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A militia () is generally an
army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-based military branch, service branch ...

army
or some other fighting organization of non-
professional A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns a living from a specified professional activity. The term also describes the standards of education and training that prepare members of the profession with the particular knowled ...
soldiers, citizens of a country, or subjects of a state, who may perform military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of
regular The term regular can mean normal or in accordance with rules. It may refer to: People * Moses Regular (born 1971), America football player Arts, entertainment, and media Music * Regular (Badfinger song), "Regular" (Badfinger song) * Regular tunin ...
, full-time
military personnel Military personnel are members of the state's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically authorized and maintained by a sovere ...
; or, historically, to members of a warrior-
nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility has often been an Estates of the realm, estate of the realm that p ...
class (e.g.
knight A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a head of state (including the pope) or representative for service to the monarch, the christian denomination, church or the country, especially in a military capacity. Knighthood ...

knight
s or
samurai were the hereditary military nobility and officer caste Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a style of life which often includes an occupation, ritual status in a hierarchy, and ...

samurai
). Generally unable to hold ground against regular forces, militias commonly support regular troops by
skirmishing Skirmishers are light infantry or light cavalry soldier A soldier is one who fights as part of a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for ...
, holding fortifications, or conducting
irregular warfare Irregular warfare (IW) is defined in United States joint doctrine as "a violent struggle among state and non-state actors for legitimacy and influence over the relevant populations." Concepts associated with irregular warfare are older than the te ...
, instead of undertaking offensive campaigns by themselves. Local civilian laws often limit militias to serve only in their home region, and to serve only for a limited time; this further reduces their use in long military campaigns. Beginning in the late 20th century, some militias (in particular officially recognized and sanctioned militias of a government) act as professional forces, while still being "part-time" or "on-call" organizations. For instance, the members of
United States National Guard The National Guard is part of the reserve components of the United States Army The United States Army (USA) is the land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situate ...
units are considered professional soldiers, as they are trained to the same standards as their "full-time" (active duty) counterparts are. Militias thus can be either
military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or par ...

military
or
paramilitary Paramilitary forces usually tend to wear similar but different uniforms to the military, for instance gray " urban camouflage".A paramilitary organization is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subcultur ...
, depending on the instance. Some of the contexts in which the term "militia" can apply include: * forces engaged in a defense activity or service, to protect a community, its territory, property, and laws, * the entire able-bodied population of a
community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as Norm (social), norms, religion, values, Convention (norm), customs, or Identity (social science), identity. Communities may share a sense of place (geography), plac ...

community
,
town A town is a . Towns are generally larger than s and smaller than , though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and use The word "town" shares an origin with the word , the word ...

town
,
county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert Chambers (publisher bo ...
, or
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
available to be called to arms ** a subset of these who may be legally penalized for failing to respond to a call-up ** a subset of these who actually respond to a call-up regardless of legal obligation * a private (non-governmental) force not necessarily directly supported or sanctioned by a
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department ...

government
* an irregular armed force that enables its leader to exercise military, economic, or political control over a subnational territory within a sovereign state * in
former soviet republics The post-Soviet states, also known as the former Soviet Union (FSU), the former Soviet Republics and in Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. I ...
, an official reserve army composed of citizen
soldier A soldier is a person who is a member of a professional army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the ...

soldier
s known as the
militsiya ''Militsiya'' ( rus, милиция, , mʲɪˈlʲitsɨjə) was the name of the police forces in the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a Federalism, federal socialist state in N ...
* a ''select militia'' composed of a small, non-representative portion of the population, * maritime militias composed of fishermen and other participants of the marine industry which are organized and sanctioned by a state to enforce its
maritime boundaries A maritime boundary is a conceptual division of the Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continent A continent is ...
.


Etymology

''Militia'' derives from
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant la ...
roots: * ''miles'' /miːles/ : soldierCharlton T. Lewis, ''An Elementary Latin Dictionary'', p. 505, Oxford U. Pr., 1997. * ''-itia'' /iːtia/ : a state, activity, quality or condition of being * ''militia'' /mil:iːtia/: Military service The word ''militia'' dates back to ancient Rome, and more recently to at least 1590 when it was recorded in a book by Sir John Smythe, ''Certain Discourses Military'' with the meanings: a military force; a body of soldiers and military affairs; a body of military discipline The word Militia comes from ancient Latin, in which it meant defense service, as distinguished from a body of (armed) defenders which would be ''volgus militum''. The term is used by several countries with the meaning of "defense activity" indicating it is taken directly from Latin.


Afghanistan

Militias have been used throughout the history of Afghanistan. Militias and irregular forces have contributed significantly to the military history of the country and affected the process of state formation.


Argentina

In the early 1800s
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the Río de la Plata, on South America, South America's southeastern coas ...

Buenos Aires
, which was by then the capital of the
Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata The Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata ( es, Virreinato del Río de la Plata, meaning "River of the Silver", also called "Viceroyalty A viceroyalty was an entity headed by a viceroy. It dates back to the Spanish colonization of the Americas ...
, was attacked during the
British invasions of the Río de la Plata The British invasions of the River Plate were a series of unsuccessful British attempts to seize control of areas in the Spanish colonial Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata The Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata ( es, Virreinato del Río ...
. As regular military forces were insufficient to counter the British attackers,
Santiago de Liniers Santiago Antonio María de Liniers y Bremond, 1st Count of Buenos Aires, KOM, Order of Malta, OM (July 25, 1753 – August 26, 1810) was a French People, French officer in the Spain, Spanish military service, and a viceroy of the Spanish colonie ...

Santiago de Liniers
drafted all males in the city capable of bearing arms into the military. These recruits included the
criollo peoples In Hispanic America Hispanic America ( Spanish: ''Hispanoamérica'' or ''América Hispana'') (also known as Spanish America ( es, América española)) is the portion of the Americas comprising the Spanish-speaking countries of North Nor ...
, who ranked low down in the social hierarchy, as well as some slaves. With these reinforcements, the British armies were twice defeated. The militias became a strong factor in the politics of the city afterwards, as a springboard from which the ''criollos'' could manifest their political ambitions. They were a key element in the success of the
May Revolution The May Revolution ( es, link=no, Revolución de Mayo) was a week-long series of events that took place from May 18 to 25, 1810, in Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires ( es, link=no, C ...
, which deposed the Spanish viceroy and began the
Argentine War of Independence The Argentine War of Independence was fought from 1810 to 1818 by Argentine patriotic forces under Manuel Belgrano Manuel José Joaquín del Corazón de Jesús Belgrano y González (3 June 1770 – 20 June 1820), usually referred to as Man ...
. A decree by
Mariano Moreno Mariano Moreno (; September 23, 1778March 4, 1811) was an Argentine lawyer, journalist, and politician. He played a decisive role in the Primera Junta, the first national government of Argentina, created after the May Revolution. Moreno was bor ...

Mariano Moreno
derogated the system of promotions involving ''criollos'', allowing instead their promotion on military merit. The
Argentine Civil War The Argentine Civil Wars were a series of civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body ...
was waged by militias again, as both federalists and unitarians drafted common people into their ranks as part of ongoing conflicts. These irregular armies were organized at a provincial level, and assembled as leagues depending on political pacts. This system had declined by the 1870s, mainly due to the establishment of the modern
Argentine Army The Argentine Army (''Ejército Argentino'', EA) is the Army, land armed force branch of the Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic and the senior military service of Argentina. Under the Argentine Constitution, the President of Argentina is the ...
, drafted for the
Paraguayan War The Paraguayan War, also known as the War of the Triple Alliance, was a South American South America is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather t ...
by President . Provincial militias were outlawed and decimated by the new army throughout the presidential terms of Mitre, ,
Avellaneda Avellaneda (, ) is a port The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Barcola The thumb is the first digit of the hand, next to the index finger. When a person is standing in the medical anatomical position (where the palm is facing to the front), the ...

Avellaneda
and Roca.


Armenia

Armenian militia, or '''' played a major role in the independence of various Armenian states, including
Western Armenia Western Armenia (Western Armenian: Արեւմտեան Հայաստան, ''Arevmdian Hayasdan'') is a term to refer to the eastern parts of Turkey (formerly the Ottoman Empire) that are part of the historical homeland of the Armenians. Western Ar ...

Western Armenia
, the
First Republic of Armenia The First Republic of Armenia, officially known at the time of its existence as the Republic of Armenia (classical Classical may refer to: European antiquity *Classical antiquity, a period of history from roughly the 7th or 8th century B.C.E. t ...

First Republic of Armenia
, and the currently de facto independent
Republic of Artsakh Artsakh, officially the Republic of Artsakh (; hy, Արցախի Հանրապետություն, Artsakhi Hanrapetutyun), formerly the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, NKR (; russian: Нагорно-Карабахская Республика, ...
. Armenian militia also played a role in the Georgia-Abkhazia War of 1992–1993.


Australia

In the
Colony of New South Wales The Colony of New South Wales was a colony In , a colony is a subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administration of the original country of the colonizers, the ...
, Governor
Lachlan Macquarie Major-general (United Kingdom), Major General Lachlan Macquarie, Companion of the Order of the Bath, CB (; gd, Lachann MacGuaire; 31 January 1762 – 1 July 1824) was a British Army officer and colonial administrator from Scotland. Macquarie se ...
proposed a
colonial militia Colonial troops or colonial army refers to various military units Military recruitment, recruited from, or used as garrison troops in, colonial territories. Colonial background Such colonies may lie overseas or in areas dominated by neighbourin ...
but the idea was rejected. Governor
Ralph Darling General (United Kingdom), General Sir Ralph Darling, Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Guelphic Order, GCH (1772 – 2 April 1858) was a British Army officer who served as Governor of New South Wales from 1825 to 1831. He is popularly described as ...

Ralph Darling
felt a
mounted police Mounted police are police The police are a constituted body of persons A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logi ...
force was more efficient than a militia. A
military volunteer A military volunteer is a person who enlists in military service by free will, and is not a conscript, mercenary, or a foreign volunteers, foreign legionnaire. Volunteers sometimes enlist to fight Foreign volunteers, in the armed forces of a forei ...
movement attracted wide interest during the
Crimean War The Crimean War, , was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which Russian Empire, Russia lost to an alliance of Second French Empire, France, the Ottoman Empire, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, ...
. Following Federation, the various military reserve forces of the
Commonwealth of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', which is ultimately derived from ...
became the
Citizen Military Force The Australian Army Reserve is a collective name given to the military reserve force, reserve units of the Australian Army. Since the Federation of Australia in 1901, the reserve military force has been known by many names, including the Citizens ...
(CMF). A citizens' militia modeled on the
British Home Guard The Home Guard (initially Local Defence Volunteers or LDV) was an armed citizen militia supporting the British Army during the Second World War. Operational from 1940 to 1944, the Home Guard had 1.5 million local volunteers otherwise ineligible f ...
called the Volunteer Defence Corps (VDC) was founded by the
Returned and Services League of Australia The Returned and Services League of Australia (RSL) is a support organisation for people who have served or are serving in the Australian Defence Force The Australian Defence Force (ADF) is the Armed forces, military organisation responsibl ...
(RSL) in 1940 in response to the possibility of a Japanese invasion of Australia. In the beginning, members didn't have uniforms and often paraded in business attire. They were given instruction on
guerrilla warfare Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare Irregular warfare (IW) is defined in United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States ...
, and later the private organization was taken over by the Australian Government and became part of the
Australian Military Forces The Australian Military Forces (AMF) was the official name of the Army of Australia from 1916 to 1980. This encompassed both the (full-time) "regular army", and the (part-time) forces, variously known during this period as the Militia, the Citizen ...
(AMF). The government supported the organization and equipped them with
anti-aircraft artillery Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is the battlespace response to aerial warfare, defined by NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North ...
; however, they were disbanded by the end of World War II due to the fact that there was no longer a significant threat to national security.


Austria

During the
Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire The Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire were a set of revolutions that took place in the Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was a Central Europe Central Europe is an area of E ...
, a National Guard was established in Vienna. A separate but related Academic Legion was composed mainly of students in the capital city. After
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
, multiple militias formed as
soldier A soldier is a person who is a member of a professional army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the ...

soldier
s returned home to their
village A village is a clustered human settlement In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena ...

village
s, only to find many of them occupied by
Slovene Slovene or Slovenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Slovenia, a country in Central Europe * Slovene language, a South Slavic language mainly spoken in Slovenia * Slovenes, an ethno-linguistic group mainly living in Slovenia * Sla ...

Slovene
and
Yugoslav Yugoslav or Yugoslavian may refer to: * Yugoslavia, or any of the three historic states carrying that name: ** Kingdom of Yugoslavia, a European monarchy which existed 1918–1945 (officially called "Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes" 1918–19 ...
forces. Especially in the southern province of
Carinthia Carinthia (german: Kärnten ; sl, Koroška ) is the southernmost Austrian state or ''Land''. Situated within the Eastern Alps Eastern Alps is the name given to the eastern half of the Alps, usually defined as the area east of a line from L ...
the Volkswehr (Peoples Defense Force) was formed, to fight the occupant forces. During the First Republic, similar to the development in
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
, increasing
radicalization Radicalization (or radicalisation) is the process by which an individual or group comes to adopt increasingly views in opposition to a political, social, or religious status quo or is a Latin phrase meaning the existing state of affairs, p ...
of politics led to certain
paramilitary Paramilitary forces usually tend to wear similar but different uniforms to the military, for instance gray " urban camouflage".A paramilitary organization is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subcultur ...
militias associating with certain
political parties A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective recipient of an award or honor, or a person seeking or being considered for some kind of position; for example: * to be elected to ...
. The
Heimwehr 320px, Heimwehr march in Wiener Neustadt, 1931 The Heimwehr (, ''Home Guard'') or sometimes Heimatschutz (, '' Homeland Protection'') were a nationalist Nationalism is an idea and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nati ...
(German: ''Home Defense'') became affiliated with the Christian Social Party and the
Republikanischer Schutzbund The Republikanischer Schutzbund (, ''Republican Protection League'') was an Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East A ...
(German: ''Republican Defense League'') became affiliated with the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Austria. Violence increasingly escalated, breaking out during the
July Revolt of 1927 The July Revolt of 1927 (also known as the Vienna Palace of Justice fire, german: Wiener Justizpalastbrand) was a major riot starting on 15 July 1927 in the Austrian capital Vienna en, Viennese , iso_code = AT-9 ...
and finally the
Austrian Civil War The Austrian Civil War (german: Österreichischer Bürgerkrieg), also known as the February Uprising (german: Februarkämpfe), is a term sometimes used for a few days of skirmishes between Fascist and Socialist forces between 12 and 16 February 1 ...
, when the Schutzbund was defeated by the Heimwehr,
police The police are a Law enforcement organization, constituted body of Law enforcement officer, persons empowered by a State (polity), state, with the aim to law enforcement, enforce the law, to ensure the safety, health and possessions of citize ...
,
Gendarmerie Wrong info! --> A vedette of the French ''Gendarmerie Maritime'' in La Rochelle harbour A gendarmerie () is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily ...
and
Austrian Armed Forces The Austrian Armed Forces (german: Bundesheer, ) are the combined military forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an inten ...
. After
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
the
Austrian Armed Forces The Austrian Armed Forces (german: Bundesheer, ) are the combined military forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an inten ...
(Bundesheer) were reestablished as a
conscript Conscription, sometimes called the draft in the United States, is the mandatory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service. Conscription dates back to Ancient history, antiquity and it continues in some countries to ...
military force. A basic part of it is the militia, which is a regular reservists force of the Bundesheer, comparable to the
national guard National Guard is the name used by a wide variety of current and historical uniformed organizations in different countries. The original National Guard National Guard is the name used by a wide variety of current and historical uniformed organizati ...
units of the United States. The conscript soldiers of the militia have to store their military equipment at home, to be mobilized quite fast within a few days in case of emergency. The system was established during the
Cold War The Cold War was a period of geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loc ...
and still exists, but the members of the militia now are volunteers only.


Bahrain

In
Bahrain Bahrain ( ; ar, البحرين, al-Baḥrayn, , locally ), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain ( ar, مملكة البحرين, links=no '), is a country in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Persian Gulf. The Island country, island nation c ...

Bahrain
, emergence of a small militia group Katibat al Haydariyah was first seen in 2015. During the year, total four attacks were claimed by the attack, including on August 22 and 24, 2015, in
Muharraq Muharraq ( ar, المحرق, al-Muḥarraq) is 's third largest city and served as its capital until 1932 when it was replaced by . The population of Muharraq in 2012 was 176,583. The city is located on and has long been a centre of religiosit ...
, on September 10, 2015, in Al Khamis, and on October 9, 2015, on Bahraini forces in the Al Juffair region. Katibat al Haydariyah is its own distinct organization that decries the Bahraini government, but
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
and the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
listed it as an alias for the larger
Al-Ashtar Brigades The al-Ashtar Brigades (''Saraya al-Ashtar'', named after Malik al-Ashtar) is a Shiite militant group in Bahrain designated as a terrorist organization by the governments of Bahrain, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, United States and Can ...
(or the Saraya al Ashtar). After four years, the militia group reemerged on social media in October 2019, to threaten new attacks on the island. It stated that they “will not retreat from our goals of the downfall of the
Al Khalifa The House of Khalifa ( ar, آل خليفة, translit=Āl Khalīfah) is the ruling family of the Kingdom of Bahrain. The Al Khalifas profess Sunni Islam and belong to the Utub tribe that migrated from Najd, Central Arabia to Kuwait, then ruled all o ...
entity,” and that “soon, guns will open their mouths and they will hear the whiz of bullets”.


Brazil

In Brazil there are clandestine paramilitary groups called ''milícias''.


Canada

In Canada the title "Militia" historically referred to the land component of the armed forces, both regular (full-time) and reserve. The earliest
Canadian militia The Canadian Militia is a historical title for military units raised for the defence of Canada. The term has been used to describe sedentary militia units raised from local communities in Canada; as well as the regular army for the Province of Can ...
s date from the beginning of the French colonial period. In
New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the a ...

New France
, King Louis XIV created a compulsory militia of settlers in every parish that supported French authorities in the defence and expansion of the colony. Following the British conquest of New France in 1760, local militia units supported
British Army The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' us ...
regiments stationed in
British North America British North America comprised the British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or admini ...
. In addition to the Canadian militia, British regiments were also supported by locally raised regulars (including the 40th Regiment of Foot, and the
100th (Prince of Wales's Royal Canadian) Regiment of Foot The 100th (Prince of Wales's Royal Canadian) Regiment of Foot was a British Army, raised in 1858. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 109th Regiment of Foot (Bombay Infantry) to form the Prince of Wales's Leinster Regiment (Royal Ca ...
) and
Fencibles The Fencibles (from the word ''defencible'') were British regiments raised in the United Kingdom, Isle of Man and in the Crown colony, colonies for defence against the threat of invasion during the Seven Years' War, the American War of Independe ...
regiments. These regiments were raised through ordinary modes of recruiting, as opposed to being raised by ballot like the militia. Most militia units were only activated in time of war, but remained inactive in between. The battle honours awarded to these colonial militia regiments are perpetuated by modern regiments within the
Canadian Army The Canadian Army (french: Armée canadienne) is the command (military formation), command responsible for the operational readiness of the conventional ground forces of the Canadian Armed Forces. , the Canadian Army has 23,000 regular soldiers, 1 ...
. Defence of
the Canadas The Canadas is the collective name for the provinces of Lower Canada and Upper Canada The Province of Upper Canada (french: link=no, province du Haut-Canada) was a Province, part of The Canadas, British Canada established in 1791 by the Ki ...
long relied on a contingent of British soldiers, as well as support from the
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
. However, the Crimean War saw the diversion of a significant number of British soldiers from
British North America British North America comprised the British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or admini ...
. Fearing possible incursions from the United States, the
Parliament of the Province of Canada The Parliament of the Province of Canada was the legislature for the Province of Canada The Province of Canada (or the United Province of Canada or the United Canadas) was a British North America, British colony in North America from 1841 to ...
passed the ''
Militia Act of 1855 The ''Militia Act of 1855'' was an act passed by the Parliament of the Province of Canada that permitted the formation of an "Active Militia" (later subdivided into the Permanent Active Militia and the Non-Permanent Active Militia). The 5,000 volun ...
'', creating the Active Militia. The Active Militia, later splitting into the
Permanent Active Militia Permanent Active Militia (PAM), also known as Permanent Force (PF), was the proper name of Canada's full-time professional land forces from 1855 to 1940, when it was reorganized into the Canadian Army ) , colors = Rifle Gree ...
(PAM), a full-time professional army component (although it continued to use the label militia), and
Non-Permanent Active Militia The Non-Permanent Active Militia (NPAM) was the name of Canada's part-time volunteer military force from 1855 to 1940. The NPAM (also called "the Militia" though that term could also encompass the full-time standing army known as the Permanent Act ...
(NPAM), a
military reserve force A military reserve force is a military organization whose members simultaneously hold military and civilian occupations. These members are not normally kept under arms Under arms describes a state of military readiness (actual or ceremonial). ...
for the Canadian militia. Following 1855, the traditional sedentary militia was reorganized into the Reserve Militia, with its last enrolment taking place in 1873, and was formally abolished in 1950. Prior to Canadian Confederation, the colonies that made up the
Maritimes The Maritimes, also called the Maritime provinces, is a region of Eastern Canada consisting of three provinces and territories of Canada, provinces: New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island (PEI). The Maritimes had a population of 1, ...
, and
Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic Canada, Atlantic region. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland and the continental ...
maintained their own militias independent of the Canadian Militia. From 1853 to 1871, the
Colony of Vancouver Island The Colony of Vancouver Island, officially known as the Island of Vancouver and its Dependencies, was a Crown colony of British North America from 1849 to 1866, after which it was united with the mainland to form the Colony of British Columbia ...
(and the succeeding Colony of British Columbia) periodically raised and disbanded militia units. These units were raised for specific purposes, or in response to a specific threat, real or perceived. After the Treaty of Washington was signed between the Americans and British, nearly all remaining British soldiers were withdrawn from Canada in November 1871. The departure of the majority of British forces in Canada made the Canadian militia the only major land forces available in Canada. In 1940, both components of the militia, PAM and NPAM were reorganized, the former into Canadian Army (Active), the latter into the Canadian Army (Reserve) In addition to the various colonial militia units, and the regiments of the Canadian militia, in 1942, the Army's Pacific Command created the Pacific Coast Militia Rangers. Intended to function similarly to the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
's
Home Guard Home guard is a title given to various military organizations at various times, with the implication of an emergency or reserve force A military reserve force is a military organization composed of citizen-soldiers of a country who combine a m ...
, the Rangers were a secondary defence force, defending the coast of
British Columbia ( en, Splendour without diminishment) , image_map = British Columbia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = None , Slogan = Beautiful British C ...

British Columbia
and
Yukon Yukon ( ; ; formerly called Yukon Territory and sometimes referred to as The Yukon) is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three territories. It also is the least populated province or territory in Canada, with a population of 35,874 peo ...

Yukon
from potential Japanese attack. The Rangers were disbanded in September 1945, shortly after the conclusion of World War II. The legacy of the Pacific Coast Militia Rangers is perpetuated by the
Canadian Rangers , colors=Red and green , march= , mascot= , battles= Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved —including all of the great powers ...

Canadian Rangers
, a component of the Primary Reserve that provides a military presence in areas where it would not be economically or practically viable to have conventional Army units - most notably
northern Canada Northern Canada, colloquially the North or the Territories, is the vast northernmost region of Canada variously defined by geography and politics. Politically, the term refers to the three territories of Canada The provinces and territories of ...

northern Canada
. The Canadian Army Reserve continued to use the term ''militia'' in reference to itself until the
unification of the Canadian Armed Forces The unification of the Canadian Armed Forces took place on 1 February 1968, when the Royal Canadian Navy , march = "Heart of Oak" , mascot = SONAR (Newfoundland dog) , battles ...
in 1968. Since unification, no Canadian military force has formally used ''militia'' in its name. However, the Canadian Army Reserve is still colloquially referred to as the ''militia''. Members of the Canadian Army Reserve troops typically train one night a week and every other weekend of the month, except in the summer. Summertime training may consist of courses, individual call-outs, or concentrations (unit and formation training of one to two weeks' duration). Most Canadian cities and counties have one or more militia units. Primary Reserve members may volunteer for overseas service, to augment their regular force counterparts—usually during
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance A military alliance is a formal agreement betwe ...
or
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
missions.


China

China's current
militia A militia () is generally an army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-b ...
falls under the leadership of the
Communist Party of China The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), officially the Communist Party of China (CPC), is the founding and One-party state, sole ruling party of the China, People's Republic of China (PRC). The CCP leads List of political parties in China, eight other ...

Communist Party of China
(CPC), and forms part of the Chinese armed forces. Under the command of the military organs, it undertakes such jobs as war preparation services, security and defense operational tasks and assistance in maintaining
social order The term social order can be used in two senses: In the first sense, it refers to a particular system of social structure In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergence, emergen ...
and public security. Historically, militias of varying levels of ability have existed in China, organized on a village and
clan A clan is a group of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and being a part of ...
level, especially during periods of instability and in areas subject to pirate and bandit attack. When the British attempted to take control of the
New Territories The New Territories is one of the three main regions of Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a and of China on the eastern in . With over ...
in 1898, they were resisted by the local militias which had been formed for mutual defence against
pirate Piracy is an act of robbery Robbery is the crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted ...

pirate
raids. Although ultimately defeated, the militias' dogged resistance convinced the British to make concessions to the indigenous inhabitants allowing them to preserve inheritance, property and marriage rights and customs throughout most of the period of the British rule.


Cuba

Cuba has three militia organizations: The
Territorial Troops Militia The Territorial Troops Militia (Milicias de Tropas Territoriales - MTT), is a Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud ...
(''Milicias de Tropas Territoriales'') of about one million people (half women), the Youth Labor Army (''Ejército Juvenil del Trabajo'') devoted to agricultural production, and a naval militia. Formerly, there existed the National Revolutionary Militias (''Milicias Nacionales Revolucionarias''), which was formed after the
Cuban Revolution The Cuban Revolution ( es, Revolución cubana) was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (; ; 13 August 1926 – 25 November 2016) was a Cuban revolutionary, lawyer, and politician who was the leader of ...
and initially consisted of 200,000 men who helped the 25,000 strong standing army defeat counter-revolutionary guerillas.


Denmark

The
Danish Home Guard The Danish Home Guard ( da, Hjemmeværnet) (HJV) is the fourth service of the Danish military, it was formerly concerned only with the defence of Danish territory, but since 2008, it has also supported the Danish military efforts in Afghanistan an ...
( da, Hjemmeværnet) (HJV) is the fourth service of the
Danish military Danish Defence ( da, Forsvaret, fo, Danska verjan, kl, Illersuisut) is the unified armed forces of the Denmark, Kingdom of Denmark charged with the defence of Denmark and its constituent, self-governing nations Greenland and the Faroe Islands. T ...
. It was formerly concerned only with the defence of Danish territory but, since 2008, it has also supported Danish international military efforts in Afghanistan, Iraq and Kosovo. There are five branches: Army Home Guard, Naval Home Guard, Air Force Home Guard, Police Home Guard, and Infrastructure Home Guard. The Danish Militia played a major role in repelling the Swedish attackers during the assault on Copenhagen in 1659. The Danish Home guard are the most highly trained militia men in the world as of 2012 as the receive about 90 hours of training a year in many yearly exercises. These include many exercises such as repelling assaults and RPG fire from Afghan irregulars. These yearly exercises include marksman training, and desert training for future possible deployment in afghan, as well as CQB training with the Danish special forces Frogman Corps (frømandskorpset).


Estonia

The Omakaitse (Home Guard) was an organisation formed by the local population of
Estonia Estonia ( et, Eesti ), officially the Republic of Estonia ( et, Eesti Vabariik, links=no), is a country in northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Sweden ...

Estonia
on the basis of the
Estonian Defence League The Estonian Defence League ( et, Eesti Kaitseliit) is the name of the unified paramilitary armed forces of the Republic of Estonia A republic ( la, res publica ''Res publica'' (also spelt as ''rēs pūblica'' to indicate vowel length In ...

Estonian Defence League
and the forest brothers resistance movement active on the
Eastern FrontEastern Front may refer to: * Eastern Front (World War I) * Eastern Front (World War II) * Eastern Front (Turkey), of the Turkish War of Independence ** Turkish–Armenian War, often referred to by itself as the Eastern Front * Eastern Front (Sudan) ...
between 3July 1941 and 17September 1944. This arrangement was unique in the context of the war as in
Latvia Latvia ( or ; lv, Latvija ; ltg, Latveja; liv, Leţmō), officially known as the Republic of Latvia ( lv, Latvijas Republika, links=no, ltg, Latvejas Republika, links=no, liv, Leţmō Vabāmō, links=no), is a country in the Baltic re ...
, which otherwise shared a common fate with Estonia, there was no organisation of this kind.


Finland

While Finland employs conscription, they do not have separate militia units: all units are organized by and under the command of the
Finnish Defence Forces The Finnish Defence Forces ( fi, Puolustusvoimat, sv, Försvarsmakten) are responsible for the defence of Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland , ), officially the Republic of Finland (, ), is a Nordic country located in Northern Eur ...
. All men belong to the reserve until age 50 or 60 depending on rank, and may be called up in case of mobilization. Each reservist is assigned a position in a unit to be activated. However, since 2004, the FDF does have territorial forces, organized along the lines of regular infantry formations, which are composed of volunteers. Furthermore, long-range patrol units (Sissi (Finnish light infantry), sissi troops, a type of special forces) are assigned to local troops. In history, before Finland became independent, two types of local militias existed: the White Guards and Red Guards, which were non-socialists and socialists, respectively. In the Finnish Civil War (1918) the White Guards founded the White Army, which was victorious over the Red Guards. White Guards continued their existence as a volunteer militia until the Second World War. In some cases their activity found overt political expression as in the Mäntsälä rebellion. However, in 1934 separate wartime White Guard units were dissolved and in the Second World War they served at the front, dispersed in regular units. They were dissolved as a condition of peace after the Continuation War.


France

The first notable militia in French history was the resistance of the Gauls to invasion by the Ancient Rome, Romans until they were defeated by Julius Caesar. Centuries later, Joan of Arc organized and led a militia until her capture and execution in 1431. This settled the succession to the French crown and laid the basis for the formation of the modern nation of France. During the French Revolution the National Guard (France), National Guard was a political home defense militia. The levée en masse was a conscription army used during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. At the time of the Franco-Prussian War, the Parisian National Guard engaged the Prussian Army and later rebelled against the Versailles Army under Marshal McMahon. Under German occupation during World War II, a militia usually called the French Resistance emerged to conduct a guerrilla war of attrition against German forces and prepare the way for the D-Day Allied Invasion of France. The Resistance militia were opposed by the collaborationist French Militia—the paramilitary police force of the Vichy France, German puppet state of Vichy. Although defunct from 1871 until 2016, the French National Guard has now been reestablished for homeland security purposes.France creates National Guard to battle terrorism
/ref>


Germany

The earliest reports of Germanic militias was the system of Hundred (division), hundreds described in 98 AD by the Roman historian Tacitus as the ''centeni.'' They were similar in nature to the Anglo-Saxons, Anglo-Saxon ''fyrd''. Freikorps (German language, German for "Free Corps") was originally applied to voluntary armies. The first ''Freikorps'' were recruited by Frederick II of Prussia during the Seven Years' War. These troops were regarded as unreliable by regular armies, so they were mainly used as sentries and for minor duties. During the Napoleonic occupation, organizations such as the Lutzow Free Corps fought against the occupiers and later joined the allied forces as regular soldiers. However, after 1918, the term was used for nationalist
paramilitary Paramilitary forces usually tend to wear similar but different uniforms to the military, for instance gray " urban camouflage".A paramilitary organization is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subcultur ...
organizations that sprang up around
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
as soldiers returned in defeat from
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
. They were one of the many Weimar paramilitary groups active during that time. They received considerable support from Gustav Noske, the German Defence Minister who used them to crush the Spartakist League with enormous violence, including the murders of Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg on January15, 1919. Militia were also used to put down the Bavarian Soviet Republic in 1919. They were officially "disbanded" in 1920, resulting in the ill-fated Kapp Putsch in March 1920. The ''Einwohnerwehr'', active in Germany from 1919 to 1921 was a paramilitary citizens' militia consisting of hundreds of thousands of mostly former servicemen. Formed by the Prussian Ministry of the Interior on April15, 1919, to allow citizens to protect themselves from looters, armed gangs, and revolutionaries, the ''Einwohnerwehr'' was under the command of the local ''Reichswehr'' regiments, which supplied its guns. In 1921, the Berlin government dissolved the ''Einwohnerwehr''. Many of its members went on to join the Nazi Party. In 1921 the Nazi Party created the ''Sturmabteilung'' (SA; Storm Detachment; Brownshirts), which was the first paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party and served as a Nazi militia whose initial assignment was to protect Nazi leaders at rallies and assemblies. The SA also took part in street battles against the forces of rival political parties and violent actions against Jews. From the SA sprung the Schutzstaffel (SS; Protective Squadron) which grew to become one of the largest and most powerful groups in Nazi Germany, which Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler (the leader of the SS from 1929) envisioned as an elite group of guards. The Waffen-SS, the military branch of the SS, became a de facto fourth branch of the Wehrmacht. In 1944–1945, as World War II came to a close in Europe, the German high command deployed increasing numbers of Volkssturm units to combat duties. These regiments were composed of men, women and children too old, young or otherwise unfit for service in the Wehrmacht (German Regular Army). Their primary role was assisting the army with fortification duties and digging anti-tank ditches. As the shortage of manpower became severe, they were used as front line infantry, most often in urban settings. Due to the physical state of members, almost non-existent training and shortage of weapons, there was not much the ''Volkssturm'' could do except act like shields for regular army units. However, armed with Panzerfausts and deeply entrenched, a unit of Volkssturm could cause serious trouble for Soviet armor.


India

Salwa Judum (meaning "Peace March" or "Purification Hunt" in Gondi language) is a militia active in the Chhattisgarh state of India.


Iran

The Basij militia founded by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in November 1980GlobalSecurity.org Intelligence: Mobilisation Resistance Force
/ref> is composed of 10,000 regular soldiers. It ultimately draws from about 11 million members, and is subordinate to the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps in Iran.


Iraq

Since the rise of ISIL in 2014 and their conquest of many predominantly-Sunni areas in Iraq, the Shiite militias became even more prominent in the country by joining the Iraqi Army in many major battles against ISIL.


Israel

In 1908 a Jewish underground organisation, Bar-Giora (organization), Bar Giora, re-invented itself as an armed militia – Hashomer. It was established to provide Jewish guards for the Zionist colonies being established in Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Palestine (region), Palestine. The group existed for 10 years. At its height it had around 100 members, including 23 women. In modern times, the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) is often described as a heavily armed militia, not a full-fledged army, since it is legally and publicly viewed as a defensive force only, and since it relies heavily on the reserve duty of Israeli citizens who are annually called to service for set periods of time, rather than on professional, full-time soldiers. Israeli settlements in the Israeli-occupied territories rely on armed militia teams for their security. National service conscripts can also serve in the Israel Border Police (commonly known by its Hebrew abbreviation Magav which means border guard in Hebrew), which is a
paramilitary Paramilitary forces usually tend to wear similar but different uniforms to the military, for instance gray " urban camouflage".A paramilitary organization is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subcultur ...
branch of the Israel Police rather than the IDF.


Latvia


Libya

Since the fall of History of Libya under Muammar Gaddafi, Gaddafi's rule of Libya in the aftermath of the Libyan Civil War, rebel groups that have contributed to the revolution splintered into self-organized militia movements and have been involved in a feud for control of each city. Since the revolution, reports of clashes and violence by militia groups have been increasing.


Mexico

Mexico has a history of various activities and Insurgency, insurrection by militia and
paramilitary Paramilitary forces usually tend to wear similar but different uniforms to the military, for instance gray " urban camouflage".A paramilitary organization is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subcultur ...
groups dating back several hundred years that include the exploits of historical figures such as Captain Manuel Pineda Munoz and Pancho Villa, Francisco "Pancho" Villa. This also includes groups such as the Free-Colored Militia (the interracial militias of Viceroyalty of New Spain, New Spain, Colonial Mexico), the Camisas Doradas, and the contemporary Grupos de Autodefensa Comunitaria, Self Defense Council of Michoacan. Free-colored militias were an important and at times critical organization in Colonial Mexico. Prior to the eighteenth century, Spain's territories in the Americas were mainly defended through a series of Spanish military units being based in strategic coastal port cities and important economic centers. But as European rivals began to challenge the Spanish crown and their dominance in the new world, the Bourbon dynasty initiated a series of reforms, allowing people from their colonies to serve in the regular armies, as well as permitting local militias in their territories. While these groups began to integrate themselves into the official Spanish colonial militaries, free-colored militias have been reluctantly used since the-mid sixteenth century. ''Palenques,'' or run away slave communities, would often initiate slavery uprising in various cities and towns in New Spain, which made the colonial Spanish authorities uneasy about arming any free colored individuals. Free colored rebellions and violence in Mexico City impacted regional policy of New Spain towards blacks. Given this social context, the racial climate in which these free-colored militias first appeared was a hostile one, and the first militias often had conflicts within them between their free-colored and white commanders. The first large scale recruitment of fee-colored militias was in response to the attack on Veracruz port in 1683 by Dutch pirateer Lorenzo de Graff, with free-colored soldiers being called in from Mexico City, Puebla, Orizaba and other large colonial cities. Militias increasingly began to take shape and develop over the course of the 17th and 18th centuries, but it's critical to understand that their development was not a linear progressive one. The experiences of militias in urban areas was vastly different from those in rural communities, and the role, influence, and duties of militias in the early 17th century were not the same as those of a century later. The critical stage for militia growth was during 1670–1762, where there was an increase of the militias responsibilities and they gained a considerable amount of autonomy over their own affairs. The social impact of these free-colored militias added complexity to the race based caste system that dominated the social landscape. Free-colored militias were structured to follow the ''tercio'' organizational model that was used by Spanish Habsburg and Bourbon dynasties. ''Tercios'' compromised 2,500 soldiers distributed among ten companies, each under the leadership of a captain. Free-colored militias under the tercio system were headed by a ''sargento mayor'' (major) who became the senior operating officer in militias. Under the ''sargento mayor'' were the junior officers, which included one captain and alferez (lieutenant) per company, who were also aided by an ''ayudante'' (adjutant) and ''subteniente'' (second lieutenant) after they were incorporated into the system after 1767. The captain had supreme authority within their company, only reporting to the ''sargento'' mayor when he could not control matters of the company. The ''alferez'' coordinated affairs with his captain and was next in line in command in his absence. Below the junior officers were ranking NCO's and up to four sergeants served per company. A ''cabo'' (corporal) was assigned to lead each squad of 25 soldiers. These NCO's were responsible for discipline of the soldiers and maintaining a limited record of individuals. Officers and first sergeants were the only soldiers in the free-colored militias to receive a monthly salary with lower ranked soldiers only receiving pay when on campaigns. Their salaries came from the royal treasuries, alongside occasional supplementation by private contributions of prominent individuals. Who exactly constitutes as a “free-colored person” is subject to much debate and discussion. While the terms ''pardos, mulatos, negros'' and ''morenos'' were commonly used under the caste system that was in place during this era, their use in this context is much more complex and who exactly qualified as who was a very fluid process, dependent on the social context of the time and place. Despite the lack of universal understanding of racial identification across New Spain, when they were faced with external threats to their organizations, free-colored militias showed great racial unity in these times, such as in the case of Huajolotitlan, a small town of Oaxaca in southern Mexico. After a decree was passed in 1784 calling for the retirement of every free-colored officer and the disbandment of their militia, the tows free-coloreds fiercely resisted. Free-colored soldiers refused to leave their posts and they dispatched to the capital in protests to defend their racially integrated organizations. This later inspired the communities other free-colored people to protests what they saw as other aggressions by the government, such as increasing tribute burdens. While some of the previous examples are historical, the current official view on the existence of such militias in Mexico, when they are not backed by the government, has been to always label them as illegal and to combat them in a military and a political way. Modern examples on the Mexican view on militias are the Chiapas conflict against the EZLN and against the Popular Revolutionary Army, EPR in Guerrero, where the government forces combated the upraised militias. And in a more recent case when civilian Grupos de Autodefensa Comunitaria, self-defence militias appeared during the Mexican war on drugs, the government regulated them and transformed the militias in to Rurales, Rural federal forces, and those who resisted were combated and imprisoned.


New Zealand

From the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840 until 1844 small detachments of British Army, British Imperial troops based in New Zealand were the only military. This changed as a result of the Flagstaff War, with the colonial government passing a Militia Act on 25 March 1845. Militia units were formed in Auckland, Wellington, New Plymouth, and Nelson, New Zealand, Nelson. Service in the militia was compulsory. Many localized militia saw service, together with British Imperial troops, during the New Zealand Wars. In the late nineteenth century a system of local Volunteer militias evolved throughout the country. These were semi-trained but uniformed and administered by a small number of regular "Imperial" officers. The militia units were disbanded and reformed as the Territorial Army in 1911.


North Korea

The Worker-Peasant Red Guards is a North Korean paramilitary organization organized on a provincial/town/city/village level.


Norway


Pakistan

Militias have played an important role supporting Pakistan Army, Pakistan's Military since the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 when Pakistan, with the support of militias, was able to gain control of parts of the region of Kashmir. Pakistan found the militias volunteering to participate in the Indo-Pakistani war of 1965 and the Indo-Pakistani war of 1971 quite useful as well. Currently Pakistani citizens forming militias from the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province are participating in the War in North-West Pakistan, 'war on terror'.


Philippines

Article XVI, Section 4 of the Philippines Constitution states: "The Armed Forces of the Philippines shall be composed of a citizen armed force which shall undergo military training and serve as may be provided by law."


Portugal

Portugal had a long tradition in the use of militias for national defense. Between the 12th and 16th centuries, the municipal militias – composed of Spear (weapon), spearmen, Pike (weapon), pikemen, horsemen, slingers, javelineers, archers, crossbowmen and later arquebusiers – constituted the main component of the Portuguese Army, Portuguese Royal Army, together with smaller military forces from the King of Portugal, King, the Military order (monastic society), military orders and the feudal lords. After some failed previous attempts, in 1570 King Sebastian of Portugal created the ''Ordenanças'', a centrally managed military territorial organization that would replace the municipal militias and became the basis of a national army. After 60 years of foreign domination (1580–1640), the ''Ordenanças'' were reorganized for the Portuguese Restoration War. The Portuguese Army was then organized in three lines, with the 2nd and 3rd being militia forces. The ''Ordenanças'' became the 3rd line and acted both as a territorial draft organization for the 1st and 2nd line troops and as a kind of home guard for local defense. The 2nd line was made of the auxiliary troops, also militia units with the role of regional defense. In the end of the 18th century, the auxiliary troops were renamed "Militias". In the Peninsular War, the Militia regiments and the Ordenanças units had an important role in the defense of the country against the Napoleonic invader army. Still in the 19th century, the Militia units also had an important role in the Liberal Wars, with the majority of those troops fighting on the side of King Miguel of Portugal, Miguel. Besides the regular militias, a number of volunteer militia units were formed to fight on both sides of the war. With the establishment of the constitutional regime, the old Militias and ''Ordenanças'' were replaced by a single national militia force, the National Guard. However, the National Guard revealed itself an ineffective and undisciplined force. Their units became highly politicized, being involved in a number of conspiracies and coups. The National Guard having less and less confidence from the authorities, became extinct in 1847, terminating a long tradition of national militias in Portugal. During the 20th century, some experiments with militia type forces were made. From 1911 to 1926, the Portuguese Army was organized as a militia army. Also, in 1936, the Estado Novo (Portugal), ''Estado Novo'' regime created the Portuguese Legion (Estado Novo), Portuguese Legion as a political volunteer militia, dedicated to the fight against the enemies of country and of the social order. From World War II, the Portuguese Legion assumed the responsibility for civil defense, this becoming its main role during the
Cold War The Cold War was a period of geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loc ...
, until its extinction in 1974.


Russia and the Soviet Union

Neither the Russian Empire, nor the Soviet Union ever had an organised force that could be equated to a militia. Instead a form of organisation that predated the Russian state was used during national emergencies called Narodnoe Opolcheniye (People's Regimentation). More comparable to the English Leidang, Fyrd, it was a popular voluntary joining of the local полк Regiment#Russian Army, polk, or a regiment, though it had no regular established strength or officers, these usually elected from prominent local citizens. The Tsarist regime was particularly reluctant to arm and organise militia forces because of concern over a repetition of the Pugachev's Rebellion, Pugachev Serf Revolt of the late 18th century. Only in the face of the national emergency of French invasion of Russia, 1812 was the raising of ''opolcheniye'' "cohorts" permitted. Numbering over 223,000, loosely trained and barely equipped, these enthusiastic volunteers nevertheless provided a useful reserve for the regular army. Although these spontaneously created popular forces had participated in several major wars of the Russian Empire, including in combat, they were not obligated to serve for more than one year, and notably departed for home during the War of the Sixth Coalition, 1813 campaign in Germany. On only one occasion, during the military history of the Soviet Union, the Narodnoe Opolcheniye was incorporated into the regular forces of the Red Army, notably in List of infantry divisions of the Soviet Union 1917–1957#Narodnoe Opolcheniye divisions, Leningrad and Moscow. The term Militsiya in Russia and former Eastern bloc, Communist Bloc nations was specifically used to refer to the civilian police force, and should not be confused with the conventional western definition of militia. The term, as used in this context, dated from post-revolutionary Russia in late 1917 and was intended to draw a distinction between the new Soviet law enforcement agencies and the disbanded Tsarist police. In some of these states militia was renamed back to police such as Ukraine while in the other states it remains such as Belarus. In Russia it was renamed to Police (in russian: Полиция, ''Politsiya'') in March 2011.


Sri Lanka

The first militias formed in Sri Lanka were by Lankan Kings, who raised militia armies for their military campaigns both within and outside the island. This was due to the reason that the Kings never maintained a standing army instead had a Royal Guard during peacetime and formed a militia in wartime. When the Portugal, Portuguese who were the first colonial power to dominate the island raised local militias under the command of local leaders known as Mudaliyars. These militias took part in the many Portugal, Portuguese campaigns against the Lankan Kings. The Dutch continued to employ these militias but due to their unreliability tended to favor employing Switzerland, Swiss and Malays (ethnic group), Malay mercenaries in their campaigns in the island. The British Empire then ousted the Netherlands, Dutch from the coastal areas of the country, and sought to conquer the independent Kingdom of Kandy, Kandyan Kingdom. In 1802, the British became the first foreign power to raise a regular unit of Sinhalese people, Sinhalese with British officers, which was named the 2nd Ceylon Regiment, also known as the Sepoy, Sepoy Corps. It fought alongside British troops in the Kandyan Wars, Kandyan wars. After the Matale Rebellion led by Puran Appu in 1848, in which a number of Sinhalese recruits defected to the side of the rebels, the recruitment of Sinhalese to the British forces was temporarily halted and the Ceylon Regiments disbanded. In 1861, the Ceylon Light Infantry Volunteers were raised as a militia, but soon became a
military reserve force A military reserve force is a military organization whose members simultaneously hold military and civilian occupations. These members are not normally kept under arms Under arms describes a state of military readiness (actual or ceremonial). ...
. This became the Ceylon Defence Force in 1910 and consisted of militia units. These were the Colombo Town Guard and the Ceylon Garrison Artillery, Town Guard Artillery formed during the two world wars. With the escalation of the Sri Lankan Civil War, local villagers under threat of attack were formed into localized militia to protect their families and homes. According to the Sri Lankan Military these militias were formed after "massacres done by the LTTE" and in the early 1990s they were reformed as the Sri Lankan Home Guard. In 2007 the Home Guard became the Department of Civil Defence (Sri Lanka), Sri Lanka Civil Security Force. In 2008, the government called for the formation of nearly 15,000 civil defence committees at the village level for additional protection. In 2004, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam claimed have establish a voluntary "Tamil Eelam auxiliary force". According to the LTTE's then head of police, the force was to be assigned to tasks such as rehabilitation, construction, forest conservation and agriculture, but would also be used to battle the Sri Lankan military if the need arose. In early 2009 it ceased to exist with the military defeat of the LTTE at the hands of the Sri Lanka Armed Forces.


Sudan

The Janjaweed militia consists of armed Arab Muslims fighting for the government in Khartoum against non-Arab Muslim "rebels". They are active in the Darfur region of western Sudan and also in eastern Chad. According to Human Rights Watch these partisans are responsible for abuses including war crimes, crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing.


Sweden

As of 2012, the Swedish Home Guard consists of 22,000 organized into 40 light infantry battalions of 300–700 Guardsmen. These battalions are then organised into Company (military unit), companies, usually one for every municipality. The main task of the battalions is to guard vital military and civilian installations throughout the country. In 2001, the Rapid Response units numbered around 5,000 soldiers of the total of 42,000. As of 2014, the majority of the force, 17,000 out of 22,000 soldiers will be in Rapid Response units. The decrease in number of troops comes with an equal increase in quality and modern equipment. These units are motorized and are ready to be mobilized more often, than other Home Guard units. Rapid response units have more combat tasks compared to the rest of the Home Guard, including escort duties. Some battalions located near the coast also have marine companies equipped with Combat Boat 90. A few battalions have recently set up 'specialized' companies to evaluate the possibility to add new abilities to the Home Guard. These are at the time of writing eight reconnaissance/intelligence companies, four CBRN-platoons, a movcon platoon, an engineer platoon, and a military police unit.


Switzerland

One of the best known and ancient militias is the Military of Switzerland, Swiss Armed Forces. Switzerland has long maintained, proportionally, the second largest military force in the world, with about half the proportional amount of reserve forces of the Israeli Defense Forces, a militia of some 33% of the total population. The "militia principle" of public duties is central to Swiss political culture and not limited to military issues. For example, in most municipalities it is common to serve as a conscript fire fighter in the Compulsory Fire Service, Compulsory Fire Department. Article 58.1 of the April18, 1999, Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation (official, French version) provides that "Switzerland has an army. It is primarily organised according to the principle of a militia." However, under the country's militia system, professional soldiers constitute about 5 percent of military personnel. In 1995, the number of soldiers was reduced to 400,000 (including reservists, amounting to some 5.6% of the population) and again in 2004, to 200,000 (including 80,000 reservists, or 2.5% of the population). However, the Swiss Militia continues to consist of most of the adult male population (with voluntary participation by women) who are required to keep an assault rifle at home and to periodically engage in combat and marksmanship training. The militia clauses of the Swiss Federal Constitution are contained in Art. 59, where it is referred to as "military service" (german: Militärdienst; french: service militaire; it, servizio militare; rm, servetsch militar).


Syria

The Syrian National Defense Force was formed out of pro-government militias. They receive their salaries and their military equipment from the government and as of 2013 numbers around 100,000. The force acts in an infantry role, directly fighting against rebels on the ground and running counter-insurgency operations in coordination with the army which provides them with logistical and artillery support. Unlike the Syrian Army, NDF soldiers are allowed to take Looting, loot from battlefields, which can then be sold on for extra money.


United Kingdom


Origins

The obligation to serve in the militia (also known as the ''Constitutional Force'') in England derives from a common law tradition, and dates back to Anglo-Saxons, Anglo-Saxon times. The tradition was that all able-bodied males were liable to be called out to serve in one of two organisations. These were the Posse comitatus (common law), posse comitatus, an ''ad hoc'' assembly called together by a law officer to apprehend lawbreakers, and the fyrd, a military body intended to preserve internal order or defend the locality against an invader. The latter developed into the militia, and was usually embodied by a Warrant (law), royal warrant. Service in each organisation involved different levels of preparedness.


16th and 17th centuries

With the decay of the feudal system and the military revolution of the 16th century, the militia began to become an important institution in English life. It was organised on the basis of the Historic counties of England, shire county, and was one of the responsibilities of the Lord Lieutenant, a royal official (usually a trusted nobleman). Each of the hundred (division), county hundreds was likewise the responsibility of a Deputy Lieutenant, who relayed orders to the justices of the peace or magistrates. Every parish furnished a quota of eligible men, whose names were recorded on Muster (military), muster rolls. Likewise, each household was assessed for the purpose of finding weapons, armour, horses, or their financial equivalent, according to their status. The militia was supposed to be Muster (military), mustered for training purposes from time to time, but this was rarely done. The militia regiments were consequently ill-prepared for an emergency, and could not be relied upon to serve outside their own counties. This state of affairs concerned many people. Consequently, an elite force was created, composed of members of the militia who were prepared to meet regularly for military training and exercise. These were formed into trained band regiments, particularly in the City of London, where the Artillery Ground was used for training. The trained bands performed an important role in the English Civil War on the side of parliament, in marching to raise the siege of Gloucester (5 September 1643). Except for the London trained bands, both sides in the Civil War made little use of the militia, preferring to recruit their armies by other means.


Militia in the English Empire and the British Empire

As successful English settlement of North America began to take place in 1607 in the face of the hostile intentions of the powerful Spanish, and of the native populations, it became immediately necessary to raise militia amongst the settlers. The militia in Jamestown, Virginia, Jamestown saw constant action against the Powhatan, Powhatan Federation and other native polities. In the London Company, Virginia Company's other outpost, Bermuda, fortification began immediately in 1612. A Spanish attack in 1614 was repulsed by two shots fired from the incomplete Castle Islands Fortifications, Bermuda, Castle Islands Fortifications manned by Bermuda Militias 1612–1815, Bermudian Militiamen. In the Nineteenth century, ''Fortress Bermuda'' would become Britain's ''Gibraltar of the West'', heavily fortified by a Regular Army garrison to protect the
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
's headquarters and dockyard in the Western Atlantic. In the 17th Century, however, Bermuda's defence was left entirely in the hands of the Militia. In addition to requiring all male civilians to train and serve in the militia of their Parish, the Bermudian Militia included a standing body of trained artillerymen to garrison the numerous fortifications which ringed ''New London'' (St. George's, Bermuda, St. George's). This standing body was created by recruiting volunteers, and by sentencing criminals to serve as punishment. The Bermudian militiamen were called out on numerous occasions of war, and, on one notable occasion, to quell rioting privateers. The 1707 Acts of Union 1707, Acts of Union made Bermudian and other English militiamen ''British''. The Militia in Bermuda came to include a Troop of Horse (mounted infantry) and served alongside volunteers and (from 1701) a small body of regulars. The Militia faded away after the American War of 1812 when the Parliament of Bermuda declined to renew the Militia Act. This resulted from the build-up of the regular army Bermuda Garrison along with Bermuda's development as the headquarters and Royal Naval Dockyard, Bermuda, dockyard of the North America and West Indies Station of the
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
, which made the militia seem excess to need. Vast sums of the Imperial defence expenditure were lavished on fortifying Bermuda during the Nineteenth Century and the British Government cajoled, implored, begged, and threatened the colonial legislature for 80 years before it raised a militia and volunteer units (in 1894 and 1894 respectively). Although the militia had historically been an infantry force, many units in Britain had been re-tasked as militia artillery from the 1850s onward due to the increased importance of the coastal artillery defences and the new militia unit in Bermuda followed suit. Titled the ''Bermuda Militia Artillery'', it was badged and uniformed as part of the Royal Artillery, and tasked with the garrison artillery role, manning coastal batteries. As in Britain, recruitment was of volunteers who engaged for terms of service, whereas the Bermuda Volunteer Rifle Corps was organised on the same lines as volunteer rifle corps in Britain. Recruitment to the BVRC was restricted to whites, but the BMA recruited primarily coloured (those who were not entirely of European heritage) other ranks, though its officers were all white until 1953. Neither unit was reorganised in 1908 when the Militia, Volunteer Force and Yeomanry in Britain merged into the Territorial Force, but the BVRC was re-organised as a territorial in 1921 and the BMA in 1926. The BVRC name was not modified to Bermuda Rifles until 1951, however, and the Bermuda Militia Artillery (and from 1939 the Bermuda Militia Infantry) continued to be titled as militia until amalgamated with the Bermuda Rifles in 1965 to form the Bermuda Regiment. In British India, a special class of militia was established in 1907. This took the form of the Frontier Corps, which consisted of locally recruited full-time auxiliaries under British officers. Their role combined the functions of tribal police and border guards deployed along the Military history of the North-West Frontier, North-West Frontier. Regional units included the Zhob Militia, the Kurram Militia, and the Chagai Militia. After 1946 the Frontier Corps became part of the modern Pakistan Army.


Political issues

Until the Glorious Revolution in 1688 the Crown and Parliament were in strong disagreement. The English Civil War left a rather unusual military legacy. Both British Whig Party, Whigs and Tories distrusted the creation of a large standing army not under civilian control. The former feared that it would be used as an instrument of royal tyranny. The latter had memories of the New Model Army and the anti-monarchical social and political revolution that it brought about. Both preferred a small standing army under civilian control for defensive deterrence and to prosecute foreign wars, a large navy as the first line of national defence, and a militia composed of their neighbours as additional defence and to preserve domestic order. Consequently, the English Bill of Rights (1689) declared, amongst other things: "that the raising or keeping a standing army within the kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of Parliament, is against law..." and "that the subjects which are Protestants may have arms for their defence suitable to their conditions and as allowed by law." This implies that they are fitted to serve in the militia, which was intended to serve as a counterweight to the standing army and preserve civil liberties against the use of the army by a tyrannical monarch or government. The Crown still (in the British constitution) controls the use of the army. This ensures that officers and enlisted men swear an oath to a politically neutral head of state, and not to a politician. While the funding of the standing army subsists on annual financial votes by parliament, the Mutiny Act, superseded by the Army Act, and now the Armed Forces Act is also renewed on an annual basis by Parliament. If it lapses, the legal basis for enforcing discipline disappears, and soldiers lose their legal indemnity for acts committed under orders. With the creation of the British Empire, militias were also raised in the colonies, where little support could be provided by regular forces. Overseas militias were first raised in Jamestown, Virginia, Jamestown, Virginia, and in Bermuda, where the Bermuda Militias 1612–1815, Bermuda Militia followed over the next two centuries a similar trajectory to that in Britain.


18th century and the Acts of Union

In 1707 the Acts of Union 1707, Acts of Union united the Kingdom of England with the Kingdom of Scotland. The Royal Scots Navy, Scottish navy was incorporated into the Royal Navy. The Scottish military (as opposed to naval) forces merged with the English, with pre-existing regular Scottish regiments maintaining their identities, though command of the new British Army was from England. How this affected militias either side of the border is unclear.


British Militia

The Militia Act of 1757 created a more professional force. Better records were kept, and the men were selected by ballot to serve for longer periods; specific provision was made for members of the Religious Society of Friends, Quakers, to be exempted, as conscientious objectors, from compulsory enlistment in the militia. Proper uniforms and better weapons were provided, and the force was 'embodied' from time to time for training sessions. The militia was widely embodied at various times during the French and Napoleonic Wars. It served at several vulnerable locations, and was particularly stationed on the South Coast and in Ireland. A number of camps were held at Brighton, where the militia regiments were reviewed by the Prince Regent. (This is the origin of the song "Brighton Camp".) The militia could not be compelled to serve overseas, but it was seen as a training reserve for the army, as bounty (reward), bounties were offered to men who opted to 'exchange' from the militia to the regular army.


Irish militia

The Parliament of Ireland passed an act of parliament, act in 1715 raising regiments of militia in each county and county corporate. Membership was restricted to Protestantism in Ireland, Protestants between the ages of 16 and 60. In 1793, during the Napoleonic Wars, the Irish militia were reorganised to form thirty-seven county and city regiments. While officers of the reorganised force were Protestant, membership of the other ranks was now made available to members of all denominations.


Scottish militia

In the late 17th century, numerous individuals in the Kingdom of Scotland (then in a personal union with the Kingdom of England) called for the resurrection of a Scottish militia, with the understated aim of protecting the rights of Scots in Great Britain. After Scotland became part of the Kingdom of Great Britain, the Militia Act of 1757 did not apply there. The traditional Scottish militia system continued, with only certain settlements in Scotland playing host to a militia regiment. This was viewed with resentment among some in Scotland, and the The Poker Club#History, Militia Club was formed to promote the raising of a Scottish militia. The Militia Club, along with several other Scottish gentlemen's clubs became the crucible of the Scottish Enlightenment. The Militia Act of 1797 empowered Scottish Lord Lieutenants to raise and command militia regiments in each of the "Counties, Stewartries, Cities, and Places" under their jurisdiction.


19th century

Although muster rolls were prepared as late as 1820, the element of compulsion was abandoned, and the militia transformed into a volunteer force, revived by the List of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, 1840–59#15 .26 16 Vict., Militia Act of 1852. It was intended to be seen as an alternative to the regular army. Men would volunteer and undertake basic training for several months at an army depot. Thereafter, they would return to civilian life, but report for regular periods of military training (usually on the weapons ranges) and an annual two-week training camp. In return, they would receive military pay and a financial retainer, a useful addition to their civilian wage. Of course, many saw the annual camp as the equivalent of a paid holiday. The militia thus appealed to agricultural labourers, colliers and the like, men in Contingent work, casual occupations, who could leave their civilian job and pick it up again. Until 1852 the militia were an entirely infantry force, but from that year a number of county infantry regiments were converted to artillery and new ones raised. In 1877 the militia of Anglesey and Monmouthshire (historic), Monmouthshire were converted to engineers. Under the Childers reforms, reforms, introduced by Secretary of State for War Hugh Childers in 1881, the remaining militia infantry regiments were re-designated as numbered battalions of regiments of the line, ranking after the two regular battalions. Typically, an English, Welsh or Scottish regiment would have two militia battalions (the 3rd and 4th) and Irish regiments three (numbered 3rd–5th). The militia must not be confused with the volunteer units created in a wave of enthusiasm in the second half of the nineteenth century. In contrast with the Volunteer Force (Great Britain), Volunteer Force, and the similar Yeomanry Cavalry, they were considered rather plebeian.


The Special Reserve

The militia was transformed into the Special Reserve by the Territorial and Reserve Forces Act 1907, military reforms of Haldane Reforms, Haldane in the reforming post 1906 Liberal government. In 1908 the militia infantry battalions were redesignated as "reserve" and a number were amalgamated or disbanded. Numbered Territorial Force battalions, ranking after the Special Reserve, were formed from the volunteer units at the same time. Altogether, 101 infantry battalions, 33 artillery regiments and two engineer regiments of special reservists were formed. Upon mobilisation, the special reserve units would be formed at the depot and continue training while guarding vulnerable points in Britain. The special reserve units remained in Britain throughout the First World War, but their rank and file did not, since the object of the special reserve was to supply drafts of replacements for the overseas units of the regiment. The original militiamen soon disappeared, and the battalions simply became training units. The Special Reserve reverted to its militia designation in 1921, then to Supplementary Reserve in 1924, though the units were effectively placed in "suspended animation" until disbanded in 1953.


The militiamen

The name was briefly revived in the Military Training Act 1939, in the aftermath of the Munich Crisis. Leslie Hore-Belisha, Secretary of State for War, wished to introduce a limited form of Conscription in the United Kingdom, conscription, not known in peacetime Britain since the militia of the early 19th century and previously. It was thought that calling the conscripts 'militiamen' would make this more acceptable, as it would render them distinct from the rest of the army. Only single men aged 20 up to the day before their 22nd birthday were to be conscripted, for six months full-time training before discharge into the reserve (with a free suit of civilian clothing). Although the first intake was called up in late July 1939, the declaration of war on 3 September entailed implementation of full-time conscription for all men aged 18–41, superseding the militia, never to be revived.


Modern survivals

Three units still maintain their militia designation in the
British Army The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' us ...
. These are the Royal Monmouthshire Royal Engineers (formed in 1539), the Royal Jersey Militia, Jersey Field Squadron (The Royal Militia Island of Jersey) (formed in 1337), and the Royal Alderney Militia (created in the 13th century and reformed in 1984). Additionally, the Atholl Highlanders are a ceremonial infantry militia maintained by the Duke of Atholl—they are the only legal private army in Europe.


Other British militias

Various other part-time, home defence organisations have been raised during times of crisis or perceived threat, although without the word "militia" in their title. These have included: *British Volunteer Corps, Volunteer Corps, part of the British anti-invasion preparations of 1803–1805 *Yeomanry, volunteer cavalry initially raised in the Napoleonic Wars *Volunteer Force (Great Britain), Volunteer Force, from 1857 to 1908 *Volunteer Training Corps (World War I), Volunteer Training Corps, 1914 to 1918 *National Defence Companies, 1936 to 1939 *
Home Guard Home guard is a title given to various military organizations at various times, with the implication of an emergency or reserve force A military reserve force is a military organization composed of citizen-soldiers of a country who combine a m ...
, initially Local Defence Volunteers, 1940 to 1944 and 1951 to 1957 *Ulster Defence Regiment, 1970 to 1992 *Home Service Force, 1982 to 1992


The Troubles and Irish War of Independence

The various non-state paramilitary groups involved in the 20th-century conflicts in Northern Ireland and the island of Ireland, such as the various Irish Republican Army groups and Ulster loyalism, loyalist paramilitaries, could also be described as militias and are occasionally referred to as such. The Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR) was a locally raised professional militia instituted by an Act of Parliament in December 1969, becoming operational on 1 April 1970. Created as a Nonpartisan, non-partisan force to defend Northern Ireland "against armed attack or sabotage", it eventually peaked at 11 battalions with 7,559 men and women. 197 soldiers of the UDR, including four women, were killed as active servicemen, with a further 61 killed after leaving the regiment, mostly by the Provisional Irish Republican Army. As a result of defence cuts it was eventually reduced to 7 battalions before being amalgamated with the Royal Irish Rangers in 1992 to form the "Home Service Battalions" of the Royal Irish Regiment (1992), Royal Irish Regiment.


United States

The history of militia in the United States dates from the colonial era, such as in the American Revolutionary War. Based on the English system, colonial militias were drawn from the body of adult male citizens of a community, town, or local region. Because there was no standing English Army before the English Civil War, and subsequently the English Army and later the British Army had few regulars garrisoning North America, colonial militia served a vital role in local conflicts, particularly in the French and Indian Wars. Before shooting began in the American Revolutionary War, American War of Independence, American revolutionaries took control of the militia system, reinvigorating training and excluding men with Loyalist (American Revolution), Loyalist inclinations. Regulation of the militia was codified by the Second Continental Congress with the Articles of Confederation. The revolutionaries also created a full-time regular army—the Continental Army—but, because of manpower shortages, the militia provided short-term support to the regulars in the field throughout the war. In colonial era Anglo-American usage, militia service was distinguished from military service in that the latter was normally a commitment for a fixed period of time of at least a year, for a salary, whereas militia was only to meet a threat, or prepare to meet a threat, for periods of time expected to be short. Militia persons were normally expected to provide their own weapons, equipment, or supplies, although they may later be compensated for losses or expenditures. A related concept is the jury, which can be regarded as a specialized form of militia convened to render a verdict in a court proceeding (known as a petit jury or jury, trial jury) or to investigate a public matter and render a presentment or indictment (grand jury). With the Philadelphia Convention, Constitutional Convention of 1787 and Article 1 Section 8 of the United States Constitution, control of the army and the power to direct the militia of the states was concurrently delegated to the federal United States Congress, Congress.Garry Wills, Wills, Garry (1999). ''A Necessary Evil, A History of American Distrust of Government''. New York, NY; Simon & Schuster. The Militia Clauses gave Congress authority for "organizing, arming, and disciplining" the militia, and "governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States", and the States retained authority to appoint officers and to impose the training specified by Congress. Proponents describe a key element in the concept of "militia" was that to be "genuine" it not be a "select militia", composed of an unrepresentative subset of the population. This was an argument presented in the Ratification of the United States Constitution, ratification debates. The first legislation on the subject was the Militia Act of 1792 which provided, in part:
That each and every free able-bodied white male citizen of the respective States, resident therein, who is or shall be of age of eighteen years, and under the age of forty-five years (except as is herein after excepted) shall severally and respectively be enrolled in the militia,... every citizen, so enrolled and notified, shall, within six months thereafter, provide himself with a good musket or firelock.
Prior to the War of Independence, the officers of militia units were commissioned by the royal governors. During the war, they were commissioned either by the legislature or the chief executive of the state. After the war, commissions were typically granted by the state's chief executive. Militias did not operate independently of the state governments but were under the command of the civil government just like the regular military forces. Twenty-four of the current US states maintain state defense forces in the form of a constitutional militia in addition to the National Guard which is shared with the US government. These states include Alabama, Alaska, California, Connecticut, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Washington, Vermont, and Virginia. In addition, the Territory of Puerto Rico has a defense force.


19th century

During the nineteenth century, each of the states maintained its militia differently, some more than others. American militia saw action in the various Indian Wars, the War of 1812, the American Civil War, and the Spanish–American War. Sometimes militia units were found to be unprepared, ill-supplied, and unwilling. Prior to the Civil War, militia units were sometimes used by southern states for slave control. Formed in 1860, Republican Party-affiliated Wide Awakes clubs were quick to take action to defend persons against southern slave-hunters. In California, the militia carried out campaigns against bandits and against the Indians at the direction of its Governor between 1850 and 1866. During Reconstruction era of the United States, Reconstruction after the Civil War, Republican state governments had militias composed almost entirely of freed slaves and populist whites. Their deployment to maintain order in the former Confederate states caused increased resentment among many Southern whites. After the American Civil War, secret groups like the Ku Klux Klan and Knights of the White Camellia arose quickly across the Southern United States, South, reaching a peak in the late 1860s. Even more significant in terms of effect were private militias: Paramilitary, paramilitary organizations that formed starting in 1874, including the White League in Louisiana, which quickly formed chapters in other states; the Red Shirts (Southern United States), Red Shirts in Mississippi in 1875, and with South Carolina and North Carolina; and other "white line" militias and rifle clubs. In contrast to the KKK, these paramilitary organizations were open; members were often well known in their communities. Nevertheless, they used force, intimidation, and violence, including murder, to push out Republican officeholders, break up Community organizing, organizing, and suppress Freedman, freedmen's voting and civil rights. The paramilitary groups were described as "the military arm of the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party" and were instrumental in helping secure Democratic victories in the South in the elections of 1876.


20th century

The Militia Act of 1903 divided what had been the militia into what it termed the "organized" militia, created from portions of the former state guards to become state United States National Guard, National Guard units, and the "unorganized" militia consisting of all males from ages 17 to 45, with the exception of certain officials and others, which is codified in . Some states, such as Texas, California, and Ohio, created separate state defense forces for assistance in local emergencies. Congress later established a system of "dual enlistment" for the National Guard, so that anyone who enlisted in the National Guard also enlisted in the U.S. Army. When the U.S. Air Force was established as an independent service in 1947, the National Guard was further divided into the Army National Guard and the Air National Guard. Under this construct, the 1933 defense act's "dual enlistment" facet was further amended so that enlisted soldiers and commissioned officers in the Army National Guard were also enlisted or commissioned in the Reserve Component of the U.S. Army. Enlisted airmen and commissioned officers in the Air National Guard were also enlisted or commissioned in the Air Reserve Component (ARC) of the U.S. Air Force. The 20th century saw the rise of militia organizations in the United States, these private militias often have an Anti-statism, anti-government outlook and are not under the civil authority of the states. Privately organized citizen militia-related groups blossomed in the mid-1990s. Many militia groups are based on religious or political extremism and some are regarded as hate groups.


21st century

In the 2008 decision of the Supreme Court of the United States, Supreme Court, in District of Columbia v. Heller, the ''de jure'' definition of "militia" as used in United States jurisprudence was discussed. The Court's opinion made explicit, in its ''Obiter dictum, obiter dicta'', that the term "militia," as used in colonial times in this Originalism, originalist decision, included both the federally organized militia and the citizen-organized militias of the several U.S. state, States: "... the 'militia' in colonial America consisted of a subset of 'the people'—those who were male, able-bodied, and within a certain age range" (7)... Although the militia consists of all able-bodied men, the federally-organized militia may consist of a subset of them"(23).


Active militias

* National Guard of the United States, National Guard * State defense forces


Texas

The most important previous activity of the Texas Militia was the Texas Revolution in 1836. Texans declared independence from Mexico while they were defeated during the Battle of the Alamo, in March 1836. On April 21, 1836, led by Sam Houston, the Militia attacked the Mexican Army at their camp, in the Battle of San Jacinto near the present city of Houston. Following the war, some militia units reorganized into what was later to be known as the Texas Ranger Division, Texas Rangers, which was a private, volunteer effort for several years before becoming an official organization. After Texas joined the Union of the United States in 1845, Texas militia units participated in the Mexican–American War. In 1861 Texas joined the other Confederate States in seceding from the Union (American Civil War), Union, and Texas militias played a role in the American Civil War until it ended in 1865. Texas militiamen joined Theodore Roosevelt's Rough Riders, a volunteer militia, and fought with him during the Spanish–American War in 1898. Some of the training of the Rough Riders took place in San Pedro Park, in the north-central part of San Antonio near the present site of San Antonio College. When a muster of the Militia proposed to train there on April 19, 1994, they were threatened with arrest, even though the charter of San Pedro Park forbids exclusion of activities of that kind. This threat led to a change in the meeting site. Like many other American states, Texas maintains a recognized State Militia, the Texas State Guard.


Vietnam

The Vietnam Self-Defence Militia (''Dân quân Tự vệ Việt Nam'') is a part of Vietnam People's Armed Forces. The militia organized in communes, wards and townships and is put under commune-level military commands. Vietnam Militia has two branches: Special Militia (nòng cốt) and General Militia (rộng rãi). The term of service in the core militia is 4 years.Law no. 43/2009/QH12 on Militia and Self Defense Forces
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SFR Yugoslavia

Beside the federal Yugoslav People's Army, each Country, constituent republic of the former SFR Yugoslavia had its own ''Territorial Defense Forces (Yugoslavia), Territorial Defense Forces''. The Non-Aligned Movement, Non-Aligned Yugoslavia was concerned about eventual aggression from any of the superpowers, especially by the Warsaw Pact after the Prague Spring, so the ''Territorial Defense Forces'' were formed as an integral part of the total war military doctrine called ''Total National Defense''. Those forces corresponded to
military reserve force A military reserve force is a military organization whose members simultaneously hold military and civilian occupations. These members are not normally kept under arms Under arms describes a state of military readiness (actual or ceremonial). ...
s,
paramilitary Paramilitary forces usually tend to wear similar but different uniforms to the military, for instance gray " urban camouflage".A paramilitary organization is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subcultur ...
or militia, the latter, in the military meaning of the term (like military formation). It should not be confused with the Yugoslav Militia- ''Militia (Yugoslavia), Milicija'' which was a term for a police.


See also

* Condottieri * Gendarmerie * Historical reenactment * Milicja Obywatelska * National Bolivarian Militia of Venezuela * Violent non-state actor


References


Citations


Sources

* Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project, ACLED (2015), "Real-Time Analysis of African Political Violence", January 2015, ''Conflict Trends'' 33, http://www.acleddata.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/ACLED-Conflict-Trends-Report-No.-33-January-2015_updated.pdf * Ahrem, Ariel (2011), ''Proxy Warriors: The Rise and Fall of State Sponsored Militias'', (Stanford, Stanford University Press). * Jones, Rebecca (2008), 'State Failure and Extra-legal Justice; Vigilant groups, civil militias, and the rule of law in West Africa', ''UNHCR, New Issues in Refugee Research''. http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/4c23256dd.pdf * Raleigh, Clionadh (2014), "Pragmatic and Promiscuous: Explaining the Rise of Competitive Political Militias across Africa", ''Journal of Conflict Resolution'', pp. 1–28. * Sumner, William Hyslop, ''An Inquiry Into the Importance of the Militia to a Free Commonwealth: In a Letter from William H. Sumner... to John Adams, Late President of the United States; with His Answer'', Cummings and Hilliard, Boston, 1823


Further reading

* Aliyev, Huseyn (Jan. 2019) "When and How Do Militias Disband? Global Patterns of Pro-Government Militia Demobilization in Civil Wars. ''Studies in Conflict & Terrorism'' 42/8: 715-734. DOI: 10.1080/1057610X.2018.1425112 * Bledsoe, Andrew S. ''Citizen-Officers: The Union and Confederate Volunteer Junior Officer Corps in the American Civil War''. Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Louisiana State University Press, 2015. . * Churchill, Robert H. ''To Shake Their Guns in the Tyrant's Face'
University of Michigan Press
2009. . * Cooper, Jerry M. ''The rise of the National Guard: the evolution of the American militia, 1865–1920''. Studies in war, society, and the military, v. 1. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. 1998 * Galvin, John R. ''The Minute Men – The First Fight: Myths and Realities of the American Revolution'', Brasseys, 1996 * Hay, George J. ''The Constitutional Force'', 1908 (reprinted by Ray Westlake Military Books, 1987). . * Smith, Joshua M. "The Yankee Soldier's Might: The District of Maine and the Reputation of the Massachusetts Militia, 1800–1812," in ''New England Quarterly'' LXXXIV no. 2, pp. 234–264, 2011. * Whisker, James B. ''The Rise and Decline of the American Militia System'', Susquehanna University Press, 1999 {{Authority control Paramilitary organizations Rebel militia groups Gun politics Militias,