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The metamonads are microscopic eukaryotic organisms, a large group of flagellate amitochondriate Loukozoa. Their composition is not entirely settled, but they include the retortamonads, diplomonads, and possibly the parabasalids and oxymonads as well. These four groups are all anaerobic, occurring mostly as symbiotes or parasites of animals, as is the case with ''Giardia lamblia'' which causes diarrhea in mice.

Characteristics

A number of parabasalids and oxymonads are found in termite guts, and play an important role in breaking down the cellulose found in wood. Some other metamonads are parasites. These flagellates are unusual in lacking mitochondria. Originally they were considered among the most primitive eukaryotes, diverging from the others before mitochondria appeared. However, they are now known to have lost mitochondria secondarily, and retain both organelles and nuclear genes derived from them. Mitochondrial relics include hydrogenosomes, which produce hydrogen, and small structures called mitosomes. It now appears the Metamonada are, together with ''Malawimonas'', sister clades of the Podiata. All of these groups are united by having flagella or basal bodies in characteristic groups of four, which are often associated with the nucleus, forming a structure called a ''karyomastigont''. In addition, the genera ''Carpediemonas'' and ''Trimastix'' are now known to be close relatives of the retortamonad-diplomonad line and the oxymonads, respectively. Both are free-living and amitochondriate.


Classification


The metamonads make up part of the Excavata, a eukaryotic supergroup including flagellates with feeding grooves and their close relatives. Their relationships are uncertain, and they do not always appear together on molecular trees. It is possible that the metamonads as defined here do not form a monophyletic subgroup. The following higher level treatment is based on works of Cavalier-Smith with amendments within Fornicata from Yubukia, Simpson & Leander Metamonada were once again proposed to being basal eukaryotes in 2018. * Phylum Metamonada (Grassé 1952) Cavalier-Smith 1987 emend. Cavalier-Smith 2003 ** Subphylum Anaeromonada Cavalier-Smith 1997 emend. 2003 *** Class Anaeromonadea Cavalier-Smith 1997 emend. 1999 **** Family Paratrimastigidae Zhang et al. 2015 **** Order Trimastigida Cavalier-Smith 2003 ***** Family Trimastigidae Saville Kent 1880 **** Order Oxymonadida Grassé 1952 emend. Cavalier-Smith 2003 ***** Family Polymastigidae Bütschli 1884 ***** Family Saccinobaculidae Brugerolle & Lee 2002 ex Cavalier-Smith 2013 ***** Family Pyrsonymphidae Grassé 1892 ***** Family Streblomastigidae Kofoid & Swezy 1919 ***** Family Oxymonadidae Kirby 1928 ** Subphylum Trichozoa Cavalier-Smith 1996 emend. Cavalier-Smith 2003 stat. n. 2013 *** Superclass Fornicata Simpson 2003 stat. n. Cavalier-Smith 2013 **** Genus ''Ergobibamus'' **** Genus ''Hicanonectes'' **** Family Kipferliidae Cavalier-Smith 2013 **** Order Chilomastigida Cavalier-Smith 2013 ***** Family Chilomastigidae Cavalier-Smith 2013 **** Order Dysnectida Cavalier-Smith 2013 ***** Family Dysnectidae Cavalier-Smith 2013 **** Class Carpediemonadea Cavalier-Smith 2013 s.s. ***** Order Carpediemonadida Cavalier-Smith 2003 emend. 2013 s.s. ****** Family Carpediemonadidae Cavalier-Smith 2003 **** Class Eopharyngea Cavalier-Smith 1993 stat. n. Cavalier-Smith 2003 ***** Order Retortamonadida Grassé 1952 emend. Cavalier-Smith 2013 ****** Family Retortamonadidae Wenrich 1932 ***** Order Diplomonadida Wenyon 1926 emend. Brugerolle et al. 1975 ****** Family Giardiidae Kulda & Nohy´nkova´ 1978 ****** Family Octomitidae Cavalier-Smith 1996 ****** Family Spironucleidae Cavalier-Smith 1996 ****** Family Hexamitidae Kent 1880 emend. Brugerolle et al. 1975 *** Superclass Parabasalia Honigberg 1973 stat. n. Cavalier-Smith 2003 **** Class Chilomitea ***** Order Chilomitida ****** Family Chilomitidae **** Class Trichonymphea Cavalier-Smith 2003 ***** Order Lophomonadida Light 1927 ****** Family Lophomonadidae Saville Kent 1880 ***** Order Trichonymphida Poche 1913 ****** Family Spirotrichosomidae Hollande & Caruette-Valentin 1971 ****** Family Staurojoeninidae Grassé 1917 ****** Family Trichonymphidae Saville Kent 1880 ****** Family Hoplonymphidae Light 1926 ****** Family Teranymphidae Koidzumi 1921 ucomonymphidae**** Class Trichomonadea Kirby 1947 stat. n. Cavalier-Smith 2003 ***** Order Trichocovinida ****** Family Trichocovinidae ***** Order Trichomonadida Kirby 1947 ****** Suborder Hypotrichomonadina Čepička et al. 2010 stat. n. ******* Family Hypotrichomonadidae (Honigberg 1963) Čepička, Hampl & Kulda 2010 ****** Suborder Trichomonadina (Kirby 1947) Cavalier-Smith 2013 ******* Family Trichomonadidae Chalmers & Pekkoloa 1918 sensu Hampl et al. 2006 ****** Suborder Honigbergiellina Čepička et al. 2010 ******* Family Honigbergiellidae Čepička, Hampl & Kulda 2010 ******* Family Hexamastigidae Čepička, Hampl & Kulda 2010 ******* Family Tricercomitidae Čepička, Hampl & Kulda 2010 ***** Order Tritrichomonadida Čepička et al. 2010 ****** Family Dientamoebidae Grassé 1953 ****** Family Monocercomonadidae Kirby 1944 ****** Family Simplicimonadidae Čepička et al. 2010 ****** Family Tritrichomonadidae Honigberg 1963 ***** SubclassCristomonadia Cavalier-Smith, 2013 ****** Order Spirotrichonymphida Grassé 1952 ******* Family Spirotrichonymphidae Grassé 1917 ****** Order Cristamonadida Brugerolle & Patterson 2001 emend. Cavalier-Smith 2013 ******* Family Calonymphidae Grassé 1911 ******* Family Devescovinidae Doflein 1911 oeniidae; Rhizonymphidae; Kofoidiidae; Deltotrichonymphidae


References





External links



Tree of Life: Fornicata
{{Taxonbar|from=Q499091 * Category:Taxa named by Pierre-Paul Grassé