HOME

TheInfoList




A municipality is usually a single
administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for geographical areas into which a particular ...

administrative division
having
corporate A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Legal person, legal ...
status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. The term ''municipality'' may also mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a
special-purpose district Special districts (also known as special service districts, special district governments, limited purpose entities, or special-purpose districts) are independent, special-purpose governmental units that exist separately from local governments such a ...
. The term is derived from
French
French
''municipalité'' and
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...
''municipalis''. The
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
word ''municipality'' derives from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
social contract In moral A moral (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power ...
''
municipium Municipium (pl. municipia) is the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the p ...
'' (derived from a word meaning "duty holders"), referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state (granting
Roman citizenship Citizenship Citizenship is a relationship between an individual and a state to which the individual owes allegiance and in turn is entitled to its protection. Each state determines the conditions under which it will recognize persons as its ci ...
to the inhabitants) while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments (a limited autonomy). A municipality can be any political
jurisdiction Jurisdiction (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be i ...
from a sovereign state, such as the
Principality of Monaco Monaco (; ), officially the Principality of Monaco (french: Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', whic ...
, to a small village, such as
West Hampton Dunes, New York West Hampton Dunes is an incorporated village in Suffolk County, New York, United States, on the South Shore of Long Island Long Island is a densely populated island in the southeast part of the U.S. state of New York, in the northeaster ...
. The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass * only one
populated place Population typically refers the number of people in a single area whether it be a city or town, region, country, or the world. Governments typically quantify the size of the resident population within their jurisdiction by a process called a c ...
such as a
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a ...

city
, town, or village * several of such places (e.g., early jurisdictions in the
U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory where it shares its with the . Due to this shared sovereignty, are both of t ...
of
New Jersey New Jersey is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic States, Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States, Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York (state), New York; on the ea ...
(1798–1899) as
townships A township is a kind of human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellings g ...
governing several villages,
Municipalities of Mexico Municipalities (''municipios'' in Spanish language, Spanish) are the second-level administrative divisions of Mexico, where the first-level administrative division is the ''states of Mexico, state'' (Spanish: estado). They should not be confuse ...

Municipalities of Mexico
,
Municipalities of Colombia The Municipalities of Colombia are decentralized subdivisions of the Colombia, Republic of Colombia. Municipalities make up most of the Department (subnational entity), departments of Colombia with 1,122 municipality, municipalities (''municipio ...
) * only parts of such places, sometimes boroughs of a city such as the 34 municipalities of
Santiago Santiago (, ; ), also known as Santiago de Chile, is the and largest city of as well as one of the . It is the center of Chile's most densely populated , the , whose total population is 8 million, of which more than 6 million live i ...

Santiago
, Chile.


Political powers

Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
. Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with
income tax An income tax is a tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelate ...
,
property tax A property tax or millage rate is an ad valorem tax An ''ad valorem'' tax (Latin language, Latin for "according to value") is a tax whose amount is based on the value of a transaction or of property. It is typically imposed at the time of a ...
, and
corporate income tax A corporate tax, also called corporation tax or company tax, is a direct tax Though the actual definitions vary between jurisdictions, in general, a direct tax is a tax imposed upon a person or property as distinct from a tax imposed upon a tra ...
, but may also receive substantial funding from the state. In some European countries, such as Germany, municipalities have the constitutional right to
supply public services Supply may refer to: *The amount of a resource that is available **Supply (economics), the amount of a product which is available to customers **Materiel, the goods and equipment for a military unit to fulfill its mission *Supply, as in confidence ...

supply public services
through municipally-owned public utility companies.


Terms in various countries


Municipality

Terms cognate with "municipality", mostly referring to territory or political structure, are Spanish ' (Spain) and ' (Chile), and Catalan '.


Communes

In many countries, terms cognate with "commune" are used, referring to the community living in the area and the common interest. These include terms: * in Romance languages, such as French ' (
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
, French-speaking areas of Belgium and Switzerland, French-speaking countries of Africa, e.g.
Benin Benin ( , ; french: Bénin ), officially the Republic of Benin (french: République du Bénin) (formerly known as Dahomey The Kingdom of Dahomey () was a West African kingdom located within present-day Benin Benin ( , ; french: ...
), Italian ', Romanian ', and Spanish ' (
Chile Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively small portion in the . It can also be described as the southern ...
); * in Germanic languages such as German ' (in political parlance), Swedish ', Faroese ', Norwegian, Danish '; * the more remote cognates ' in Dutch, ' in Luxembourgish and in German (the official term); * Finnish '. * Ukrainian '. * and Polish '. The same terms may be used for church congregations or parishes, for example, in the German and Dutch Protestant churches.


Other terms

In Greece, the word Δήμος (demos) is used, also meaning 'community'; the word is known in English from the compound ''democracy'' (rule of the people). In some countries, the Spanish term ', referring to a municipality's administration building, is extended via
synecdoche A synecdoche ( , from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10. ...
to denote the municipality itself. In
Moldova Moldova (, ; ), officially the Republic of Moldova ( ro, Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to ...
and
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...
, both ''municipalities'' (''municipiu''; urban administrative units) and ''communes'' (''comună''; rural units) exist, and a commune may be part of a municipality. In many countries, comparable entities may exist with various names.


English-speaking

*In
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
, the term
local government area A local government area (LGA) is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ar ...
(LGA) is used in place of the generic municipality. Here, the "LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia. Incorporated areas are legally designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility." *In
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation, usually within general municipal statutes. Types of municipalities within Canada include
cities A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellings grouped to ...

cities
, district municipalities,
municipal district A municipal district is an administrative entity comprising a clearly-defined territory and its population. It can refer to a city, a town, a village, a small grouping of them, or a rural area. Canada In Canada, municipal districts are a type of r ...
s, municipalities,
parishes A parish is a territorial entity in many Christianity, Christian denominations, constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of a priest#Christianity, priest, often termed a parish priest, ...
, rural municipalities,
town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and use The word "town" shares a ...

town
s,
township A township is a kind of human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellings g ...

township
s,
village A village is a clustered human settlement In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena ...

village
s, and
ville ''Ville'' () is the French language, French word nowadays meaning "city" or "town", but its meaning in the Middle Ages was "farm" (from Gallo-Romance VILLA < Latin ''villa rustica'') and then "village". The derivative suffix ''-ville'' is common ...

ville
s among others. The Province of
Ontario ("Loyal she began, loyal she remains") , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , cap ...

Ontario
has different tiers of municipalities, including lower, upper, and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include counties and regional municipalities.
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital ...

Nova Scotia
also has regional municipalities, which include cities, counties, districts, or towns as municipal units. *In
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
, a Municipality or Nagar Palika is an urban local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. However, there are exceptions to that, as previously Municipality were constituted in urban centers with population over 20,000, so all the urban bodies which were previously classified as Municipality were reclassified as Municipality even if their population was under 100,000. Under the
Panchayati Raj The Panchayat raj (''panchayat'' "village council", '' raj'' "rule") is a political system In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associat ...
system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. Generally, smaller district cities and bigger towns have a Municipality. Municipality are also a form of local self-government entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined in the Constitutional (74th Amendment) Act,1992. *In the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...
, the term was used until the 1972 Local Government Act came into effect in 1974 in
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
and
Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the Wales–England border, east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It ...

Wales
, and until 1975 in
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
and 1976 in
Northern Ireland Northern Ireland ( ga, Tuaisceart Éireann ; sco, label=Ulster-ScotsUlster Scots, also known as Scotch-Irish, may refer to: * Ulster Scots people The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots The Ulster Scots (Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster- ...

Northern Ireland
, "both for a city or town which is organized for self-government under a municipal corporation, and also for the governing body itself. Such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, and of superior members, as aldermen and councillors". Since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a ''district'', and in Scotland as a ''council area''. A ''district'' may be awarded ''borough'' or ''city'' status, or can retain its ''district'' title. *In
Jersey Jersey ( , ; nrf, label=Jèrriais, Jèrri ), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (french: Bailliage de Jersey, links=no; Jèrriais: ''Bailliage dé Jèrri''), is an island and self-governing Crown dependencies, Crown Dependency near the coa ...

Jersey
, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12
parishes A parish is a territorial entity in many Christianity, Christian denominations, constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of a priest#Christianity, priest, often termed a parish priest, ...

parishes
into which it is subdivided. This is the highest level of regional government in this jurisdiction. * In
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago (, ), officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is the southernmost island country in the Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean C ...

Trinidad and Tobago
, "municipality" is usually understood as a city, town, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. A town may be awarded borough status and later on, may be upgraded to city status.
Chaguanas The Borough of Chaguanas is the largest municipality (83,489 at the 2011 census) and fastest-growing
– Afra ...
, San Fernando,
Port of Spain Port of Spain (Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambigu ...
,
Arima Arima, officially The Royal Chartered Borough of Arima is the easternmost and second largest in area of the three boroughs of Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago (, ), officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is the southern ...
and
Point Fortin Point Fortin, officially the Republic Borough of Point Fortin, the smallest Borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing ...
are the 5 current municipalities in Trinidad and Tobago. *In the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, "municipality" is usually understood as a city, town, village, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. In a state law context, some U.S. state codes define "municipality" more widely, from the state itself to any political subdivisions given jurisdiction over an area that may include multiple populated places and unpopulated places (see also: Local government in the United States#Municipal governments).


Chinese-speaking

*In the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

People's Republic of China
, a direct-administered municipality (直辖市 in
pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objecti ...

pinyin
: zhíxiáshì) is a municipality with equal status to a
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...
:
Beijing Municipality Beijing ( ), alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or ...

Beijing Municipality
,
Chongqing Municipality Chongqing ( ; ; Sichuanese pronunciation: , Standard Mandarin Standard Chinese (), in linguistics known as Standard Northern Mandarin, Standard Beijing Mandarin or simply Mandarin, is a dialect of Mandarin that emerged as the lingu ...

Chongqing Municipality
,
Shanghai Municipality Shanghai (, , Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ) is one of the four Direct-administered municipalities of China, direct-administered municipalities of the China, People's Republic of China, governed by the State Council o ...

Shanghai Municipality
, and
Tianjin Municipality Tianjin (), alternately romanized as Tientsin, is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by nati ...

Tianjin Municipality
(see also:
Direct-administered municipalities of China A municipality (), formally a municipality under the direct administration of central government, is the highest level of classification for cities used by the People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (P ...
). *In the
Republic of China (Taiwan) Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...

Republic of China (Taiwan)
, a special municipality (直轄市 in
pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objecti ...

pinyin
: zhíxiáshì) is a municipality with equal status to a province:
Kaohsiung Kaohsiung City (; Mandarin Chinese: ; Wade–Giles: ''Kao¹-hsiung²'') is a Special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality in southern Taiwan. It ranges from the coastal urban centre to the rural Yushan Range with an area of . Kao ...

Kaohsiung
,
New Taipei New Taipei City (known as Taipei County until 2010) is a special municipality in Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's ...
,
Taichung Taichung (, Wade–Giles: ''Tʻai²-chung¹''), officially Taichung City, is a special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality located in central Taiwan. Taichung has a population of approximately 2.82 million people and is Taiwan's second ...

Taichung
,
Tainan Tainan, officially Tainan City, is a special municipality in southern Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and ...

Tainan
,
Taipei Taipei (), officially Taipei City, is the Capital city, capital and a Special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality of the Taiwan, Republic of China (Taiwan). Located in Regions of Taiwan, Northern Taiwan, Taipei City is an enclave of t ...

Taipei
, and Taoyuan (see also:
Special municipality (Taiwan) A special municipality is an Administrative divisions of Taiwan, administrative division unit in the Taiwan. Under the administrative structure of the Taiwan, it is the highest rank of division and is equivalent to a province. Since the streamlin ...
).


Municipalities by country

*In Portuguese language usage, there are two words to distinguish the territory and the administrative organ. When referring to the territory, the word ''
concelho Concelho (), is the Portuguese-language term for municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and re ...
'' is used, when referring to the organ of State, the word ''município'' is used. This differentiation is in use in Portugal and some of its former overseas provinces, but it's no longer in use in Brazil.


See also

*
Council of European Municipalities and Regions The Council of European Municipalities and Regions (CEMR) is the largest organisation of local and regional governments in Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention ...
*
Council–manager government The council–manager government is a form of local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administration is the implementation of public policy, government policy and also an ac ...
*
Creature of statute A creature of statute (also known as creature of the state) is a legal entity, such as a corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the state to act as a single entity (a legal entity ...
* Lists of municipalities *
Mayor–council government The mayor–council government system is a system of organization of local government that has an executive mayor In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official An official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate, rega ...
*
Municipal corporation A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body An Academy school in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west a ...
*
Municipal government A municipality is usually a single administrative division having municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. The term ''municipali ...

Municipal government
* ''''


References


External links

* {{Authority control Types of administrative division Municipality Types of populated places