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A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated
urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the culture of towns and cities Urban may also refer to: General * Urban (name), a list of people ...
and its less-populated surrounding territories sharing industries, commercial areas,
transport network A transport network, or transportation network is a network or graph in geographic space, describing an infrastructure that permits and constrains movement or flow. Examples include but are not limited to road networkA street network is a syst ...
,
infrastructure Infrastructure is the set of fundamental facilities and systems that support the sustainable functionality of households and firms. Serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy An eco ...

infrastructure
s and
housing Housing, or more generally living spaces, refers to the construction Construction is a general term meaning the art and science to form Physical object, objects, systems, or organizations,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ''Oxford Eng ...

housing
. A metro area usually comprises multiple
jurisdictions Jurisdiction (from Latin ''Wikt:ius#Latin, juris'' 'law' + ''Wikt:dictio, dictio'' 'declaration') is the legal term for the authority granted to a legal entity to enact justice. Colloquially it is used to refer to the geographical area (: locatio ...
and
municipalities A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ...
:
neighborhoods A neighbourhood (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval E ...

neighborhoods
,
townships ''Township'' refers to various kinds of settlements or administrative subdivisions in different countries. While a ''township'' may be associated with an urban area, this tends to be an exception to the rule. In Australia, Canada, Scotland and pa ...

townships
,
boroughs A borough is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for ...
,
cities A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellings grouped to ...
,
town A town is a human settlement In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth an ...

town
s,
exurbs Exurban development (left side) blends into suburban development (right side) in Loudoun County, Virginia, in the western part of the Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area. An exurb (alternately: exurban area) is an area outside the typically ...
,
suburbs A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Television advertisement * (adjective ...

suburbs
,
counties A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...

counties
,
districts A district is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic na ...
, and even
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
s and
nation A nation is a community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as Norm (social), norms, religion, values, Convention (norm), customs, or Identity (social science), identity. Communities may share a sense ...

nation
s like the
eurodistrict A eurodistrict is a Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as conti ...
s. As social, economic and political institutions have changed, metropolitan areas have become key economic and political regions. Metropolitan areas include
satellite cities Satellite cities or satellite towns are smaller municipalities A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnation ...
, towns and intervening rural areas that are socioeconomically tied to the urban core, typically measured by
commuting Commuting is periodically recurring travel between one's place of residence and place of work or study, where the traveler leaves the boundary of their home community. By extension, it can sometimes be any regular or often repeated travel ...

commuting
patterns. Most metropolitan areas are anchored by one
core city In urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design of land use and the built environment, inc ...
such as
Paris metropolitan area File:Paris and vicinities, LandSat-5 false color satellite image, 2006-07-16.jpg, 350px, False color, False-color satellite image of the Parisian metropolitan area. The Paris metropolitan area (french: aire urbaine de Paris, ) is a statistical a ...

Paris metropolitan area
(
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
),
Mumbai Metropolitan Region Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) is a metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories under the same administrative division, sh ...
( Mumbai (Bombay)), and
New York metropolitan area The New York metropolitan area, also commonly referred to as the Tri-State area, is the largest metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surro ...
(
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
). In some cases metropolitan areas have multiple centers of close to equal importance, such as Dallas–Fort Worth metropolitan area (
Dallas Dallas (), colloquially referred to as Big D, is a city in the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United State ...

Dallas
and
Fort Worth Fort Worth is the in the of and the 13th-largest city in the United States. It is the of , covering nearly into four other counties: , , , and . According to the , Fort Worth's population was 927,720. Fort Worth is the city in the metro ...

Fort Worth
),
Islamabad–Rawalpindi metropolitan area The Islamabad–Rawalpindi metropolitan area (Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC: ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and cultur ...
(
Islamabad Islamabad (; ur, , translit=Islām Ābād) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, state, province, or othe ...

Islamabad
and
Rawalpindi Rawalpindi ( or ; Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as ...

Rawalpindi
), the
Rhine-Ruhr , the state capital of North Rhine-Westphalia File:Westfalenpark-100818-16757-Florian-Turm-cor.jpg, Aerial view of Dortmund The Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region (german: Metropolregion Rhein-Ruhr) is the Metropolitan regions in Germany, larges ...
in Germany and the
Randstad The Randstad (; "Rim City") is a conurbation in the central-western Netherlands consisting primarily of the four largest Dutch cities (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht) and their surrounding areas. Among other things, it contains the Po ...

Randstad
in the Netherlands. In the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, the concept of the
metropolitan statistical area #REDIRECT Metropolitan statistical area#REDIRECT Metropolitan statistical area In the United States, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) is a geographical region with a relatively high population density at its core and close economic ties throu ...
has gained prominence. Metropolitan areas may themselves be part of larger
megalopolis A megalopolis (), sometimes called a megapolis; also megaregion, city cluster or supercity, is a group of two or more roughly adjacent metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, ur ...

megalopolis
es. For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the
regiopolis In Germany, a regiopolis is a city outside the core of a metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories under the same administra ...
and respectively regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006. In the United States, the term micropolitan statistical area is used.


General definition

A metropolitan area combines an
urban agglomeration An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number o ...
(the contiguous, built-up area) with zones not necessarily urban in character, but closely bound to the center by employment or other commerce. These outlying zones are sometimes known as a commuter belt, and may extend well beyond the urban zone, to other political entities. For example,
Islip, New York Islip ( ) is one of ten towns in Suffolk County, New York. Located on the South Shore of Long Island, the town population was 335,543 at the 2010 census, it is the fourth most populous City or Town in the state. Within the Town of Islip is ...
on
Long Island Long Island is a densely populated island in the southeast part of the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous Unit ...
is considered part of the
New York metropolitan area The New York metropolitan area, also commonly referred to as the Tri-State area, is the largest metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surro ...
. In practice, the parameters of metropolitan areas, in both official and unofficial usage, are not consistent. Sometimes they are little different from an urban area, and in other cases they cover broad regions that have little relation to a single urban settlement; comparative statistics for metropolitan area should take this into account. The term "Metropolitan" can also refer to a
county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert Chambers (publisher bo ...
-level
municipal government A municipality is usually a single administrative division having municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. The term ''municipali ...

municipal government
structure, with some shared services between a central city and its suburbs, which may or may not include the entirety of a metropolitan area. Population figures given for one metro area can vary by millions. There has been no significant change in the basic concept of metropolitan areas since its adoption in 1950, although significant changes in geographic distributions have occurred since then, and more are expected. Because of the fluidity of the term "metropolitan statistical area," the term used colloquially is more often "metro service area," "metro area," or "MSA" taken to include not only a city, but also surrounding suburban, exurban and sometimes rural areas, all which it is presumed to influence. A polycentric metropolitan area contains multiple urban agglomerations not connected by continuous development. In defining a metropolitan area, it is sufficient that a city or cities form a nucleus with which other areas have a high degree of integration. See also the many lists of metropolitan areas itemized at .


History


Australia

The
Australian Bureau of Statistics The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the independent statutory agency of the Australian Government responsible for statistical collection and analysis, and for giving evidence-based advice to federal, state and territory government ...
uses ''Greater Capital City Statistical Areas'' (GCCSAs), which are geographical areas designed to represent the functional extent of each of the eight State and Territory capital cities. They were designed to reflect labour markets, using the 2011 Census "travel to work" data. Labour markets are sometimes used as proxy measures of the functional extent of a city as it contains the majority of the commuting population. GCCSAs replaced "Statistical Divisions" used until 2011. Other Metropolitan areas in Australia include cross border cities or continuous built-up areas between two or more cities that are connected by an extensive public transport network that allows for commuting for work or services. The following are such conurbations- Albury-Wodonga Canberra-Queanbeyan Newcastle-Sydney-Wollongong Perth Metropolitan Region-City of Mandurah-Pinjarra South East Queensland Melbourne-Geelong


Bangladesh

In
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
, the large population centers which have significant Financial, political and administrative Importance are considered to be as Metropolitan cities, which are governed by City Corporations. In total, there are 12 City Corporations in Bangladesh. 4 of them (
Dhaka North City Corporation Dhaka North City Corporation (DNCC) is an autonomous body that governs 54 northern wards of Dhaka Dhaka ( or ; bn, ঢাকা, Ḍhākā, ), List of renamed places in Bangladesh, formerly known as Dacca, is the Capital city, capital a ...
,
Dhaka South City Corporation Dhaka South City Corporation (DSCC) is one of the two municipal corporations in Dhaka created when the former Dhaka City Corporation was divided into two. The corporation was created by the Local Government (City Corporation) Amendment Bill 2011 ...
, Narayanganj City Corporation,
Gazipur City Corporation Gazipur City Corporation ( bn, গাজীপুর সিটি কর্পোরেশন - in short: GCC) established in 2013, is one of the city corporations of Bangladesh. Before its establishment as city corporation, it was a municipal corpo ...
) are part of Greater Dhaka Conurbation .


Brazil

In
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
, "Metropolitan Regions", "Integrated Development Areas", and "Urban Agglomerations" are created by
statute A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) ...

statute
. Each
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...

state
defines its own legislation for the creation, definition and organization of a metropolitan region. The creation of a metropolitan region is not for any statistical purpose, although the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) uses them in reports. Their main purpose is to improve management of public policies of common interest to all municipalities included within. They do not have any political, electoral or jurisdictional power whatsoever, so citizens do not elect representatives for them. The IBGE defines also "Immediate Geographic Areas" (formerly termed microregions) which capture the region "surrounding urban centers for the supply of immediate needs of the population". Intended for policy planning purposes, as of March 2021 census data is not tabulated on the level of these Areas, but instead at the
municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ...
or state level.


Canada

Statistics Canada Statistics Canada (StatCan; french: Statistique Canada), formed in 1971, is the agency Agency may refer to: * a governmental or other institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of ...
defines a
census metropolitan area The census geographic units of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, Pac ...
(CMA) as an area consisting of one or more adjacent municipalities situated around a major urban core. To form a CMA, the metropolitan area must have a population of at least 100,000, at least half within the urban core. To be included in the CMA, adjacent municipalities must have a high degree of integration with the core, as measured by commuter flows derived from census data.


China

In Chinese, there used to be no clear distinction between "
megalopolis A megalopolis (), sometimes called a megapolis; also megaregion, city cluster or supercity, is a group of two or more roughly adjacent metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, ur ...

megalopolis
" (, lit. city cluster) and "metropolitan area" () until
National Development and Reform Commission The National Development and Reform Commission of the People's Republic of China (NDRC), formerly State Planning Commission and State Development Planning Commission, is a macroeconomic Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix ''makro-'' mean ...
issued ''Guidelines on the Cultivation and Development of Modern Metropolitan Areas'' () on Feb 19, 2019, in which a metropolitan area was defined as "an urbanized spatial form in a megalopolis dominated by (a) supercity(-ies) or megacity(-ies), or a large metropolis playing a leading part, and within the basic range of 1-hour commute area."


European Union

The
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
's statistical agency,
Eurostat Eurostat (European Statistical Office) is a Directorate-General Within the European Union, directorates-general are departments of the European Union government with specific zones of responsibility, the equivalent of Ministry (government depar ...

Eurostat
, has created a concept named "
larger urban zone The larger urban zone (LUZ), or functional urban area (FUA), is a measure of the population and expanse of metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a ci ...
" (LUZ). The LUZ represents an attempt at a harmonised definition of the metropolitan area, and the goal was to have an area from which a significant share of the residents commute into the city, a concept known as the "functional urban region".


France

France's national statistics institute, the INSEE, names an urban core and its surrounding area of commuter influence an ''
aire urbaine An ''aire urbaine'' (literal and official translation: "urban area") is an INSEE (France's national statistics bureau) statistical concept describing a core of urban development and the extent of its commuter activity. Definition The ''aire ur ...
'' (official translation: "urban area"). This statistical method applies to agglomerations of all sizes, but the INSEE sometimes uses the term ''aire métropolitaine'' (metropolitan area) to refer to France's largest ''aires urbaines''.


Germany

In German definition, metropolitan areas are eleven most densely populated areas in the
Federal Republic of Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = German language, German , demonym = Germans, German , government_ ...
. They comprise the major German cities and their surrounding catchment areas and form the political, commercial and cultural centres of the country. For urban centres outside metropolitan areas, that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the Regiopolis and respectively regiopolitan area or regio was introduced by German professors in 2006.


India

In
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
, a metropolitan city is defined as one with a population more than 1 million.


Indonesia

In
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
, the
government of Indonesia The term Government of Indonesia ( id, Pemerintah Indonesia) can have a number of different meanings. At its widest, it can refer collectively to the three traditional branches of government – the executive branch, legislative branch and judi ...
defines a metropolitan area as an
urban agglomeration An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number o ...
where its spatial planning is prioritised due to its highly important influence on the country. Currently, there are 10 metropolitan cities in Indonesia that have been recognized by the government.


Italy

In 2001, Italy transformed 14 provinces of some of the country's largest cities into '' Metropolitan Cities''. Therefore the territory of the ''Metropolitan City'' corresponds to that of a normal Italian province.


Japan

In Japan, a metropolitan area () is a division set separately from
administrative areas
administrative areas
in order to define wide urban areas used in the Census conducted by the Statistics Bureau of the
Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications The is a cabinet-level ministry in the Government of Japan The is the central government of Japan. The Government of Japan consists of legislature, executive and judiciary branches and is accountable to the Emperor of Japan. The Prime Min ...
. The
Greater Tokyo Area The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world, consisting of the Kantō region of Japan (including Tokyo, Tokyo Metropolis and the prefectures of Chiba Prefecture, Chiba, Gunma Prefecture, Gunma, Ibaraki Prefecture, ...

Greater Tokyo Area
is the most populous metropolitan area in the world. * Central City () **Those of the greater metropolitan areas are the 23 special wards in the metropolis of Tokyo and other designated cities. **Those of the metropolitan areas are cities with a population of more than half of a million, which are not included in the greater metropolitan areas. If the central cities are next to each other, the areas are integrated into one large area. * Surrounding Municipality (, lit. 'surrounding cities, towns and villages') **Those are municipalities with ratios of the number of people commuting to the central city over 15 years old being 1.5% or more of the permanent population of and close to the central cities. If a municipality is surrounded by the surrounding municipalities, it will be a surrounding municipality.


Mexico

Metropolitan areas are known as ''zonas metropolitanas'' in Mexico. The National Population Council (CONAPO) defines them as: * a set of two or more municipalities where a city with a population of at least 100,000 is located, and whose urban area, functions and activities exceed the limits of the municipality. * municipalities with a city of more than 500,000 inhabitants, or a city of more than 200,000 inhabitants located in the northern and southern border areas and in the coastal zone. * municipalities where state capitals are located, if they are not already included in a metropolitan zone. As of 2018, there are 74 ''zonas metropolitanas'' in Mexico. 75.1 million people, 62.8% of the country population, live within a metropolitan area.


Pakistan

Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
has nine metropolitan areas with populations greater than a million. Seven of these are entirely in
Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of eastern and . The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts. ...

Punjab
including
Lahore Lahore (; pnb, ; ; ur, ; ) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of east ...

Lahore
,
Faisalabad Faisalabad (Punjabi language, Punjabi and ur, , ; ), formerly known as Lyallpur James Broadwood Lyall, named after the founder of the city is the third-List of most populated metropolitan areas in Pakistan, most-populous city in Pakistan aft ...

Faisalabad
,
Gujranwala Gujranwala (Punjabi Panjābī (pʌnˈdʒɑːbi) (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) (پنجابی) Punjabi or Panjabi most often refers to: * Something of, from, or related to Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; Shahmukhi: ; , ; , ; ; also romanised as Pan ...
,
Multan Multan (; ) is a city and capital of Multan Division located in Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab, Pakistan. Situated on the bank of the Chenab River, Multan is Pakistan's List of largest cities in Pakistan, 7th largest city and is the major cultural and ...

Multan
,
Bahawalpur Bahawalpur (), is a city located in the Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab province of Pakistan. Bahawalpur is the List of most populated metropolitan areas in Pakistan, 11th largest city in Pakistan by population as per 2017 census with a population of ...

Bahawalpur
,
Sargodha Sargodha (Punjabi language, Punjabi and ur, ) is a city and capital of Sargodha Division, located in Punjab (Pakistan), Punjab province, Pakistan. It is Pakistan's List of most populous cities in Pakistan, 12th largest city by population and ...

Sargodha
, and
Sialkot Sialkot (Urdu and pnb, ) is a city in Punjab, Pakistan, Punjab, Pakistan. It is the capital city of Sialkot District. It is Pakistan's List of most populous cities in Pakistan, 13th largest city by population and is located in north-east Punja ...

Sialkot
; one ( Islamabad-Rawalpindi is split between Punjab and the
Islamabad Capital Territory Islamabad Capital Territory ( ur, , translit=vafāqī dār-alhakūmat) is the only of . Located between and province. It includes the country's federal capital . The territory is represented in the constituencies , and . History In 1960, ...
; two are located in
Sindh Sindh (; sd, سنڌ; ur, , ; historically romanized as Sind) is one of the four provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, ad ...

Sindh
, including
Karachi Karachi (; ur, ; ; ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing systems using the Latin script. Applications The system is used to re ...

Karachi
, the largest metropolitan area in the country, and
Hyderabad Hyderabad ( , , ) is the capital and largest city of the India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the ...
; one in
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (; ps, خیبر پښتونخوا; ), often abbreviated as KP or KPK and formerly known as the North-West Frontier Province, is one of the Administrative units of Pakistan, four provinces of Pakistan. It is located in the Geo ...

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
:
Peshawar Peshawar (; ps, پېښور ; hnd, ; ; ur, ) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and its List of cities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa by population, largest city. It is the List of most populous cities in Pakistan, six ...

Peshawar
; and the final in
Balochistan Balochistan (; bal, بلوچِستان; also romanised as Baluchistan) is an arid A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development Development ...

Balochistan
:
Quetta Quetta (; ps, کوټه‎; bal, ; ur, ; ), formerly known as Shalkot ( ps, ښالکوټ; bal, شال کوٹ), is the provincial capital and largest city A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology ...

Quetta
.


Philippines

The
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
currently has three metropolitan areas defined by the
National Economic and Development Authority The National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA; fil, Pambansang Pangasiwaan sa Kabuhayan at Pagpapaunlad) is an independent cabinet-level agency of the Philippine government responsible for economic development and planning. It is headed ...
(NEDA). These metropolitan areas are separated into three main geographical areas;
Metro Manila Metropolitan Manila (often shortened as Metro Manila; fil, Kalakhang Maynila), officially the National Capital Region (NCR; fil, Pambansang Punong Rehiyon), is the seat of government The seat of government is (as defined by ''Brewer's Po ...

Metro Manila
(which is located in
Luzon Luzon (; ) is the largest and most populous List of islands in the Philippines, island in the Philippines. It is ranked List of islands by area, 15th largest in the world by land area. Located in the northern portion of the archipelago, it is the ...
),
Metro Cebu Metropolitan Cebu, or simply Metro Cebu, ( ceb, Kaulohang Sugbo; fil, Kalakhang Cebu), is the main urban center of the province of Cebu Cebu (; ceb, Sugbo), officially the Province of Cebu ( ceb, Lalawigan sa Sugbo; tl, Lalawigan ng Ceb ...
(which is located in
Visayas The Visayas ( ), or the Visayan Islands (Visayan Visayans ( Visayan: ''Mga Bisaya'', ) or Visayan people, are a Philippine ethnolinguistic group native to the whole Visayas The Visayas ( ), or the Visayan Islands (Bisayan languages, Visayan ...
), and
Metro Davao Metro Davao, officially called Metropolitan Davao ( ceb, Kaulohang Dabaw), fil, Kalakhang Davao, is a metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city ...

Metro Davao
(which is located in
Mindanao Mindanao () is the List of islands of the Philippines, second-largest island in the Philippines, after Luzon and List of islands by population, seventh-most populous island in the world. Located in the southern region of the archipelago, the ...
). The official definition of each area does not necessarily follow the actual extent of continuous urbanization. For example, the built-up area of
Metro Manila Metropolitan Manila (often shortened as Metro Manila; fil, Kalakhang Maynila), officially the National Capital Region (NCR; fil, Pambansang Punong Rehiyon), is the seat of government The seat of government is (as defined by ''Brewer's Po ...

Metro Manila
has long spilled out of its officially defined borders into the adjacent provinces of
Bulacan Bulacan, officially the Province of Bulacan ( tgl, Lalawigan ng Bulacan; pam, Lalawigan ning Bulacan) (PSGC031400000 ISO: PH-BUL) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administra ...
,
Rizal , officially the Province of ( tl, Lalawigan ng Rizal), is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative reg ...

Rizal
,
Laguna Laguna (Italian and Spanish for lagoon) may refer to: People * Abe Laguna (born 1992), American DJ known as Ookay * Andrés Laguna (1499–1559), Spanish humanist physician, pharmacologist, and botanist * Ana Laguna (born 1955), Spanish-Swedish ba ...
, and
Cavite , officially the Province of ( tl, Lalawigan ng Kabite; Chabacano: ''Provincia de Cavite''), is a Provinces of the Philippines, province in the Philippines located in the Calabarzon Regions of the Philippines, region in Luzon. Located on the ...

Cavite
. The number of metropolitan areas in the Philippines was reduced from 13 in 2007 to the current three based from the 2017–2022 Philippine Development Plan by NEDA. The other 10 metropolitan areas were Metro Angeles, Metro Bacolod, Metro Baguio, Metro Batangas, Metro Cagayan de Oro, Metro Dagupan, Metro Iloilo–Guimaras, Butuan, Metro Butuan, Metro Naga, and Metro Olongapo.


South Africa

The Greater Johannesburg Metropolitan Area, Greater Johannesburg metropolitan area is the largest metropolitan area in South Africa. Its population was over 9.6 million as of the 2011 South Africa Census, in contrast to its urban area, which consisted of approximately 7.9 million inhabitants as of 2011. Conversely, Metropolitan municipality (South Africa), metropolitan municipalities in South Africa are defined as commonly governed areas of a metropolitan area. The largest such metropolitan municipal government entity in South Africa is the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality, which presided over nearly 5 million people as of 2016. However, the Greater Johannesburg metropolitan area houses roughly ten times the population of its core municipal city of Johannesburg, which contained 957,441 people as of the 2011 census.


Sweden

Sweden defines a metropolitan area as a group of municipalities, based on statistics of commuting between central municipalities and surrounding municipalities and taking into account existing planning cooperation in the country's three geographic regions. They were defined around 1965. In 2005, a number of further municipalities were added to the defined areas.


Turkey

The word metropolitan describes a major city in Turkey like Istanbul, a city that is dominant to others both financially and socially. There are 30 officially defined "state metropolitan areas" in Turkey, for governing purposes.


United Kingdom

The United Kingdom government's Office for National Statistics defines "travel to work areas" as areas where "at least 75% of an area's resident workforce work in the area and at least 75% of the people who work in the area also live in the area".Beginners' guide to UK geography - Travel to Work Areas (TTWAs)
Office for National Statistics


United States

As of February 28, 2013, the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
Office of Management and Budget (OMB) defined 1,098 statistical areas for the metropolitan areas of the United States and Puerto Rico. These 1,098 statistical areas comprise 929 Core-Based Statistical Areas (CBSAs)The
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
Office of Management and Budget (OMB) defines a Core-Based Statistical Area (CBSA) as one or more adjacent county (United States), counties or county-equivalent, county equivalents that have at least one List of United States urban areas, urban core area of at least 10,000 population, plus adjacent territory that has a high degree of social integration, social and economic integration with the core as measured by commuting ties.
and 169 Combined Statistical Areas (CSAs).The
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
Office of Management and Budget (OMB) defines a Combined Statistical Area (CSA) as an aggregate of adjacent Core Based Statistical Areas that are linked by commuting ties.
The 929 Core-Based Statistical Areas are divided into 388 Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs – 381 for the U.S. and seven for Puerto Rico)The
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
Office of Management and Budget (OMB) defines a Metropolitan Statistical Area (μSA) as a Core Based Statistical Area having at least one urban cluster of at least 50,000 population, plus adjacent territory that has a high degree of social and economic integration with the core as measured by commuting ties.
and 541 Micropolitan Statistical Areas (μSAs – 536 for the U.S. and five for Puerto Rico).The
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
Office of Management and Budget (OMB) defines a Micropolitan Statistical Area (μSA) as a Core Based Statistical Area having at least one urban cluster of at least 10,000 but less than 50,000 population, plus adjacent territory that has a high degree of social and economic integration with the core as measured by commuting ties.
The 169 Combined Statistical Areas (166 for the U.S. and three for Puerto Rico) each comprise two or more adjacent Core Based Statistical Areas. The Office of Management and Budget defines a Metropolitan Statistical Area as one or more adjacent county (United States), counties or county-equivalent, county equivalents that have at least one List of United States urban areas, urban area of at least 50,000 population, plus adjacent territory that has a high degree of economic and social integration with the core as measured by
commuting Commuting is periodically recurring travel between one's place of residence and place of work or study, where the traveler leaves the boundary of their home community. By extension, it can sometimes be any regular or often repeated travel ...

commuting
ties. The OMB then defines a Combined Statistical Area as consisting of various combinations of adjacent metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas with economic ties measured by commuting patterns. The Office of Management and Budget further defines a core-based statistical area (CBSA) to be a geographical area that consists of one or more counties (or equivalents) anchored by an urban center of at least 10,000 people plus adjacent counties that are socioeconomically tied to the urban center by commuting.


See also

* Developed environments * Economic restructuring * Metropolitan statistical area * Metropolitan economy * Urban sprawl * Urban heat island


Lists of metropolitan areas

* List of metropolitan areas that overlap multiple countries * List of metropolitan areas by population * List of metropolitan areas in Asia * List of metropolitan areas in Africa * List of metropolitan areas in the Americas ** List of North American metropolitan areas by population ** List of Metropolitan Statistical Areas * List of metropolitan areas in Europe ** Larger Urban Zones, List of metropolitan areas (LUZ) in the European Union


Metropolitan planning theories

* New Urbanism * Smart growth * Transit-oriented development


Terms

* Amalgamation (politics) * Census metropolitan area * Combined statistical area * Consolidated city-county * Conurbation * Ecumenopolis * Industrial region * Larger Urban Zones (LUZ) * Megacity * Megalopolis (city type) * Metrobus (disambiguation), Metrobus * Metropolis * Human overpopulation, Overpopulation * Urban sprawl * Urban area * World's largest cities


Notes


References


External links

* (page 1 illustrates metropolitan area versus city proper and urban agglomeration)
Metropolis.org
An organisation of world metropolises

(Metropolitan Employment Areas in Japan)
Turismo.fvg.it
(Metropolis read by maps in Friuli Venezia Giulia – Northeast of Italy – EU)
Geopolis
: research group, university of Paris-Diderot, France — Urbanization of the world {{Authority control Metropolitan areas, Urban geography