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A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable
telephone A telephone is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical A cylinder (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anyt ...

telephone
that can make and receive calls over a
radio frequency Radio frequency (RF) is the oscillation Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time Time is the indefinite continued sequence, progress of existence and event (philosophy), events that occur in an apparently irreversible p ...
link while the user is moving within a telephone service area. The radio frequency link establishes a connection to the switching systems of a
mobile phone operator A mobile phone operator, wireless provider, or carrier is a mobile telecommunications company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Legal per ...
, which provides access to the
public switched telephone network The public switched telephone network (PSTN) provides Communications infrastructure, infrastructure and services for public telecommunication. The PSTN is the aggregate of the world's circuit-switched telephone networks that are operated by nati ...
(PSTN). Modern mobile telephone services use a
cellular network A cellular network or mobile network is a communication network A telecommunications network is a group of nodes In general, a node is a localized swelling (a "knot") or a point of intersection (a Vertex (graph theory), vertex). Node may re ...
architecture and, therefore, mobile telephones are called ''cellular telephones'' or ''cell phones'' in North America. In addition to
telephony Telephony ( ) is the field of technology involving the development, application, and deployment of telecommunication services for the purpose of electronic transmission of voice, fax, or data, between distant parties. The history of telephony is i ...
, digital mobile phones (
2G
2G
) support a variety of other
services Service may refer to: Activities :''(See the Religion section for religious activities)'' * Administrative service, a required part of the workload of Faculty (academic staff), university faculty * Civil service, the body of employees of a governm ...
, such as
text messaging Text messaging, or texting, is the act of composing and sending electronic messages, typically consisting of alphabetic and numeric characters, between two or more users of mobile device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer ...
, MMS,
email upThe email_address.html"_;"title="at_sign,_a_part_of_every_SMTP_email_address">at_sign,_a_part_of_every_SMTP_email_address Electronic_mail_(email_or_e-mail)_is_a_method_of_exchanging_messages_("mail")_between_people_using_electronic_dev ...

email
,
Internet access Internet access is the ability of individuals and organizations to connect to the using s, s, and other devices; and to access services such as and the . Internet access is sold by s (ISPs) delivering connectivity at a wide range of via vari ...
, short-range wireless communications (
infrared Infrared (IR), sometimes called infrared light, is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with wavelengths longer than those of Light, visible light. It is therefore invisible to the human eye. IR is generally understood to encompass wavelengths from ...
,
Bluetooth Bluetooth is a short-range wireless Wireless communication (or just wireless, when the context allows) is the telecommunication, transfer of information between two or more points that do not use an electrical conductor as a medium by which ...

Bluetooth
), business applications,
video games#REDIRECT Video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, game controller, controller, computer keyboard, keyboard, or motion sensing device ...

video games
and
digital photography Digital photography uses cameras A camera is an optical Optics is the branch of physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the ...
. Mobile phones offering only those capabilities are known as
feature phone A feature phone is a type or class of mobile phone A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone A telephone is a ...
s; mobile phones which offer greatly advanced computing capabilities are referred to as
smartphone A smartphone is a Mobile device, portable device that combines Mobile phone, mobile telephone and Mobile computing, computing functions into one unit. They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and exten ...

smartphone
s. The development of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS)
large-scale integration An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuit File:PExdcr01CJC.jpg, 200px, A circuit built on a printed circuit board (PCB). An electronic circuit i ...
(LSI) technology,
information theory Information theory is the scientific study of the quantification (science), quantification, computer data storage, storage, and telecommunication, communication of Digital data, digital information. The field was fundamentally established by the ...
and
cellular network A cellular network or mobile network is a communication network A telecommunications network is a group of nodes In general, a node is a localized swelling (a "knot") or a point of intersection (a Vertex (graph theory), vertex). Node may re ...
ing led to the development of affordable
mobile communications Mobile telephony is the provision of telephone services A telephone is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical ...
. The first handheld mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. MitchellJohn F. Mitchell Biography
/ref>Who invented the cell phone?
/ref> and Martin Cooper of
Motorola Motorola, Inc. () was an American Multinational corporation, multinational telecommunications company based in Schaumburg, Illinois, United States. After having lost $4.3 billion from 2007 to 2009, the company split into two independent pub ...

Motorola
in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
in 1973, using a handset weighing c. 2 kilograms (4.4 lbs). In 1979,
Nippon Telegraph and Telephone , commonly known as NTT, is a Japanese telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over , radio, , or other systems. It has its origin in the desire of humans for communication o ...
(NTT) launched the world's first cellular network in Japan. In 1983, the
DynaTAC 8000x A DynaTAC 8000X; the first commercially available mobile phone from 1983. DynaTAC is a series of cellular telephones Cellular may refer to: *Cellular automaton, a model in discrete mathematics *Cell biology, the evaluation of cells work and ...

DynaTAC 8000x
was the first commercially available handheld mobile phone. From 1983 to 2014, worldwide mobile phone subscriptions grew to over seven billion; enough to provide one for every person on Earth. In the first quarter of 2016, the top
smartphone A smartphone is a Mobile device, portable device that combines Mobile phone, mobile telephone and Mobile computing, computing functions into one unit. They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and exten ...

smartphone
developers worldwide were
Samsung The Samsung Group (or simply Samsung) ( ko, 삼성) is a South Korean Multinational corporation, multinational manufacturing Conglomerate (company), conglomerate headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul, South Korea. It comprises numerous affil ...
,
Apple An apple is an edible fruit produced by an apple tree (''Malus domestica''). Apple fruit tree, trees are agriculture, cultivated worldwide and are the most widely grown species in the genus ''Malus''. The tree originated in Central Asia, wher ...
and
Huawei Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. ( ; ) is a Chinese headquartered in , , China. It designs, develops and sells , and various s. The corporation was founded in 1987 by , a former Deputy Regimental Head in the . Initially focused on manufacturi ...
; smartphone sales represented 78 percent of total mobile phone sales. For
feature phone A feature phone is a type or class of mobile phone A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone A telephone is a ...
s (
slang Slang is vocabulary A vocabulary is a set of familiar words In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical ...
: ''"dumbphones"'') , the top-selling brands were Samsung,
Nokia Nokia Corporation (natively Nokia , referred to as Nokia; stylized as NOKIA) is a Finnish s, , and company, founded in 1865. Nokia's main headquarters are in , , in the greater , but the company's actual roots are in the region of .
and Alcatel.


History

A handheld mobile radio telephone service was envisioned in the early stages of radio engineering. In 1917,
Finnish Finnish may refer to: * Something or someone from, or related to Finland * Finnish culture * Finnish people or Finns, the primary ethnic group in Finland * Finnish language, the national language of the Finnish people * Finnish cuisine See also

...

Finnish
inventor Eric Tigerstedt filed a patent for a "pocket-size folding telephone with a very thin carbon microphone". Early predecessors of cellular phones included radio communications from ships and trains. The race to create truly portable telephone devices began after World War II, with developments taking place in many countries. The advances in
mobile telephony Mobile telephony is the provision of to which may rather than stay in one location. Telephony is supposed to specifically point to a voice-only service or connection, though sometimes the line may blur. Mobile phones connect to a terrestr ...
have been traced in successive "generations", starting with the early zeroth-generation () services, such as
Bell System The Bell System was the system of companies, led by the Bell Telephone Company The Bell Telephone Company, a common law joint stock company, was organized in Boston, Massachusetts on July 9, 1877, by Alexander Graham Bell's father-in-law Ga ...
's
Mobile Telephone Service The Mobile Telephone Service (MTS) was a pre- cellular VHF radio system that linked to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). MTS was the radiotelephone equivalent of land dial phone service. The Mobile Telephone Service was one of the ea ...
and its successor, the
Improved Mobile Telephone Service The Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS) was a pre-cellular VHF/ UHF radio Radio is the technology of signaling and telecommunication, communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of frequency between 30 he ...
. These 0G systems were not cellular, supported few simultaneous calls, and were very expensive. The development of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS)
large-scale integration An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuit File:PExdcr01CJC.jpg, 200px, A circuit built on a printed circuit board (PCB). An electronic circuit i ...
(LSI) technology,
information theory Information theory is the scientific study of the quantification (science), quantification, computer data storage, storage, and telecommunication, communication of Digital data, digital information. The field was fundamentally established by the ...
and
cellular network A cellular network or mobile network is a communication network A telecommunications network is a group of nodes In general, a node is a localized swelling (a "knot") or a point of intersection (a Vertex (graph theory), vertex). Node may re ...
ing led to the development of affordable
mobile communications Mobile telephony is the provision of telephone services A telephone is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical ...
, and devices such as the
car phone upAEG 4015C telephone for the German B Network ca. 1979 A car phone is a mobile radio telephone Mobile radio telephone systems were telephone systems of a wireless type that preceded the modern mobile phone, cellular mobile form of telephony te ...
. The first handheld cellular mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell and Martin Cooper of
Motorola Motorola, Inc. () was an American Multinational corporation, multinational telecommunications company based in Schaumburg, Illinois, United States. After having lost $4.3 billion from 2007 to 2009, the company split into two independent pub ...

Motorola
in 1973, using a handset weighing . The first commercial automated cellular network ( 1G) was launched in Japan by
Nippon Telegraph and Telephone , commonly known as NTT, is a Japanese telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over , radio, , or other systems. It has its origin in the desire of humans for communication o ...
in 1979. This was followed in 1981 by the simultaneous launch of the
Nordic Mobile Telephone NMT (''Nordisk MobilTelefoni'' or ''Nordiska MobilTelefoni-gruppen'', ''Nordic Mobile Telephony'' in English) is an automatic cellular phone system specified by Nordic Nordic most commonly refers to: * Nordic countries, written in plural as Nor ...
(NMT) system in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Several other countries then followed in the early to mid-1980s. These first-generation ( 1G) systems could support far more simultaneous calls but still used analog cellular technology. In 1983, the
DynaTAC 8000x A DynaTAC 8000X; the first commercially available mobile phone from 1983. DynaTAC is a series of cellular telephones Cellular may refer to: *Cellular automaton, a model in discrete mathematics *Cell biology, the evaluation of cells work and ...

DynaTAC 8000x
was the first commercially available handheld mobile phone.
Digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology a ...
cellular networks appeared in the 1990s, enabled by the wide adoption of
MOSFET The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET), also known as the metal–oxide–silicon transistor (MOS transistor, or MOS), is a type of insulated-gate field-effect transistor that is fabricated by th ...

MOSFET
-based
RF power amplifier A radio frequency power amplifier (RF power amplifier) is a type of electronic amplifier that converts a low-power radio-frequency signal (electrical engineering), signal into a higher power signal. Typically, RF power amplifiers drive the antenna ...
s (
power MOSFET A power MOSFET is a specific type of metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET), also known as the metal–oxide–silicon transistor (MOS tr ...
and
LDMOS LDMOS (laterally-diffused metal-oxide semiconductor) is a planar double-diffused MOSFET The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET), also known as the metal–oxide–silicon transistor (MOS transist ...
) and
RF circuit Radio-frequency (RF) engineering is a subset of electronic engineering Printed circuit board Electronic engineering (also called electronics and communications engineering) is an electrical engineering discipline which utilizes nonlinear and ...
s (
RF CMOSRF CMOS is a metal–oxide–semiconductor The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET), also known as the metal–oxide–silicon transistor (MOS transistor, or MOS), is a type of insulated-gate field-e ...
), leading to the introduction of
digital signal processing Digital signal processing (DSP) is the use of digital processing Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of electro ...
in
wireless communications Wireless communication (or just wireless, when the context allows) is the transfer of information between two or more points that do not use an electrical conductor In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), ph ...
. In 1991, the second-generation () digital cellular technology was launched in Finland by
Radiolinja Radiolinja was a Finnish GSM GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a European standard for mobile devices. GSM may also refer to: Education * GSM London, a higher education provider * Guildhall School of Music and Drama The Guildh ...
on the
GSM GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a European standard for mobile devices. GSM may also refer to: Education * GSM London, a higher education provider * Guildhall School of Music and Drama The Guildhall School of Music and Drama i ...

GSM
standard. This sparked competition in the sector as the new operators challenged the incumbent 1G network operators. The GSM standard is a European initiative expressed at the ("Conférence Européenne des Postes et Telecommunications", European Postal and Telecommunications conference). The Franco-German R&D cooperation demonstrated the technical feasibility, and in 1987 a Memorandum of Understanding was signed between 13 European countries who agreed to launch a commercial service by 1991. The first version of the GSM (=2G) standard had 6,000 pages. The
IEEE The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association for electronic engineering and electrical engineering (and associated disciplines) with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center i ...
and RSE awarded to
Thomas HaugDr. Thomas Haug (born 1927 in Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language, alongsid ...

Thomas Haug
and
Philippe Dupuis Philippe Dupuis (born April 24, 1985) is a Canadians, Canadian former professional ice hockey player who played in the National Hockey League (NHL) with the Colorado Avalanche and the Toronto Maple Leafs. Playing career Dupuis was drafted 104th o ...
the 2018 James Clerk Maxwell medal for their contributions to the first digital mobile telephone standard. In 2018, the GSM was used by over 5 billion people in over 220 countries. The GSM (2G) has evolved into 3G, 4G and 5G. The standardisation body for GSM started at the CEPT Working Group GSM (Group Special Mobile) in 1982 under the umbrella of CEPT. In 1988,
ETSI ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) is an independent, not-for-profit, standardization Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standard A technical standard is an establis ...
was established and all CEPT standardization activities were transferred to ETSI. Working Group GSM became Technical Committee GSM. In 1991, it became Technical Committee SMG (Special Mobile Group) when ETSI tasked the committee with UMTS (3G). The
lithium-ion battery A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery is a type of rechargeable battery A rechargeable battery, storage battery, or secondary cell, (or archaically accumulator) is a type of electrical battery A battery is a device consisting of o ...
, an indispensable
energy source Energy development is the field of activities focused on obtaining sources of energy from natural resources. These activities include production of conventional, alternative and renewable sources of energy, and for the recovery and reuse of en ...

energy source
for modern mobile phones, was commercialized by
Sony , commonly known as Sony and stylized as SONY, is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from mult ...

Sony
and
Asahi Kasei is a multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sovereign state that comp ...
in 1991. In 2001, the third generation () was launched in Japan by
NTT DoCoMo is a Japanese . The name is officially , "''do communications over the mobile network''", and is also from a ''dokomo'', meaning "everywhere" in Japanese. Docomo provides phone, video phone ( and Some ), (internet), and mail (i-mode mail, Sh ...
on the
WCDMA The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is a mobile cellular system for networks based on the standard. Developed and maintained by the (3rd Generation Partnership Project), UMTS is a component of the standard set and compares w ...
standard. This was followed by 3.5G, 3G+ or turbo 3G enhancements based on the
high-speed packet access High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) is an amalgamation of two mobile protocols, High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) and High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA), that extends and improves the performance of existing 3G mobile telecommunicati ...
(HSPA) family, allowing UMTS networks to have higher data transfer speeds and capacity. By 2009, it had become clear that, at some point, 3G networks would be overwhelmed by the growth of bandwidth-intensive applications, such as
streaming media Streaming media is multimedia that is delivered and consumed in a continuous manner from a source, with little or no intermediate storage in network elements. ''Streaming'' refers to the delivery method of content, rather than the content its ...
. Consequently, the industry began looking to data-optimized fourth-generation technologies, with the promise of speed improvements up to ten-fold over existing 3G technologies. The first two commercially available technologies billed as 4G were the
WiMAX Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) is a family of wireless broadband Wireless broadband is telecommunications technology that provides high-speed wireless Wireless communication (or just wireless, when the context al ...

WiMAX
standard, offered in North America by
Sprint Sprint may refer to: Aerospace *Spring WS202 Sprint, a Canadian aircraft design *Sprint (missile), an anti-ballistic missile Automotive and motorcycle *Alfa Romeo Sprint, automobile produced by Alfa Romeo between 1976 and 1989 *Chevrolet Sprint, ...
, and the LTE standard, first offered in Scandinavia by
TeliaSonera Telia Company AB is a Swedish multinational telecommunications company and mobile network operator present in Sweden, Finland, Norway, Denmark, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. Telia also owns TV4 Media which includes TV4 in Sweden and MTV in Fin ...
. 5G is a technology and term used in research papers and projects to denote the next major phase in mobile telecommunication standards beyond the 4G/
IMT-Advanced International Mobile Telecommunications-Advanced (IMT-Advanced Standard) are the requirements issued by the ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) of the International Telecommunication Union File:ITU monument, Bern.jpg, 260px, ITU Monument, ...
standards. The term 5G is not officially used in any specification or official document yet made public by telecommunication companies or standardization bodies such as
3GPP The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is an umbrella term for a number of s which develop protocols for . Its best known work is the development and maintenance of: * and related and standards, including and * and related standards, ...
,
WiMAX Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) is a family of wireless broadband Wireless broadband is telecommunications technology that provides high-speed wireless Wireless communication (or just wireless, when the context al ...

WiMAX
Forum or
ITU-R The ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) is one of the three sectors (divisions or units) of the International Telecommunication Union 260px, ITU Monument, Bern The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of the Unit ...
. New standards beyond 4G are currently being developed by standardization bodies, but they are at this time seen as under the 4G umbrella, not for a new mobile generation.


Types


Smartphone

Smartphone A smartphone is a Mobile device, portable device that combines Mobile phone, mobile telephone and Mobile computing, computing functions into one unit. They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and exten ...

Smartphone
s have a number of distinguishing features. The
International Telecommunication Union The International Telecommunication Union is a list of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for all matters related to information and communications technology, information and co ...

International Telecommunication Union
measures those with Internet connection, which it calls ''Active Mobile-Broadband subscriptions'' (which includes tablets, etc.). In the developed world, smartphones have now overtaken the usage of earlier mobile systems. However, in the developing world, they account for around 50% of
mobile telephony Mobile telephony is the provision of to which may rather than stay in one location. Telephony is supposed to specifically point to a voice-only service or connection, though sometimes the line may blur. Mobile phones connect to a terrestr ...
.


Feature phone

Feature phone is a term typically used as a
retronym A retronym is a newer name for an existing thing that differentiates the original form/version from a more recent one. It is thus a word or phrase created to avoid confusion between two types, whereas previously (before there were more than one typ ...
to describe
mobile phones A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone A telephone is a telecommunications Appliance (disambiguation), devic ...

mobile phones
which are limited in capabilities in contrast to a modern
smartphone A smartphone is a Mobile device, portable device that combines Mobile phone, mobile telephone and Mobile computing, computing functions into one unit. They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and exten ...

smartphone
. Feature phones typically provide
voice calling A telephone call is a connection over a telephone network between the called partyThe called party (in some contexts called the "B-Number") is a person who (or device that) answers a telephone call. The person who (or device that) initiates a tele ...
and
text messaging Text messaging, or texting, is the act of composing and sending electronic messages, typically consisting of alphabetic and numeric characters, between two or more users of mobile device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer ...
functionality, in addition to basic
multimedia Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different such as , , , , or into a single interactive presentation, in contrast to traditional mass media which featured little to no interaction fr ...

multimedia
and
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

Internet
capabilities, and other services offered by the user's wireless service provider. A feature phone has additional functions over and above a basic mobile phone which is only capable of voice calling and text messaging.Todd Hixon
Two Weeks With A Dumb Phone
''Forbes'', 13 November 2012
Feature phones and basic mobile phones tend to use a proprietary, custom-designed
software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions that tell a computer how to work. This is in contrast to Computer hardware, hardware, from which the system is built and actually performs the work. At the low level lang ...

software
and
user interface In the industrial design Industrial design is a process of design A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specificati ...
. By contrast, smartphones generally use a
mobile operating system A mobile operating system is an operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Examples of system software include operating systems like macOS ...
that often shares common traits across devices.


Infrastructure

Mobile phones communicate with cell towers that are placed to give coverage across a telephone service area, which is divided up into 'cells'. Each cell uses a different set of frequencies from neighboring cells, and will typically be covered by three towers placed at different locations. The cell towers are usually interconnected to each other and the phone network and the internet by wired connections. Due to bandwidth limitations each cell will have a maximum number of cell phones it can handle at once. The cells are therefore sized depending on the expected usage density, and may be much smaller in cities. In that case much lower transmitter powers are used to avoid broadcasting beyond the cell. In order to handle the high traffic, multiple towers can be set up in the same area (using different frequencies). This can be done permanently or temporarily such as at special events like at the Super Bowl, Taste of Chicago, State Fair, NYC New Year's Eve, hurricane hit cities, etc. where cell phone companies will bring a truck with equipment to host the abnormally high traffic with a portable cell. Cellular can greatly increase the capacity of simultaneous wireless phone calls. While a phone company for example, has a license to 1,000 frequencies, each cell must use unique frequencies with each call using one of them when communicating. Because cells only slightly overlap, the same frequency can be reused. Example cell one uses frequency 1–500, next door cell uses frequency 501–1,000, next door can reuse frequency 1–500. Cells one and three are not "touching" and do not overlap/communicate so each can reuse the same frequencies. This is even more greatly increased when phone companies implemented digital networks. With digital, one frequency can host multiple simultaneous calls increasing capacity even more. As a phone moves around, a phone will "hand off" - automatically disconnect and reconnect to the tower of another cell that gives the best reception. Additionally, short-range
Wi-Fi Wi-Fi () is a family of wireless network A wireless network is a computer network that uses wireless data connections between network nodes. Wireless networking is a method by which homes, telecommunications networks and business installa ...

Wi-Fi
infrastructure is often used by smartphones as much as possible as it offloads traffic from cell networks on to local area networks.


Hardware

The common components found on all mobile phones are: * A
central processing unit A central processing unit (CPU), also called a central processor, main processor or just processor, is the electronic circuit 200px, A circuit built on a printed circuit board (PCB). An electronic circuit is composed of individual electroni ...

central processing unit
(CPU), the processor of phones. The CPU is a
microprocessor A microprocessor is a computer processor where the data processing logic and control is included on a single integrated circuit An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip ...

microprocessor
fabricated on a
metal–oxide–semiconductor The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET), also known as the metal–oxide–silicon transistor (MOS transistor, or MOS), is a type of insulated-gate field-effect transistor The field-effect tran ...
(MOS)
integrated circuit An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuit 200px, A circuit built on a printed circuit board (PCB). An electronic circuit is composed of indiv ...

integrated circuit
(IC) chip. * A
battery Battery may refer to: Energy source * Electric battery, an electrochemical device to provide electrical power ** Automotive battery, a device to provide power to certain functions of an automobile ** List of battery types * Energy storage, inclu ...
, providing the power source for the phone functions. A modern handset typically uses a
lithium-ion battery A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery is a type of rechargeable battery A rechargeable battery, storage battery, or secondary cell, (or archaically accumulator) is a type of electrical battery A battery is a device consisting of o ...
(LIB), whereas older handsets used nickel–metal hydride (Ni–MH) batteries. * An input mechanism to allow the user to interact with the phone. These are a
keypad A keypad is a block or pad of buttons set with an arrangement of digits, symbols, or alphabetical letters. Pads mostly containing numbers and used with computers are numeric keypad A numeric keypad, number pad, numpad, or ten key, is t ...

keypad
for feature phones, and
touch screens A touchscreen or touch screen is the assembly of both an input ('touch panel') and output ('display') device. The touch panel is normally layered on the top of an electronic visual display of an information processing system. The display is often a ...
for most smartphones (typically with
capacitive sensing In electrical engineering, capacitive sensing (sometimes capacitance sensing) is a technology, based on capacitive coupling, that can detect and measure anything that is conductive or has a dielectric A dielectric (or dielectric material) is a ...
). * A
display Display may refer to: Technology * Display device, output device for presenting information, including: ** Cathode ray tube, video display that provides a quality picture, but can be very heavy and deep ** Electronic visual display, output device ...
which echoes the user's typing, and displays text messages, contacts, and more. The display is typically either a
liquid-crystal display A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat-panel display A flat-panel display (FPD) is an electronic display device s, LED display and Vacuum fluorescent display, VF display, top to bottom. A display device is an output device for presentation ...

liquid-crystal display
(LCD) or
organic light-emitting diode An organic light-emitting diode (OLED or organic LED), also known as organic electroluminescent (organic EL) diode, is a light-emitting diode A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor A semiconductor material has an v ...
(OLED) display. *
Speakers Speaker may refer to: Roles * Speaker (politics), the presiding officer in a legislative assembly * Public speaker, one who gives a speech or lecture * A person producing speech Electronics * Loudspeaker, a device that produces sound ** Computer ...

Speakers
for sound. *
Subscriber Identity Module A GSM GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a European standard for mobile devices. GSM may also refer to: Education * GSM London, a higher education provider * Guildhall School of Music and Drama The Guildhall School of Music an ...
(SIM) cards and Removable User Identity Module (R-UIM) cards. * A hardware
notification LED A Notification LED is a small RGB s The RGB color model is an additive color, additive color model A color model is an abstract mathematical model describing the way colors can be represented as tuples of numbers, typically as three or fo ...
on some phones Low-end mobile phones are often referred to as
feature phone A feature phone is a type or class of mobile phone A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone A telephone is a ...
s and offer basic telephony. Handsets with more advanced computing ability through the use of native software applications are known as
smartphone A smartphone is a Mobile device, portable device that combines Mobile phone, mobile telephone and Mobile computing, computing functions into one unit. They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and exten ...

smartphone
s.


Central processing unit

Mobile phones have
central processing unit A central processing unit (CPU), also called a central processor, main processor or just processor, is the electronic circuit 200px, A circuit built on a printed circuit board (PCB). An electronic circuit is composed of individual electroni ...

central processing unit
s (CPUs), similar to those in computers, but optimised to operate in low power environments. Mobile CPU performance depends not only on the clock rate (generally given in multiples of
hertz The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the unit Unit may refer to: Arts and entertainment * UNIT Unit may refer to: Arts and entertainment * UNIT, a fictional military organization in the science fiction television series ''Doctor Who'' * Unit of action ...

hertz
) but also the
memory hierarchy In computer architecture In computer engineering Computer engineering (CoE or CpE) is a branch of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other i ...

memory hierarchy
also greatly affects overall performance. Because of these problems, the performance of mobile phone CPUs is often more appropriately given by scores derived from various standardized tests to measure the real effective performance in commonly used applications.


Display

One of the main characteristics of phones is the
screen Screen or Screens may refer to: Arts * Screen printing (also called ''silkscreening''), a method of printing * Big screen, a nickname associated with the motion picture industry * Split screen (filmmaking), a film composition paradigm in which mult ...
. Depending on the device's type and design, the screen fills most or nearly all of the space on a device's front surface. Many smartphone displays have an
aspect ratio The aspect ratio of a geometric Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; '' geo-'' "earth", '' -metron'' "measurement") is, with arithmetic Arithmetic (from the Ancient Greek, Greek wikt:en:ἀριθμός#Ancient Greek, ἀριθμό ...
of 16:9, but taller aspect ratios became more common in 2017. Screen sizes are often measured in diagonal
inch Measuring tape with inches The inch (symbol: in or ″) is a unit Unit may refer to: Arts and entertainment * UNIT Unit may refer to: Arts and entertainment * UNIT, a fictional military organization in the science fiction television s ...
es or
millimeter The millimetre ( international spelling; SI unit symbol mm) or millimeter ( American spelling) is a unit Unit may refer to: Arts and entertainment * UNIT, a fictional military organization in the science fiction television series ''Doctor Who'' ...
s; feature phones generally have screen sizes below . Phones with screens larger than are often called "
phablet A phablet (, ) is a mobile device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perfor ...

phablet
s." Smartphones with screens over in size are commonly difficult to use with only a single hand, since most thumbs cannot reach the entire screen surface; they may need to be shifted around in the hand, held in one hand and manipulated by the other, or used in place with both hands. Due to design advances, some modern smartphones with large screen sizes and "edge-to-edge" designs have compact builds that improve their ergonomics, while the shift to taller aspect ratios have resulted in phones that have larger screen sizes whilst maintaining the ergonomics associated with smaller 16:9 displays.
Liquid-crystal display A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat-panel display A flat-panel display (FPD) is an electronic display device s, LED display and Vacuum fluorescent display, VF display, top to bottom. A display device is an output device for presentation ...

Liquid-crystal display
s are the most common; others are IPS,
LED An LED A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor A semiconductor material has an Electrical resistivity and conductivity, electrical conductivity value falling between that of a Electrical conductor, conductor, such as metallic ...
,
OLED An organic light-emitting diode (OLED or organic LED), also known as organic electroluminescent (organic EL) diode, is a light-emitting diode A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor A semiconductor material has an Electr ...
, and
AMOLED AMOLED (active-matrix organic light-emitting diode, ) is a type of OLED display device technology. OLED describes a specific type of thin-film-display technology in which organic compounds form the electroluminescence, electroluminescent materia ...

AMOLED
displays. Some displays are integrated with pressure-sensitive digitizers, such as those developed by
Wacom () is a Japanese company headquartered in Kazo, Saitama, Japan, that specializes in graphics tablets and related products. Headquarters locations The American headquarters are located in the Pearl District, Portland, Oregon, Pearl District of ...
and
Samsung The Samsung Group (or simply Samsung) ( ko, 삼성) is a South Korean Multinational corporation, multinational manufacturing Conglomerate (company), conglomerate headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul, South Korea. It comprises numerous affil ...

Samsung
, and Apple's " 3D Touch" system.


Sound

In sound, smartphones and feature phones vary little. Some audio-quality enhancing features, such as Voice over LTE and HD Voice, have appeared and are often available on newer smartphones. Sound quality can remain a problem due to the design of the phone, the quality of the cellular network and compression algorithms used in long-distance calls. Audio quality can be improved using a VoIP application over WiFi. Cellphones have small speakers so that the user can use a speakerphone feature and talk to a person on the phone without holding it to their ear. The small speakers can also be used to listen to digital audio files of music or speech or watch videos with an audio component, without holding the phone close to the ear.


Battery

The average phone battery lasts 2–3 years at best. Many of the wireless devices use a Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) battery, which charges 500–2500 times, depending on how users take care of the battery and the charging techniques used. It is only natural for these rechargeable batteries to chemically age, which is why the performance of the battery when used for a year or two will begin to deteriorate. Battery life can be extended by draining it regularly, not overcharging it, and keeping it away from heat.


SIM card

Mobile phones require a small Integrated circuit, microchip called a Subscriber Identity Module or SIM card, in order to function. The SIM card is approximately the size of a small postage stamp and is usually placed underneath the battery in the rear of the unit. The SIM securely stores the International Mobile Subscriber Identity, service-subscriber key (IMSI) and the Authentication Center, Ki used to identify and authenticate the user of the mobile phone. The SIM card allows users to change phones by simply removing the SIM card from one mobile phone and inserting it into another mobile phone or broadband telephony device, provided that this is not prevented by a SIM lock. The first SIM card was made in 1991 by Munich smart card maker Giesecke & Devrient for the Finnish wireless network operator
Radiolinja Radiolinja was a Finnish GSM GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a European standard for mobile devices. GSM may also refer to: Education * GSM London, a higher education provider * Guildhall School of Music and Drama The Guildh ...
. A hybrid mobile phone can hold up to four SIM cards, with a phone having a different IMEI, device identifier for each SIM Card. SIM and R-UIM cards may be mixed together to allow both
GSM GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a European standard for mobile devices. GSM may also refer to: Education * GSM London, a higher education provider * Guildhall School of Music and Drama The Guildhall School of Music and Drama i ...

GSM
and CDMA networks to be accessed. From 2010 onwards, such phones became popular in emerging markets, and this was attributed to the desire to obtain the lowest calling costs. When the removal of a SIM card is detected by the operating system, it may deny further operation until a reboot.


Software


Software platforms

Feature phones have basic software platforms. Smartphones have advanced software platforms. Android (operating system), Android OS has been the Usage share of operating systems, best-selling OS worldwide on smartphones since 2011.


Mobile app

A mobile app is a computer program designed to run on a mobile device, such as a smartphone. The term "app" is a shortening of the term "software application". ;Messaging A common data application on mobile phones is SMS, Short Message Service (SMS) text messaging. The first SMS message was sent from a computer to a mobile phone in 1992 in the UK while the first person-to-person SMS from phone to phone was sent in Finland in 1993. The first mobile news service, delivered via SMS, was launched in Finland in 2000, and subsequently many organizations provided "on-demand" and "instant" news services by SMS. Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) was introduced in March 2002.


Application stores

The introduction of Apple's App Store for the iPhone and iPod Touch in July 2008 popularized manufacturer-hosted list of digital distribution platforms for mobile devices, online distribution for third-party applications (software and computer programs) focused on a single platform. There are a huge variety of apps, including video games, music products and business tools. Up until that point, smartphone application distribution depended on List of digital distribution platforms for mobile devices#Third-party platforms, third-party sources providing applications for multiple platforms, such as GetJar, Handango, Handmark, and PocketGear. Following the success of the App Store, other smartphone manufacturers launched application stores, such as Google's Android Market (later renamed to the Google Play Store), RIM's BlackBerry App World, or Android-related app stores like Aptoide, Cafe Bazaar, F-Droid, GetJar, and Opera Mobile Store. In February 2014, 93% of mobile developers were targeting smartphones first for mobile app development.


Sales


By manufacturer

From 1983 to 1998,
Motorola Motorola, Inc. () was an American Multinational corporation, multinational telecommunications company based in Schaumburg, Illinois, United States. After having lost $4.3 billion from 2007 to 2009, the company split into two independent pub ...

Motorola
was market leader in mobile phones. Nokia was the market leader in mobile phones from 1998 to 2012. In Q1 2012,
Samsung The Samsung Group (or simply Samsung) ( ko, 삼성) is a South Korean Multinational corporation, multinational manufacturing Conglomerate (company), conglomerate headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul, South Korea. It comprises numerous affil ...

Samsung
surpassed Nokia, selling 93.5 million units as against Nokia's 82.7 million units. Samsung has retained its top position since then. In 2017, the top five manufacturers worldwide were Samsung (20.9%), Apple (14.0%), Huawei (9.8%), Oppo (5.7%), and Vivo (6.5%). During Q2 2018, Huawei overtook Apple as the world's second-largest phone manufacturer.


By mobile phone operator

The world's largest individual mobile operator by number of subscribers is China Mobile, which has over 902 million mobile phone subscribers . Over 50 mobile operators have over ten million subscribers each, and over 150 mobile operators had at least one million subscribers by the end of 2009. In 2014, there were more than seven billion mobile phone subscribers worldwide, a number that is expected to keep growing.


Use

Mobile phones are used for a variety of purposes, such as keeping in touch with family members, for conducting business, and in order to have access to a telephone in the event of an emergency. Some people carry more than one mobile phone for different purposes, such as for business and personal use. Multiple SIM cards may be used to take advantage of the benefits of different calling plans. For example, a particular plan might provide for cheaper local calls, long-distance calls, international calls, or roaming. The mobile phone has been used in a variety of diverse contexts in society. For example: * A study by
Motorola Motorola, Inc. () was an American Multinational corporation, multinational telecommunications company based in Schaumburg, Illinois, United States. After having lost $4.3 billion from 2007 to 2009, the company split into two independent pub ...

Motorola
found that one in ten mobile phone subscribers have a second phone that is often kept secret from other family members. These phones may be used to engage in such activities as extramarital affairs or clandestine business dealings. * Some organizations assist victims of domestic violence by providing mobile phones for use in emergencies. These are often refurbished phones. * The advent of widespread text-messaging has resulted in the cell phone novel, the first literary genre to emerge from the cellular age, via
text messaging Text messaging, or texting, is the act of composing and sending electronic messages, typically consisting of alphabetic and numeric characters, between two or more users of mobile device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer ...
to a website that collects the novels as a whole. * Mobile telephony also facilitates activism and citizen journalism. * The United Nations reported that mobile phones have spread faster than any other form of technology and can improve the livelihood of the poorest people in developing countries, by providing access to information in places where landlines or the Internet are not available, especially in the least developed countries. Use of mobile phones also spawns a wealth of micro-enterprises, by providing such work as selling airtime on the streets and repairing or refurbishing handsets. * In Mali and other African countries, people used to travel from village to village to let friends and relatives know about weddings, births, and other events. This can now be avoided in areas with mobile phone coverage, which are usually more extensive than areas with just land-line penetration. * The TV industry has recently started using mobile phones to drive live TV viewing through mobile apps, advertising, social TV, and mobile TV. It is estimated that 86% of Americans use their mobile phone while watching TV. * In some parts of the world, mobile phone sharing is common. Cell phone sharing is prevalent in urban India, as families and groups of friends often share one or more mobile phones among their members. There are obvious economic benefits, but often familial customs and traditional gender roles play a part. It is common for a village to have access to only one mobile phone, perhaps owned by a teacher or missionary, which is available to all members of the village for necessary calls.


Content distribution

In 1998, one of the first examples of content distribution, distributing and selling media content through the mobile phone was the sale of ringtones by
Radiolinja Radiolinja was a Finnish GSM GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a European standard for mobile devices. GSM may also refer to: Education * GSM London, a higher education provider * Guildhall School of Music and Drama The Guildh ...
in Finland. Soon afterwards, other media content appeared, such as news, video games, jokes, horoscopes, TV content and advertising. Most early content for mobile phones tended to be copies of legacy media, such as banner advertisements or TV news highlight video clips. Recently, unique content for mobile phones has been emerging, from ringtones and ringback tones to mobisodes, video content that has been produced exclusively for mobile phones.


Mobile banking and payment

In many countries, mobile phones are used to provide mobile banking services, which may include the ability to transfer cash payments by secure SMS text message. Kenya's M-PESA mobile banking service, for example, allows customers of the mobile phone operator Safaricom to hold cash balances which are recorded on their SIM cards. Cash can be deposited or withdrawn from M-PESA accounts at Safaricom retail outlets located throughout the country and can be transferred electronically from person to person and used to pay bills to companies. Branchless banking has also been successful in South Africa and the Philippines. A pilot project in Bali was launched in 2011 by the International Finance Corporation and an Indonesian bank, Bank Mandiri. Another application of mobile banking technology is Zidisha, a US-based nonprofit micro-lending platform that allows residents of developing countries to raise small business loans from Web users worldwide. Zidisha uses mobile banking for loan disbursements and repayments, transferring funds from lenders in the United States to borrowers in rural Africa who have mobile phones and can use the Internet. Mobile payments were first trialled in Finland in 1998 when two Coca-Cola vending machines in Espoo were enabled to work with SMS payments. Eventually, the idea spread and in 1999, the Philippines launched the country's first commercial mobile payments systems with mobile operators Globe Telecom, Globe and Smart Communications, Smart. Some mobile phones can make mobile payments via direct mobile billing schemes, or through contactless payments if the phone and the point of sale support near field communication (NFC). Enabling contactless payments through NFC-equipped mobile phones requires the co-operation of manufacturers, network operators, and retail merchants.


Mobile tracking

Mobile phones are commonly used to collect location data. While the phone is turned on, the geographical location of a mobile phone can be determined easily (whether it is being used or not) using a technique known as multilateration to calculate the differences in time for a signal to travel from the mobile phone to each of several cell towers near the owner of the phone. The movements of a mobile phone user can be tracked by their service provider and if desired, by law enforcement agencies and their governments. Both the SIM card and the handset can be tracked. China has proposed using this technology to track the commuting patterns of Beijing city residents. In the UK and US, law enforcement and intelligence services use mobile phones to perform surveillance operations. They possess technology that enables them to activate the microphones in mobile phones remotely in order to listen to conversations which take place near the phone. Hackers are able to track a phone's location, read messages, and record calls, just by knowing the phone number.


While driving

Mobile phone use while driving, including talking on the phone, texting, or operating other phone features, is common but controversial. It is widely considered dangerous due to distracted driving. Being distracted while operating a motor vehicle has been shown to increase the risk of accidents. In September 2010, the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) reported that 995 people were killed by Restrictions on cell phone use by U.S. drivers, drivers distracted by cell phones. In March 2011, a U.S. insurance company, State Farm Insurance, announced the results of a study which showed 19% of drivers surveyed accessed the Internet on a smartphone while driving. Many jurisdictions prohibit the use of mobile phones while driving. In Egypt, Israel, Japan, Portugal, and Singapore, both handheld and hands-free use of a mobile phone (which uses a speakerphone) is banned. In other countries, including the UK and France and in many Restrictions on cell phone use by US drivers, U.S. states, only handheld phone use is banned while hands-free use is permitted. A 2011 study reported that over 90% of college students surveyed text (initiate, reply or read) while driving. The scientific literature on the dangers of driving while sending a text message from a mobile phone, or ''texting while driving'', is limited. A simulation study at the University of Utah found a sixfold increase in distraction-related accidents when texting. Due to the increasing complexity of mobile phones, they are often more like mobile computers in their available uses. This has introduced additional difficulties for law enforcement officials when attempting to distinguish one usage from another in drivers using their devices. This is more apparent in countries which ban both handheld and hands-free usage, rather than those which ban handheld use only, as officials cannot easily tell which function of the mobile phone is being used simply by looking at the driver. This can lead to drivers being stopped for using their device illegally for a phone call when, in fact, they were using the device legally, for example, when using the phone's incorporated controls for car stereo, GPS or satnav. A 2010 study reviewed the incidence of mobile phone use while cycling and its effects on behaviour and safety. In 2013, a national survey in the US reported the number of drivers who reported using their cellphones to access the Internet while driving had risen to nearly one of four. A study conducted by the University of Vienna examined approaches for reducing inappropriate and problematic use of mobile phones, such as using mobile phones while driving. Accidents involving a driver being distracted by talking on a mobile phone have begun to be prosecuted as negligence similar to speeding. In the United Kingdom, from 27 February 2007, motorists who are caught using a hand-held mobile phone while driving will have three penalty points added to their license in addition to the fine of £60. This increase was introduced to try to stem the increase in drivers ignoring the law. Japan prohibits all mobile phone use while driving, including use of hands-free devices. New Zealand has banned hand-held cell phone use since 1 November 2009. Many states in the United States have banned texting on cell phones while driving. Illinois became the 17th American state to enforce this law. , 30 states had banned texting while driving, with Kentucky becoming the most recent addition on 15 July. Public health law, Public Health Law Research maintains a list of distracted driving laws in the United States. This database of laws provides a comprehensive view of the provisions of laws that restrict the use of mobile communication devices while driving for all 50 states and the District of Columbia between 1992 when first law was passed, through 1 December 2010. The dataset contains information on 22 dichotomous, continuous or categorical variables including, for example, activities regulated (e.g., texting versus talking, hands-free versus handheld), targeted populations, and exemptions. In 2010, an estimated 1500 pedestrians were injured in the US while using a cellphone and some jurisdictions have attempted to ban pedestrians from using their cellphones.


Health effects

The effect of mobile phone radiation on human health is the subject of recent interest and study, as a result of the enormous increase in mobile phone usage throughout the world. Mobile phones use electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. A large body of research exists, both epidemiology, epidemiological and experimental, in animal model, non-human animals and in humans. The majority of this research shows no definite causative relationship between exposure to mobile phones and harmful biological effects in humans. This is often paraphrased simply as the balance of evidence showing no harm to humans from mobile phones, although a significant number of individual studies do suggest such a relationship, or are inconclusive. Other Wireless electronic devices and health, digital wireless systems, such as data communication networks, produce similar radiation. On 31 May 2011, the World Health Organization stated that mobile phone use may possibly represent a long-term health risk, classifying mobile phone radiation as "possibly carcinogenic to humans" after a team of scientists reviewed studies on mobile phone safety. The mobile phone is in List of IARC Group 2B carcinogens, category 2B, which ranks it alongside coffee and other possibly carcinogenic substances. Some recent studies have found an association between mobile phone use and certain kinds of brain and salivary gland tumors. Lennart Hardell and other authors of a 2009 meta-analysis of 11 studies from peer-reviewed journals concluded that cell phone usage for at least ten years "approximately doubles the risk of being diagnosed with a brain tumor on the same ('ipsilateral') side of the head as that preferred for cell phone use". One study of past mobile phone use cited in the report showed a "40% increased risk for gliomas (brain cancer) in the highest category of heavy users (reported average: 30 minutes per day over a 10‐year period)". This is a reversal of the study's prior position that cancer was unlikely to be caused by cellular phones or their base stations and that reviews had found no convincing evidence for other health effects. However, a study published 24 March 2012, in the ''British Medical Journal'' questioned these estimates because the increase in brain cancers has not paralleled the increase in mobile phone use. Certain countries, including France, have warned against the use of mobile phones by minors in particular, due to health risk uncertainties. Mobile pollution by transmitting electromagnetic waves can be decreased up to 90% by adopting the circuit as designed in mobile phone and mobile exchange. In May 2016, preliminary findings of a long-term study by the U.S. government suggested that radio-frequency (RF) radiation, the type emitted by cell phones, can cause cancer.


Educational impact

A study by the London School of Economics found that banning mobile phones in schools could increase pupils' academic performance, providing benefits equal to one extra week of schooling per year.


Electronic waste regulation

Studies have shown that around 40–50% of the environmental impact of mobile phones occurs during the manufacture of their printed wiring boards and integrated circuits. The average user replaces their mobile phone every 11 to 18 months, and the discarded phones then contribute to electronic waste. Mobile phone manufacturers within Europe are subject to the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive, WEEE directive, and Australia has introduced a mobile phone recycling scheme. Apple Inc. had an advanced robotic disassembler and sorter called Liam specifically for recycling outdated or broken iPhones.Apple Inc., [350]


Theft

According to the Federal Communications Commission, one out of three robberies involve the theft of a cellular phone. Police data in San Francisco show that half of all robberies in 2012 were thefts of cellular phones. An online petition on Change.org, called ''Secure our Smartphones'', urged smartphone manufacturers to install kill switches in their devices to make them unusable if stolen. The petition is part of a joint effort by New York Attorney General Eric Schneiderman and San Francisco District Attorney George Gascón and was directed to the CEOs of the major smartphone manufacturers and telecommunication carriers. On 10 June 2013, Apple announced that it would install a "kill switch" on its iOS 7, next iPhone operating system, due to debut in October 2013. All mobile phones have a unique identifier called International Mobile Station Equipment Identity, IMEI. Anyone can report their phone as lost or stolen with their Telecom Carrier, and the IMEI would be blacklisted with a central registry. Telecom carriers, depending upon local regulation can or must implement blocking of blacklisted phones in their network. There are, however, a number of ways to circumvent a blacklist. One method is to send the phone to a country where the telecom carriers are not required to implement the blacklisting and sell it there, another involves altering the phone's IMEI number. Even so, mobile phones typically have less value on the second-hand market if the phones original IMEI is blacklisted. An unusual example of a phone bill caused by theft (reported on 28 June 2018) was when a biological group in Poland put a GPS tracker on a white stork and released it; during autumn Animal migration, migration over the Blue Nile valley in eastern Sudan someone got hold of the stork's GPS tracker, and found in it a mobile-phone-type sim card, which he put in his mobile phone, and made 20 hours of calls on it, running up a bill of over 10,000 Polish zlotys (US$2,700) for the biological group.


Conflict minerals

Demand for metals used in mobile phones and other electronics fuelled the Second Congo War, which claimed almost 5.5 million lives. In a 2012 news story, ''The Guardian'' reported: "In unsafe mines deep underground in eastern Congo, Child labour, children are working to extract minerals essential for the electronics industry. The profits from the minerals finance the bloodiest conflict since the second world war; the war has lasted nearly 20 years and has recently flared up again. ... For the last 15 years, the Democratic Republic of the Congo has been a major source of natural resources for the mobile phone industry." The company Fairphone has worked to develop a mobile phone that does not contain Conflict resource, conflict minerals.


Kosher phones

Due to concerns by the Orthodox Jewish rabbinate in Britain that texting by youths could waste time and lead to "immodest" communication, the rabbinate recommended that phones with text-messaging capability not be used by children; to address this, they gave their official approval to a brand of "Kosher" phones with no texting capabilities. Although these phones are intended to prevent Immodesty#Judaism, immodesty, some vendors report good sales to adults who prefer the simplicity of the devices; other Orthodox Jews question the need for them. In Israel, similar phones to kosher phones with restricted features exist to observe the Shabbat, sabbath; under Orthodox Judaism, the use of any electrical device is generally prohibited during this time, other than to save lives, or reduce the risk of death or similar needs. Such phones are approved for use by essential workers, such as health, security, and public service workers.


See also

* Cellular frequencies * Customer proprietary network information * Field telephone * List of countries by number of mobile phones in use * Mobile broadband * Mobile Internet device (MID) * Mobile phone accessories * Mobile phones on aircraft * Mobile phone use in schools * Mobile technology * Mobile telephony * Form factor (mobile phones), Mobile phone form factor * Optical head-mounted display * OpenBTS * Personal Handy-phone System * Prepaid mobile phone * Two-way radio ** Professional mobile radio * Push-button telephone * Rechargeable battery * Smombie * Surveillance * Tethering * VoIP phone


References


Further reading

* Agar, Jon, ''Constant Touch: A Global History of the Mobile Phone'', 2004 * * Glotz, Peter & Bertsch, Stefan, eds. ''Thumb Culture: The Meaning of Mobile Phones for Society'', 2005 * Gerard Goggin, Goggin, Gerard, ''Global Mobile Media'' (New York: Routledge, 2011), p. 176. * * Katz, James E. & Aakhus, Mark, eds. ''Perpetual Contact: Mobile Communication, Private Talk, Public Performance'', 2002 * Kavoori, Anandam & Arceneaux, Noah, eds. ''The Cell Phone Reader: Essays in Social Transformation'', 2006 * Kennedy, Pagan
Who Made That Cellphone?
''The New York Times'', 15 March 2013, p. MM19 * Kopomaa, Timo. ''The City in Your Pocket'', Gaudeamus 2000 * Paul Levinson, Levinson, Paul, ''Cellphone: The Story of the World's Most Mobile Medium, and How It Has Transformed Everything!'', 2004 * Ling, Rich, ''The Mobile Connection: the Cell Phone's Impact on Society'', 2004 * Ling, Rich and Pedersen, Per, eds. ''Mobile Communications: Re-negotiation of the Social Sphere'', 2005
Home page of Rich Ling
* Nyíri, Kristóf, ed. ''Mobile Communication: Essays on Cognition and Community'', 2003 * Nyíri, Kristóf, ed. ''Mobile Learning: Essays on Philosophy, Psychology and Education'', 2003 * Nyíri, Kristóf, ed. ''Mobile Democracy: Essays on Society, Self and Politics'', 2003 * Nyíri, Kristóf, ed. ''A Sense of Place: The Global and the Local in Mobile Communication'', 2005 * Nyíri, Kristóf, ed. '' Mobile Understanding: The Epistemology of Ubiquitous Communication'', 2006 * Sadie Plant, Plant, Dr. Sadie
''on the mobile – the effects of mobile telephones on social and individual life''
2001 * Howard Rheingold, Rheingold, Howard, ''Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution'', 2002 *


External links

*
"The Long Odyssey of the Cell Phone"
15 photos with captions from ''Time'' magazine
''Cell Phone, the ring heard around the world''
a video documentary by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation {{DEFAULTSORT:Mobile Phone Mobile phones, 2000s fads and trends Embedded systems Mobile telecommunication services Mobile telecommunications New media Radio technology Telecommunications-related introductions in 1973 Telephony Videotelephony Office equipment