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Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different content forms such as
text Text may refer to: Written word * Text (literary theory), any object that can be read, including: **Religious text, a writing that a religious tradition considers to be sacred **Text, a verse or passage from scripture used in expository preaching ...
,
audio Audio most commonly refers to sound In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies matter, its Motion ( ...

audio
,
images An image (from la, imago) is an artifact that depicts visual perception, such as a photograph or other Two-dimensional space, two-dimensional picture, that resembles a subject—usually a physical physical body, object—and thus provides ...

images
,
animations Animation is a method in which figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation on the reverse side of an already inked cel. Traditional animation (or classical animation, cel animation, hand-drawn animation, 2D a ...

animations
, or
video Video is an electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses active de ...

video
into a single interactive presentation, in contrast to traditional mass media which featured little to no interaction from users, such as printed material or audio recordings. Popular examples of multimedia include video podcasts, audio slideshows and Animated videos. Multimedia can be recorded for playback on computers, laptops, smartphones, and other electronic devices, either on demand or in real time (streaming). In the early years of multimedia, the term "rich media" was synonymous with interactive multimedia. Over time,
hypermedia Hypermedia, an extension of the term hypertext File:Douglas Engelbart in 2008.jpg, Douglas Engelbart in 2009, at the 40th anniversary celebrations of "The Mother of All Demos" in San Francisco, a 90-minute 1968 presentation of the NLS (com ...
extensions brought multimedia to the World Wide Web.


Terminology

The term ''multimedia'' was coined by singer and artist Bob Goldstein (later '
Bobb Goldsteinn Bobb Goldsteinn (born Bob Goldstein, June 10, 1936) is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA) ...
') to promote the July 1966 opening of his "LightWorks at L'Oursin" show at
Southampton Southampton () is a port A port is a facility comprising one or more or loading areas, where ships load and discharge and passengers. Although usually situated on a sea coast or estuary, ports can also be found far inland, su ...
, Long Island. Goldstein was perhaps aware of an American artist named Dick Higgins, who had two years previously discussed a new approach to art-making he called "intermedia". While the term didn't exist yet, the idea of ''multimedia'' could be taken back to when the 19th century composer
Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner ( ; ; 22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemic Polemic () is contentious rhetoric Rhetoric () is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities invol ...

Richard Wagner
believed in the concept of ''
Gesamtkunstwerk A ''Gesamtkunstwerk'' (, literally "total artwork", frequently translated as "total work of art", "ideal work of art", "universal artwork", "synthesis of the arts", "comprehensive artwork", or "all-embracing art form") is a work of art that makes u ...
'', meaning 'total artwork'. Wagner strived to combine multiple art forms- opera, drama, music - to create a perfect synthesis on stage. He looked down on the
Grand Opera Grand opera is a genre of 19th-century opera generally in four or five acts, characterized by large-scale casts and orchestras, and (in their original productions) lavish and spectacular design and stage effects, normally with plots based on or ar ...
at the time, which emphasized individual talent, rather than the complete work as a whole. By combining these art forms, Wagner believed the most profound art could be made. On August 10, 1966, Richard Albarino of ''
Variety Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, the set of solutions of a system of polynomial equations * Variety (universal algebra), classes of algebraic structures defined by equations in universal algebra Hort ...
'' borrowed the terminology, reporting: "Brainchild of songscribe-comic Bob (' Washington Square') Goldstein, the 'Lightworks' is the latest ''multi-media'' music-cum-visuals to debut as discothèque fare." Two years later, in 1968, the term "multimedia" was re-appropriated to describe the work of a political consultant, David Sawyer, the husband of Iris Sawyer—one of Goldstein's producers at L'Oursin. In the intervening forty years, the word has taken on different meanings. In the late 1970s, the term referred to presentations consisting of multi-projector slide shows timed to an audio track. However, by the 1990s 'multimedia' took on its current meaning. In the 1993 first edition of ''Multimedia: Making It Work'', Tay Vaughan declared "Multimedia is any combination of text, graphic art, sound, animation, and video that is delivered by computer. When you allow the user – the viewer of the project – to control what and when these elements are delivered, it is ''interactive multimedia''. When you provide a structure of linked elements through which the user can navigate, interactive multimedia becomes ''hypermedia''." The German language society
Gesellschaft für deutsche Sprache The ' (, ''Association for the German Language''), or , is Germany's most important government-sponsored language society. Its headquarters are in Wiesbaden Re-founded shortly after the Second World War in 1947, the is politically independent an ...
recognized the word's significance and ubiquitousness in the 1990s by awarding it the title of German 'Word of the Year' in 1995. The institute summed up its rationale by stating " ultimediahas become a central word in the wonderful new media world". In common usage, ''multimedia'' refers to an electronically delivered combination of media including video, still images, audio, and text in such a way that can be accessed interactively. Much of the content on the web today falls within this definition as understood by millions. Some computers which were marketed in the 1990s were called "multimedia" computers because they incorporated a CD-ROM drive, which allowed for the delivery of several hundred megabytes of video, picture, and audio data. That era saw also a boost in the production of
educational Education is the process of facilitating learning Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding, knowledge, behaviors, skills, value (personal and cultural), values, attitudes, and preferences. The ability to learn is possessed ...
multimedia
CD-ROM A CD-ROM (, compact disc read-only memory) is a pre-pressed optical compact disc The compact disc (CD) is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital ...

CD-ROM
s. A standard CD-ROM can hold on average 700 megabytes of data, while the maximum size a 3.5 inch floppy disk can hold is 2.8 megabytes, with an average of 1.44 megabytes. The term "video", if not used exclusively to describe motion photography, is ambiguous in multimedia terminology. ''
Video Video is an electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses active de ...

Video
'' is often used to describe the file format, delivery format, or presentation format instead of ''"
footage In filmmaking and video production, footage is raw, unedited material as originally filmed by a movie camera or recorded by a (Digital movie camera, often special) video camera, which typically must be film editing, edited to create a motion pictur ...
"'' which is used to distinguish motion
photography Photography is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no generally agreed definition of ...

photography
from ''"
animation Animation is a method in which are manipulated to appear as moving images. In , images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent to be photographed and exhibited on . Today, most animations are made with (CGI). can be very detailed , whil ...

animation
"'' of rendered motion imagery. Multiple forms of information content are often not considered modern forms of presentation such as audio or video. Likewise, single forms of information content with single methods of information processing (e.g. non-interactive audio) are often called multimedia, perhaps to distinguish static media from
active Active may refer to: Music * Active (album), ''Active'' (album), a 1992 album by Casiopea * Active Records, a record label Ships * Active (ship), ''Active'' (ship), several commercial ships by that name * HMS Active, HMS ''Active'', the nam ...
media. In the
fine arts In European academic traditions, fine art is developed primarily for aesthetics Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about e ...
, for example,
Leda Luss LuykenLeda Luss Luyken, née Valata, (born 1952 in Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rec ...
's
ModulArtModular art is art created by joining together standardized units (Modular design, modules) to form larger, more complex compositions. In some works the units can be subsequently moved, removed and added to – that is, ''modulated'' – to create a ...
brings two key elements of musical composition and film into the world of painting: variation of a theme and movement of and within a picture, making ''ModulArt'' an
interactive Across the many fields concerned with interactivity, including information science Information science (also known as information studies) is an academic field which is primarily concerned with analysis, collection, Categorization, classificatio ...

interactive
multimedia form of art.
Performing arts The performing arts are arts such as music, dance, and drama which are performed for an audience. It is different from visual arts The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is ...
may also be considered multimedia considering that performers and props are multiple forms of both content and media. In modern times, a multimedia device can be referred to an electronic device, such as a smartphone, a videogame system, or a computer, for example. Each and everyone of these devices have a main function, but also have other uses beyond their intended purpose, such as reading, writing, recording video, streaming listening to music, and playing video games. This has lend them to be called "multimedia devices". While previous media was always local, many are now handled through web based solutions, particularly streaming.


Major characteristics

Multimedia presentations may be viewed by person on
stage Stage or stages may refer to: Acting * Stage (theatre), a space for the performance of theatrical productions * Theatre, a branch of the performing arts, often referred to as "the stage" * ''The Stage'', a weekly British theatre newspaper * Stag ...
,
projected Projected is an American rock music, rock supergroup (music), supergroup project consisting of Sevendust members John Connolly (musician), John Connolly and Vinnie Hornsby, Alter Bridge and Creed (band), Creed drummer Scott Phillips (musician), Sco ...
, transmitted, or played locally with a media player. A broadcast may be a live or recorded multimedia presentation. Broadcasts and recordings can be either analog or
digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology a ...
electronic media technology. Digital
online In computer technology and telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire, radio, Optical system, optical, or other Electromagnetism, electromagnetic systems. It has its ori ...

online
multimedia may be downloaded or
streamed Streaming media is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end user while being delivered by a provider over the Internet. The verb ''to stream'' refers to the process of delivering or obtaining media in a continuous mann ...
. Streaming multimedia may be live or on-demand. Multimedia games and simulations may be used in a physical environment with special effects, with multiple users in an online
network Network, networking and networked may refer to: Science and technology * Network theory Network theory is the study of Graph (discrete mathematics), graphs as a representation of either symmetric relations or directed graph, asymmetric relat ...
, or locally with an offline computer, game system, or
simulator A simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system over time. Simulations require the use of models; the model represents the key characteristics or behaviors of the selected system or process, whereas the simula ...

simulator
. The various formats of technological or digital multimedia may be intended to enhance the users' experience, for example to make it easier and faster to convey information. Or in entertainment or art, combine an array of artistic insights that includes elements from different art forms to engage, inspire, or captivate an audience. Enhanced levels of interactivity are made possible by combining multiple forms of media content.
Online In computer technology and telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire, radio, Optical system, optical, or other Electromagnetism, electromagnetic systems. It has its ori ...

Online
multimedia is increasingly becoming object-oriented and data-driven, enabling applications with
collaborative Collaboration is the process of two or more people, entities or organization An organization, or organisation ( Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is an entity – such as a company, an institution, or an association ...
end-user innovation and
personalization Personalization (broadly known as customization) consists of tailoring a service or a product to accommodate specific individuals, sometimes tied to groups or segments of individuals. A wide variety of organizations use personalization to improve ...
on multiple forms of content over time. Examples of these range from multiple forms of content on Web sites like photo galleries with both images (pictures) and title (text) user-updated, to simulations whose co-efficients, events, illustrations, animations or videos are modifiable, allowing the multimedia "experience" to be altered without reprogramming. In addition to seeing and hearing,
haptic technology Haptic technology, also known as kinaesthetic communication or 3D touch, refers to any technology that can create an experience of touch The somatosensory system is a part of the sensory nervous system. The somatosensory system is a complex ...
enables virtual objects to be felt. Emerging technology involving illusions of
taste The gustatory system or sense of taste is the sensory system The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system responsible for processing sensory information. A sensory system consists of sensory neurons (including the sensory re ...

taste
and smell may also enhance the multimedia experience.


Categorization

Multimedia may be broadly divided into linear and non-linear categories: *Linear active content progresses often without any navigational control, only focusing on the user to watch the entire piece by involving higher levels of emotional and sensory stimulation based on what's being shown as a
cinema presentation
cinema presentation
; *Non-linear uses
interactivity Across the many fields concerned with interactivity, including information science Information science (also known as information studies) is an academic field which is primarily concerned with analysis, collection, Categorization, classificatio ...
to control progress as with a
video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, game controller, controller, computer keyboard, keyboard, or motion sensing device to generate visual f ...
or self-paced
computer-based training Educational technology (commonly abbreviated as EduTech, or EdTech) is the combined use of computer hardware, software, and Education sciences, educational theory and practice to facilitate learning. When referred to with its abbreviation, EdTech ...
so that the actions made will be based on how the user interacts within the simulated world.
Hypermedia Hypermedia, an extension of the term hypertext File:Douglas Engelbart in 2008.jpg, Douglas Engelbart in 2009, at the 40th anniversary celebrations of "The Mother of All Demos" in San Francisco, a 90-minute 1968 presentation of the NLS (com ...
is an example of non-linear content. Multimedia
presentation A presentation conveys information from a speaker to an audience An audience is a group of people who participate in a show or encounter a work of art A work of art, artwork, art piece, piece of art or art object is an a ...

presentation
s can be live or recorded: *A recorded presentation may allow interactivity via a
navigation systemA navigation system is a computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , ...
; *A live multimedia presentation may allow interactivity via an interaction with the presenter or performer.


Usage/application

Multimedia finds its application in various areas including, but not limited to,
advertisements Advertising is a marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasi ...

advertisements
,
art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use o ...

art
,
education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion ...

education
,
entertainment Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest In finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. It is concerned with the creatio ...

entertainment
,
engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more specializ ...

engineering
,
medicine Medicine is the science Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts ( descriptive knowledge), skills (proced ...

medicine
,
mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ...
,
business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit." Having a business name A trad ...

business
, scientific
research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expa ...

research
and spatial temporal applications. Several examples are as follows:


Creative industries

Creative industries use multimedia for a variety of purposes ranging from fine arts, to entertainment, to commercial art, to
journalism Journalism is the production and distribution of report Image:Hurt Report cover page.png, 220px, Example of a front page of a report A report is a document that presents information in an organized format for a specific audience and purpose. ...

journalism
, to media and software services provided for any of the industries listed below. An individual multimedia designer may cover the spectrum throughout their career. Request for their skills range from technical, to analytical, to creative.


Commercial uses

Much of the electronic
old Old or OLD may refer to: Places *Old, Baranya Old () is a village in Baranya (county), Baranya county, Hungary. Populated places in Baranya County {{Baranya-geo-stub ..., Hungary *Old, Northamptonshire Old (previously Wold and befor ...
and
new media New media are forms of media that are computational and rely on computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of ...
used by production companies and graphic designers is multimedia. Advertising companies rely heavily on the social interfaces and television to promote products. Using these platforms, they are able to express their message or persuade a targeted audience. Business to business, and interoffice communications are often developed by
creative services Creative services are a subsector of the creative industries, a part of the economy that creates wealth by offering creativity for hire to other businesses. Creative Services also means a department within a company that does creative work such as w ...
firms for advanced multimedia presentations beyond simple slide shows to sell ideas or liven up training. Commercial multimedia developers may be hired to design for governmental services and nonprofit services applications as well.


Entertainment and fine arts

Multimedia is heavily used in the entertainment industry, especially to develop
special effect Special effects (often abbreviated as SFX, SPFX, F/X or simply FX) are illusions or visual tricks used in the theatre, film, television, video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or inpu ...
s in movies and animations (VFX, 3D animation, etc.). Multimedia games are a popular pastime and are software programs available either as CD-ROMs or online.
Video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, game controller, controller, computer keyboard, keyboard, or motion sensing device to generate visual f ...
s class as multimedia, as such games meld animation, audio, and, most importantly, interactivity, to allow the player an immersive experience. While video games can vary in terms of animation style or audio type or even lack thereof, the element of interactivity makes them a striking example of ''interactive multimedia''. ''Interactive multimedia'' defines multimedia applications that allow users to actively participate instead of just sitting by as passive recipients of information. In the
arts The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something somehow new and somehow valuable is formed. The created item may be intangible (such as an idea, a scienti ...

arts
there are
multimedia art Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, or video into a single presentation, in contrast to traditional mass media, such as printed material or audio recordings. Popul ...
ists, whose minds are able to blend techniques using different media that in some way incorporates interaction with the viewer. Another approach entails the creation of multimedia that can be displayed in a traditional fine arts arena, such as an
art gallery An art gallery is a room or a building in which visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, afte ...

art gallery
. Although multimedia display material may be volatile, the survivability of the content is as strong as any traditional media. Digital recording material may be just as durable and infinitely reproducible with perfect copies every time.


Education

In
education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion ...

education
, multimedia is used to produce
computer-based training Educational technology (commonly abbreviated as EduTech, or EdTech) is the combined use of computer hardware, software, and Education sciences, educational theory and practice to facilitate learning. When referred to with its abbreviation, EdTech ...
courses (popularly called CBTs) and reference books like encyclopedia and almanacs. A CBT lets the user go through a series of presentations, text about a particular topic, and associated illustrations in various information formats. Learning theory in the past decade has expanded dramatically because of the introduction of multimedia. Several lines of research have evolved, e.g.
cognitive load In cognitive psychology Cognitive psychology is the scientific study of mental processes such as attention, language use, memory Memory is the faculty of the brain by which data or information is encoded, stored, and retrieved when needed. ...
and multimedia learning. From multimedia learning (MML) theory, David Roberts has developed a large group lecture practice using PowerPoint and based on the use of full-slide images in conjunction with a reduction of visible text (all text can be placed in the notes view’ section of PowerPoint). The method has been applied and evaluated in 9 disciplines. In each experiment, students’ engagement and active learning have been approximately 66% greater, than with the same material being delivered using bullet points, text, and speech, corroborating a range of theories presented by multimedia learning scholars like Sweller and Mayer. The idea of media convergence is also becoming a major factor in education, particularly higher education. Defined as separate technologies such as voice (and telephony features), data (and productivity applications), and video that now share resources and interact with each other, media convergence is rapidly changing the curriculum in universities all over the world. Higher education has been implementing the use of social media applications such as Twitter, YouTube, Facebook, etc. to increase student collaboration and develop new processes in how information can be conveyed to students.


Educational technology

Multimedia provides students with an alternate means of acquiring knowledge designed to enhance teaching and learning through various mediums and platforms. In the 1960s, technology began to expand into the classrooms through devices such as screens and telewriters. This technology allows students to learn at their own pace and gives teachers the ability to observe the individual needs of each student. The capacity for multimedia to be used in
multi-disciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project). It draws knowledge from several other fields like sociology, anthropology, psychology, e ...

multi-disciplinary
settings is structured around the idea of creating a hands-on learning environment through the use of technology. Lessons can be tailored to the subject matter as well as be personalized to the students' varying levels of knowledge on the topic. Learning content can be managed through activities that utilize and take advantage of multimedia platforms. This kind of usage of modern multimedia encourages interactive communication between students and teachers and opens feedback channels, introducing an active learning process especially with the prevalence of
new media New media are forms of media that are computational and rely on computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of ...
and
social media Social media are interactive technologies that facilitate the creation Creation may refer to: Religion * Creation ''ex nihilo'', the concept that matter was created by God out of nothing * Creation myth A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) ...

social media
. Technology has impacted multimedia as it is largely associated with the use of computers or other electronic devices and
digital media Digital media means any media (communication), communication media that operate with the use of any of various encoded machine-readable data formats. Digital media can be created, viewed, distributed, modified, listened to, and preserved on a di ...
due to its capabilities concerning research, communication, problem-solving through simulations and feedback opportunities. The innovation of technology in education through the use of multimedia allows for diversification among classrooms to enhance the overall learning experience for students.


Social work

Multimedia is a robust education methodology within the social work context. The five different multimedia which supports the education process are narrative media,
interactive media Interactive media normally refers to products and services on digital computer-based systems which respond to the user's actions by presenting content such as text (literary theory), text, moving image, animation, video and Digital audio, audio. ...
, communicative media, adaptive media, and productive media. Contrary to long-standing belief, multimedia technology in social work education existed before the prevalence of the internet. It takes the form of images, audio, and video into the curriculum. First introduced to
social work Social work is an academic discipline and practice-based profession A Profession is a disciplined group of individuals who adhere to ethical standards and who hold themselves out as, and are accepted by the public as possessing special kno ...

social work
education by Seabury & Maple in 1993, multimedia technology is utilized to teach social work practice skills including interviewing, crisis intervention, and group work. In comparison with conventional teaching method, including face-to-face courses, multimedia education shortens transportation time, increases knowledge and confidence in a richer and more authentic context for learning, generates interaction between online users, and enhances understanding of conceptual materials for novice students. In an attempt to examine the impact of multimedia technology on students’ study, A. Elizabeth Cauble & Linda P. Thurston conducted a research in which Building Family Foundations (BFF), an interactive multimedia training platform, was utilized to assess social work students’ reactions to multimedia technology on variables of knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy. The results states that respondents show a substantial increase in academic knowledge, confidence, and attitude. Multimedia also benefits students because it brings expert to students online, fits students’ schedule, allows students to choose courses that suit them. Mayer's Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning suggests, "people learn more from words and pictures than from words alone." According to Mayer and other scholars, multimedia technology stimulates people's brains by implementing visual and auditory effects, and thereby assists online users to learn efficiently. Researchers suggest that when users establish dual channels while learning, they tend to understand and memorize better. Mixed literature of this theory are still present in the field of multimedia and social work.


Language communication

With the spread and development of the English language around the world, multimedia has become an important way of communicating between different people and cultures. Multimedia Technology creates a platform where language can be taught. The traditional form of teaching English as a Second Language (ESL) in classrooms have drastically changed with the prevalence of technology, making easier for students to obtain language learning skills. Multimedia motivates students to learn more languages through audio, visual and animation support. It also helps create English contexts since an important aspect of learning a language is developing their grammar, vocabulary and knowledge of pragmatics and genres. In addition, cultural connections in terms of forms, contexts, meanings and ideologies have to be constructed. By improving thought patterns, multimedia develops students’
communicative competenceCommunicative competence encompasses a language user's grammatical knowledge of syntax In linguistics, syntax () is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of Sentence (linguistics), sentences (sentence structure) i ...
by improving their capacity to understand the language. One of the studies, carried out by Izquierdo, Simard and Pulido, presented the correlation between "Multimedia Instruction (MI) and learners’ second language (L2)" and its effects on learning behavior. Their findings based on
Gardner
Gardner
’s theory of the " socio-educational model of learner motivation and attitudes", the study shows that there is easier access to language learning materials as well as increased motivation with MI along with the use of
Computer-Assisted Language Learning Computer-assisted language learning (CALL), British, or Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI)/Computer-Aided Language Instruction (CALI), American, is briefly defined in a seminal work by Levy (1997: p. 1) as "the search for and study of applicati ...
.


Journalism

Newspaper companies all over are trying to embrace the new phenomenon by implementing its practices in their work. While some have been slow to come around, other major newspapers like ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
'', ''
USA Today ''USA Today'' (stylized in all uppercase) is an American daily and company. Founded by on September 15, 1982, USA Today operates from Gannett's corporate headquarters in . Its newspaper is printed at 37 sites across the United States and at ...
'' and ''
The Washington Post ''The Washington Post'' (also known as the ''Post'' and, informally, ''WaPo'') is an American daily newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is ...

The Washington Post
'' are setting the precedent for the positioning of the newspaper industry in a globalized world. To keep up with the changing world of multimedia, journalistic practices are adopting and utilizing different functions of multimedia through the inclusions of visuals such as varying audio, video, text, etc. in their writings. News reporting is not limited to traditional media outlets. Freelance journalists can make use of different new media to produce multimedia pieces for their news stories. It engages global audiences and tells stories with technology, which develops new communication techniques for both media producers and consumers. The Common Language Project, later renamed to The Seattle Globalist, is an example of this type of multimedia journalism production. Multimedia reporters who are mobile (usually driving around a community with cameras, audio and video recorders, and laptop computers) are often referred to as mojos, from ''mo''bile ''jo''urnalist.


Engineering

Software engineer A software engineer is a person who applies the principles of software engineering to the design, development, maintenance, testing, and evaluation of computer software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions ...
s may use multimedia in
computer simulations Computer simulation is the process of mathematical modelling, performed on a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform ...
for anything from entertainment to
training Training is teaching, or developing in oneself or others, any s and or that relate to specific . Training has specific goals of improving one's , capacity, and . It forms the core of s and provides the backbone of content at (also known as ...

training
such as military or industrial training. Multimedia for software interfaces are often done as a collaboration between
creative professional A creative professional who is also known as a creative specialist is a person who is employed for the extraction of skills in creative endeavors. Creative professions include writing, art, design, theater, television, radio, motion pictures, relat ...
s and software engineers. Multimedia helps expand the teaching practices that can be found in engineering to allow for more innovated methods to not only educated future engineers, but to help evolve the scope of understanding of where multimedia can be used in specialized engineer careers like software engineers. Multimedia is also allowing major car manufactures, such as Ford, and General Motors, to expand the design, and safety standards of their cars. By using a game engine and VR glasses, these companies are able to test the safety features, and the design of the car, before a prototype is even made. Building a car virtually reduces the time it takes to produce new vehicles, cutting down on the time needed to test designs, and allowing the designers to make changes in real time. It also reduces expenses, since with a virtual car making real world prototypes is no longer needed.


Mathematical and scientific research

In
mathematical Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ...
and scientific
research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expa ...

research
, multimedia is mainly used for modeling and simulation. For example, a
scientist A scientist is a person who conducts scientific research The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at least the 17th century. It involves ...

scientist
can look at a
molecular modelA molecular model, in this article, is a physical model that represents molecules A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five carbon rings. A molecule is an electrically neutral group ...
of a particular substance and manipulate it to arrive at a new substance. Representative research can be found in journals such as the ''
Journal of Multimedia The ''Journal of Multimedia'' was a monthly peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified membe ...
''. One well known example of this being applied would be in the movie
Interstellar Interstellar or Interstella may refer to: Space * Interstellar space ** Interstellar medium * Interstellar travel * Interstellar communication * Interstellar probe Art, entertainment, and media Films and soundtracks * ''Interstella 5555: The 5tor ...
where Executive Director
Kip Thorne Kip Stephen Thorne (born June 1, 1940) is an American theoretical physicist known for his contributions in gravitational physics Gravity (), or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—includi ...
helped create one of the most realistic depictions of a blackhole in film. The visual effects team under Paul Franklin took Kip Thorne's mathematical data and applied it into their own visual effects engine called "Double Negative Gravitational Renderer (DNGR)" a.k.a "Gargantua", to create a "real" blackhole, used in the final cut. Later on the visual effects team went onto publish a blackhole study


Medicine

Multimedia is used heavily in modern medicine. Doctors can be trained using videos or virtual demonstrations. Medical students use online resources such as virtual labs and interactive diagrams further their knowledge of the human body and what can happen to it if someone's health is compromised. They can also simulate how the human body is affected by diseases. Multimedia in medicine could also be used to create new ways to prevent the further spread of diseases such as vaccines and cures and more. Especially by using what we already have to help advance further experimentation in order to access new information for the world of science and medicine.


Virtual reality

Virtual reality Virtual reality (VR) is a Simulation, simulated experience that can be similar to or completely different from the real world. Applications of virtual reality include entertainment (particularly video games), education (such as medical or mil ...

Virtual reality
is a platform for multimedia in which it merges all categories of multimedia into one virtual environment. It has gained much more attention over recent years following technological advancements and is becoming much more commonly used nowadays for various uses like virtual showrooms and video games. Virtual reality was first introduced in 1957 by cinematographer Morton Heilig in the form of an arcade style booth called Sensorama. The first virtual reality headset was created by American computer scientist Ivan Sutherland and Bob Sproull, his student, in 1968. Virtual reality is used for educational and also recreational purposes like watching movies, interactive video games, simulations etc.
Ford Motor Company Ford Motor Company (commonly known as Ford) is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple c ...
uses this technology to show customers the interior and exterior of their cars via their Immersion Lab. In
Pima County, Arizona Pima County ( ) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William a ...
their police force is trained by using Virtual Reality to create scenarios for police to practice in. Many video game platforms now support VR technology, including Sony's PlayStation, Nintendo's Switch as part of their Labo project, as well as the Oculus VR headsets that can be used for Xbox and PC gaming.


Augmented reality

While
virtual reality Virtual reality (VR) is a Simulation, simulated experience that can be similar to or completely different from the real world. Applications of virtual reality include entertainment (particularly video games), education (such as medical or mil ...

virtual reality
(VR) strives to be a totally immersive multimedia experience, completely replacing reality with a digital simulation,
augmented reality Augmented reality (AR) is an interactive experience of a real-world environment where the objects that reside in the real world are enhanced by computer-generated perceptual information, sometimes across multiple sensory modalities, including v ...
(AR) limits itself to overlaying digital output or content onto the real world. AR can be defined as "an enhanced version of reality created by the use of technology to overlay digital information on an image of something being viewed through a device (such as a smartphone camera)". AR systems can be used for tasks such as overlaying speed, altitude and heading information on an aircraft Heads-Up Display (HUD), or projecting images or animations into a real-life scene, such as in the game
Pokémon Go ''Pokémon Go'' is a 2016 augmented reality (AR) mobile game developed and published by Niantic (company), Niantic in collaboration with Nintendo and The Pokémon Company for iOS and Android (operating system), Android devices. A part of the '' ...
. Sony uses AR technology in their
PlayStation 5 The PlayStation 5 (PS5) is a home video game console A home video game console is a video game console A video game console is an electronic device that output Output may refer to: * The information produced by a computer, see Inpu ...
controllers with their haptic feedback feature to give users a greater sense of immersion while playing video games. For example, while users are playing
Call of Duty ''Call of Duty'' is a first-person shooter video game Media franchise, franchise published by Activision. Starting out in 2003, it first focused on games set in World War II. Over time, the series has seen games set in the midst of the Cold Wa ...

Call of Duty
and want to shoot their gun at the enemy, the triggers on the controller will provide tension to the player that will make it feel like they are actually pulling the trigger on a gun. The game Astro's Playroom that comes with a PlayStation 5 console showcases the different ways a game can make players feel more immersed and the depth and potential that the haptic feedback feature has for the future of gaming.


Associations and conferences

In Europe, the reference organisation for the multimedia industry is the European Multimedia Associations Convention (EMMAC). Scholarly conferences about multimedia include: *
ACM Multimedia ACM Multimedia (ACM-MM) is the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)'s annual conference on multimedia, sponsored by the SIGMM on multimedia in the ACM. SIGMM specializes in the field of multimedia computing, from underlying technologies to a ...
*
IEEE The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association for electronic engineering and electrical engineering (and associated disciplines) with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center i ...
International Conference on Multimedia & Expo (ICME)


See also

*
Artmedia Artmedia was one of the first scientific projects concerning the relationship between art, technology, philosophy and aesthetics Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology ...
*
Multi-image Multi-image is the now largely obsolete practice and business of using 35mm35 mm may refer to: * 135 film, film rolls * 35 mm movie film, motion picture film stock * 35 mm format for still photography (36×24 mm) {{Letter-NumberCombD ...
*
Multimedia Messaging Service Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) is a standard way to send messages that include multimedia Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, or video into a single presenta ...
* Multimedia search *
New media art New media art includes artworks designed and produced by means of new media technologies, comprising virtual art, computer graphics, computer animation " technique Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated imag ...
*
Non-linear media Non-linear media is a form of media that can be interacted with by the consumer, such as by selecting television shows to watch through a video on demand type service, by playing a video game, by clicking through a website, or by interacting through ...
*
Postliterate society A post-literate society is a hypothetical society in which multimedia Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, or video into a single presentation, in contrast to tra ...
*
Transmedia storytelling Transmedia storytelling (also known as transmedia narrative or multiplatform storytelling) is the technique of storytelling, telling a single story or story experience across multiple platforms and formats using current digital technologies. The ...
*
Social media Social media are interactive technologies that facilitate the creation Creation may refer to: Religion * Creation ''ex nihilo'', the concept that matter was created by God out of nothing * Creation myth A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) ...

Social media
* Universal multimedia access *
Video Game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, game controller, controller, computer keyboard, keyboard, or motion sensing device to generate visual f ...
*
Web documentary A web documentary, interactive documentary, or multimedia documentary is a documentary production that differs from the more traditional forms—video Video is an electronic medium for the recording, copying, playback, broadcasting Broad ...


References


External links

*
History of Multimedia from the University of CalgaryMultimedia in Answers.com
{{Authority control
Communication designCommunication design is concerned with how Communication, media intermission such as human interaction, print and digital pieces of work communicate with people. {{Commons category, Communication design Communication studies, Design Design Packagi ...
Design Film and video terminology Film production 1960s neologisms