and
desert locust The desert locust (''Schistocerca gregaria'') is a species of locust, a periodically swarming, short-horned grasshopper in the family Acrididae. They are found mainly in Africa, through Arabia and West Asia, and extending into parts of South Asi ...
invasions. Nomads such as the
Tuareg The Tuareg people (; also spelt Twareg or Touareg; endonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is a common, internal name A name is a term used for identification by an external observer. They can identify ...
and , who make up about 20% of Niger's 12.9 million population, had been so badly hit by the Niger food crisis that their already fragile way of life is at risk. Nomads in
Mali Mali (; ), officially the Republic of Mali (french: République du Mali; bm, ߡߊߟߌ ߞߊ ߝߊߛߏߖߊߡߊߣߊ, Mali ka Fasojamana, ff, 𞤈𞤫𞤲𞥆𞤣𞤢𞥄𞤲𞤣𞤭 𞤃𞤢𞥄𞤤𞤭, Renndaandi Maali), is a landlocked country ...

Mali
were also affected.


Lifestyle

Pala nomads living in Western Tibet have a diet that is unusual in that they consume very few vegetables and no fruit. The main staple of their diet is ''
tsampa Tsampa or Tsamba (; ne, साम्पा; ) is a Tibet Tibet (; ; ) is a region in East Asia covering much of the Tibetan Plateau spanning about . It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups ...
'' and they drink
Tibetan Tibetan may mean: * of, from, or related to Tibet * Tibetan people, an ethnic group * Tibetan language: ** Classical Tibetan, the classical language used also as a contemporary written standard ** Standard Tibetan, the most widely used spoken dialec ...

Tibetan
style butter tea. Pala will eat heartier foods in the winter months to help keep warm. Some of the customary restrictions they explain as cultural saying only that ''drokha'' do not eat certain foods, even some that may be naturally abundant. Though they live near sources of
fish Fish are Aquatic animal, aquatic, craniate, gill-bearing animals that lack Limb (anatomy), limbs with Digit (anatomy), digits. Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, and Chondrichthyes, cartilaginous and bony fish as we ...
and
fowl Fowl are bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class (biology), class Aves , characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the Oviparity, laying of Eggshell, hard-shelled eggs, a high Metabolism, metabo ...

fowl
these do not play a significant role in their diet, and they do not eat
carnivorous A carnivore , meaning "meat Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food. Humans have hunted and killed animals for meat since prehistoric times. The advent of civilization allowed the domestication of animals such as chickens, sheep, rabbi ...
animals,
rabbit Rabbits, also known as bunnies or bunny rabbits, are small mammals in the family (biology), family Leporidae (along with the hare) of the order (biology), order Lagomorpha (along with the pika). ''Oryctolagus cuniculus'' includes the European ...

rabbit
s or the wild asses that are abundant in the environs, classifying the latter as
horse The horse (''Equus ferus caballus'') is a Domestication, domesticated odd-toed ungulate, one-toed ungulate, hoofed mammal. It belongs to the taxonomic family Equidae and is one of two Extant taxon, extant subspecies of wild horse, ''Equus ferus' ...

horse
due to their cloven hooves. Some families do not eat until after the morning milking, while others may have a light meal with butter tea and ''tsampa''. In the afternoon, after the morning milking, the families gather and share a communal meal of tea, ''tsampa'' and sometimes
yogurt Yogurt (; , from tr, yoğurt) also spelled yoghurt, yogourt or yoghourt, is a food produced by bacteria Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are a type of Cell (biology), biological cell. They constitute a large domai ...

yogurt
. During winter months the meal is more substantial and includes meat.
Herder A herder is a worker who lives a pastoralist life herding, gathering and caring for a herd of domesticated livestocks. Different to a animal husbandry, husbandry worker, who works at fixed (and often fenced) pastoral farming, grazing settlement ...

Herder
s will eat before leaving the camp and most do not eat again until they return to camp for the evening meal. The typical evening meal may include thin stew with ''tsampa'', animal fat and dried
radish The radish ('' Raphanus raphanistrum'' subsp. ''sativus'') is an edible root vegetable of the family Brassicaceae that was domesticated in Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern H ...

radish
. Winter stew would include a lot of meat with either ''tsampa'' or boiled flour
dumpling Dumpling is a broad class of dishes that consist of pieces of dough (made from a variety of starch sources) wrapped around a filling, or of dough with no filling. The dough can be based on bread, flour or potatoes, and may be filled with meat ...
s. Nomadic diets in
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan ( kk, Қазақстан, Qazaqstan; russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan,; russian: Республика Казахстан, Respublika Kazakhstan, link=no) is a country located mainly in ...

Kazakhstan
have not changed much over centuries. The Kazakh nomad cuisine is simple and includes meat, salads, marinated vegetables and fried and baked
bread Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, wh ...
s.
Tea Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured or fresh leaves of '' Camellia sinensis'', an evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Science (from ...

Tea
is served in bowls, possibly with sugar or
milk Milk is a nutrient-rich liquid food produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals (including breastfeeding, breastfed human infants) before they are able to digestion, digest solid food. Earl ...

milk
. Milk and other
dairy A dairy is a business enterprise Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling Product (business), products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise enter ...

dairy
products, like
cheese Cheese is a dairy product, derived from milk and produced in wide ranges of flavors, Mouthfeel, textures and forms by coagulation (milk), coagulation of the milk protein casein. It comprises Protein, proteins and fat from milk, usually the mi ...

cheese
and
yogurt Yogurt (; , from tr, yoğurt) also spelled yoghurt, yogourt or yoghourt, is a food produced by bacteria Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are a type of Cell (biology), biological cell. They constitute a large domai ...

yogurt
, are especially important. '' Kumiss'' is a drink of
fermented Fermentation is a metabolic Metabolism (, from el, μεταβολή ''metabolē'', "change") is the set of life Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that have biological processes, such as signaling ...

fermented
milk.
Wrestling Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling-type techniques such as clinch fighting, throw (grappling), throws and takedown (grappling), takedowns, joint locks, Grappling hold#Pinning hold, pins and other grappling holds. The sport can eithe ...

Wrestling
is a popular sport, but the nomadic people do not have much time for leisure. Horse riding is a valued skill in their culture.


Perception

Ann Marie Kroll Lerner states that the pastoral nomads were viewed as "invading, destructive, and altogether antithetical to civilizing, sedentary societies" during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. According to Lerner, they are rarely accredited as "a civilizing force". Allan Hill and Sara Randall observes that the western authors have looked for "romance and mystery, as well as the repository of laudable characteristics believed lost in the West, such as independence, stoicism in the face of physical adversity, and a strong sense of loyalty to family and to tribe" in the nomadic pastoralist societies. Hill and Randall observes that nomadic pastoralists are stereotypically seen by the settled populace in Africa and
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), such as Codex Alimentarius in food, the World Health Organi ...

Middle East
as "aimless wanderers, immoral, promiscuous and disease-ridden" peoples. According to Hill and Randall, both of these perceptions "misrepresent the reality".


Contemporary peripatetic minorities in Europe and Asia

Peripatetic minorities are mobile populations moving among settled populations offering a
craft A craft or trade is a pastime or an occupation that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work. In a historical sense, particularly the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted ap ...
or
trade Trade involves the transfer of goods from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. Economists refer to a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of ru ...

trade
. Each existing community is primarily endogamous, and subsists traditionally on a variety of commercial or service activities. Formerly, all or a majority of their members were itinerant, and this largely holds true today. Migration generally takes place within the political boundaries of a single state these days. Each of the peripatetic communities is multilingual, it speaks one or more of the languages spoken by the local sedentary populations, and, additionally, within each group, a separate dialect or language is spoken. They are speaking languages of Indic origin and many are structured somewhat like an
argot A cant is the jargon or language of a group, often employed to exclude or mislead people outside the group.McArthur, T. (ed.) ''The Oxford Companion to the English Language'' (1992) Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the ...
or secret language, with vocabularies drawn from various languages. There are indications that in northern Iran at least one community speaks
Romani language Romani (; also Romany; rom, rromani ćhib, links=no) is an Indo-Aryan macrolanguage of the Romani communities. According to Ethnologue ''Ethnologue: Languages of the World'' (stylized as Ethnoloɠue) is an annual reference publication i ...
, and some groups in Turkey also speak Romani.


Dom people

In Afghanistan, the Nausar worked as tinkers and animal dealers. Ghorbat men mainly made
sieve A sieve, fine mesh strainer, or sift, is a device for separating wanted elements from unwanted material or for characterizing the particle size distribution of a sample, using a screen such as a woven mesh or net or perforated sheet material. ...

sieve
s, drums, and bird cages, and the women peddled these as well as other items of household and personal use; they also worked as moneylenders to rural women. Peddling and the sale of various goods was also practiced by men and women of various groups, such as the Jalali, the Pikraj, the Shadibaz, the Noristani, and the Vangawala. The latter and the Pikraj also worked as animal dealers. Some men among the Shadibaz and the Vangawala entertained as monkey or bear handlers and snake charmers; men and women among the Baluch were musicians and dancers. The Baluch men were warriors that were feared by neighboring tribes and often were used as mercenaries. Jogi men and women had diverse subsistence activities, such as dealing in horses, harvesting,
fortune-telling Fortune telling is the practice of prediction, predicting information about a person's life.J. Gordon Melton, Melton, J. Gordon. (2008). ''The Encyclopedia of Religious Phenomena''. Visible Ink Press. pp. 115-116. The scope of fortune telling ...
,
bloodletting Bloodletting (or blood-letting) is the withdrawal of blood Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrient A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce ...
, and
begging Begging (also panhandling) is the practice of imploring others to grant a favor, often a gift of money Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with ...
. In Iran, the Asheq of Azerbaijan, the Challi of Baluchistan, the Luti of Kurdistan, Kermānshāh, Īlām, and Lorestān, the Mehtar in the Mamasani district, the Sazandeh of Band-i Amir and Marv-dasht, and the Toshmal among the Bakhtyari pastoral groups worked as professional musicians. The men among the Kowli worked as tinkers, smiths, musicians, and monkey and bear handlers; they also made baskets, sieves, and brooms and dealt in donkeys. Their women made a living from peddling, begging, and fortune-telling. The Ghorbat among the Basseri were smiths and tinkers, traded in pack animals, and made sieves, reed mats, and small wooden implements. In the Fārs region, the Qarbalband, the Kuli, and Luli were reported to work as smiths and to make baskets and sieves; they also dealt in pack animals, and their women peddled various goods among pastoral nomads. In the same region, the Changi and Luti were musicians and balladeers, and their children learned these professions from the age of 7 or 8 years. The nomadic groups in Turkey make and sell cradles, deal in animals, and play music. The men of the sedentary groups work in towns as scavengers and hangmen; elsewhere they are fishermen, smiths, basket makers, and singers; their women dance at feasts and tell fortunes. Abdal men played music and made sieves, brooms, and wooden spoons for a living. The Tahtacı traditionally worked as lumberers; with increased sedentarization, however, they have taken to agriculture and horticulture. Little is known for certain about the past of these communities; the history of each is almost entirely contained in their oral traditions. Although some groups—such as the Vangawala—are of Indian origin, some—like the Noristani—are most probably of local origin; still others probably migrated from adjoining areas. The Ghorbat and the Shadibaz claim to have originally come from Iran and Multan, respectively, and Tahtacı traditional accounts mention either
Baghdad Baghdad (; ar, بَغْدَاد ) is the capital of Iraq Iraq ( ar, ٱلْعِرَاق, '; ku, عێراق '), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق '), is a ...

Baghdad
or Khorāsān as their original home. The Baluch say they were attached as a service community to the Jamshedi, after they fled Baluchistan because of feuds.


Kochi people


Romani people


Yörüks

Yörüks are the nomadic people who live in
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia in Western Asia, with a small portion on the Balkans in Southeast Europe. It shares borders with Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest; the B ...

Turkey
. Still some groups such as Sarıkeçililer continues nomadic lifestyle between coastal towns
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands aroun ...

Mediterranean
and
Taurus Mountains The Taurus Mountains ( Turkish: ''Toros Dağları''), are a mountain complex in southern Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares border ...
even though most of them were settled by both late Ottoman Empire, Ottoman and Republic of Turkey, Turkish republic. Bukat People of Borneo The Bukat people of Borneo in Malaysia live within the region of the river Mendalam, which the natives call Buköt. Bukat is an ethnonym that encapsulates all the tribes in the region. These natives are historically self-sufficient but were also known to trade various goods. This is especially true for the clans who lived on the periphery of the territory. The products of their trade were varied and fascinating, including: "...resins (damar, ''Agathis dammara; jelutong bukit, Dyera costulata,'' gutta-percha, ''Palaquium'' spp.); wild honey and beeswax (important in trade but often unreported); aromatic resin from insence wood (''gaharu, Aquilaria microcarpa);'' camphor (found in the fissures of ''Dryobalanops aromaticus);'' several types of rotan of cane (''Calamus rotan'' and other species); poison for blowpipe darts (one source is ''ipoh'' or ''ipu'': see Nieuwenhuis 1900a:137); the antlers of deer (the sambar, ''Cervus unicolor);'' rhinoceros horn (see Tillema 1939:142); pharmacologically valuable bezoar stones (concretions formed in the intestines and gallbladder of the gibbon, ''Seminopithecus,'' and in the wounds of porcupines, ''Hestrix crassispinus);'' birds' nests, the edible nests of swifts (''Collocalia'' spp.); the heads and feathers of two species of hornbills (''Buceros rhinoceros, Rhinoplax vigil)''; and various hides (clouded leopards, bears, and other animals)." These nomadic tribes also commonly hunted boar with poison blow darts for their own needs.


Image gallery

File:Nomad camp near Tingri Tibet. 1993i.jpg, Nomad camp near Tingri (town), Tingri, Tibet. 1993 File:Unknown Mongolia - a record of travel and exploration in north-west Mongolia and Dzungaria (1914) (14592471478).jpg, Mongol nomads in the Altai Mountains. File:Snake charmer(js).jpg, Snake charmer from Telungu community of Sri Lanka. File:PazyrikHorseman.JPG, A Scythian horseman from the general area of the Ili river, Ukok Plateau, Pazyryk, c. 300 BCE. File:Schongauer.jpg, Yeniche people in the 15th century File:Bedouinnasserwadirum.jpg, A young
Bedouin The Bedouin, Beduin or Bedu (; , singular ) are nomad A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation which regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter ...

Bedouin
lighting a camp fire in Wadi Rum, Jordan. File:Prokudin-Gorskii-18.jpg, Kyrgyz people, Kyrgyz nomads in the steppes of the Russian Empire, Uzbekistan, by pioneer color photographer Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky, c. 1910. File:Mali1974-151 hg.jpg, Tuareg in Mali, 1974. File:Перекочевка киргизов.jpg, Kyrgyz people, Kyrgyz nomads, 1869–1870. File:Giulio Rosati 5.jpg, ''Nomads in the Desert'' (Giulio Rosati). File:AtsinaMovingCamp.jpg, Gros Ventre people, Gros Ventre (Atsina) American Indians moving camps with travois for transporting Tipi, skin lodges and belongings. File:COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Woonschuit van een Oerang-Laoet familie Ka. Toengkal TMnr 10010488.jpg, House barge of the Sama-Bajau peoples, Indonesia. 1914–1921 File:Bedouins - Tunisia - 1899.jpg, Photograph of
Bedouin The Bedouin, Beduin or Bedu (; , singular ) are nomad A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation which regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter ...

Bedouin
s (wandering Arabs) of Tunisia, 1899 File:Raja Ravi Varma, Gypsies (1893).jpg, Indian nomads painting by well-known artiste Raja Ravi Varma File:Gipsy.jpg, alt=Banjara, Indian nomad Banjara


See also

* List of nomadic peoples * Eurasian nomads * Nomadic peoples of Europe * Seasonal human migration * Nomadic empires * Nomads of India * Sea Gypsies (disambiguation), Sea Gypsies * Antlers Gallery, Antlers Gallery: The 'nomadic' gallery, Bristol * Snufkin Figurative use of the term: * Global nomad * Digital nomad * Snowbird (people) * Military brat * The Nomadic Project * Perpetual traveler * RV lifestyle * Third culture kid


References


Further reading

* * Oberfalzerova, Alena (2006): ''Metaphors and Nomads'', Triton, Prague. * Sadr, Karim (1991). ''The Development of Nomadism in Ancient Northeast Africa'', University of Pennsylvania Press. * Cowan, Gregory (2002). "Nomadology in Architecture: Ephemerality, Movement and Collaboration" University of Adelaide (available: http://hdl.handle.net/2440/3783

* Chatty, Dawn (1983–2009)
Articles on Nomadic life
* Bruce Chatwin, Chatwin, Bruce (1987). ''The Songlines'' * Gilles Deleuze, Deleuze and Félix Guattari, Guattari (1980). ''A Thousand Plateaus'' * Melvyn Goldstein
The Impact of China's Reform Policy on the Nomads of Western Tibet


* René Grousset, Grousset, René (1939). ''L'Empire des Steppes'' * Michael Haerdter
Remarks on modernity, mobility, nomadism and the arts
* Nikolay Kradin, Kradin, Nikolay (2004). "Nomadic Empires in Evolutionary Perspective". In ''Alternatives of Social Evolution''. Ed. by N.N. Kradin, Andrey Korotayev, A.V. Korotayev, Dmitri Bondarenko, V. de Munck, and P.K. Wason (pp. 274–88). Vladivostok: Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences; reprinted in: The Early State, its Alternatives and Analogues. Ed. by Leonid Grinin et al. (pр. 501–24). Volgograd: Uchitel'. * Kradin, Nikolay N. (2002)
"Nomadism, Evolution, and World-Systems: Pastoral Societies in Theories of Historical Development+. ''Journal of World-System Research'' 8: 368–88
* Kradin, Nikolay N. (2003). "Nomadic Empires: Origins, Rise, Declin"e. In ''Nomadic Pathways in Social Evolution''. Ed. by N.N. Kradin, Dmitri Bondarenko, and T. Barfield (pp. 73–87). Moscow: Center for Civilizational Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences. * Kradin, Nikolay N. (2006)
"Cultural Complexity of Pastoral Nomads". ''World Cultures'' 15: 171–89
* Beall, Cynthia and Goldstein, Melvyn (May 1993). "Past becoming future for Mongolian nomads" ''National Geographic Magazine'' * Vigo, Julian (2005). "Nomadic Sexualities and Nationalities: Postcolonial Performative Words and Visual Texts". ''Inscriptions in the Sand'' Famagusta: Eastern Mediterranean University Press. {{Authority control Nomads, * Cultural anthropology