HOME

TheInfoList




A law enforcement officer (LEO), or peace officer in North American English, is a
public-sector The public sector (also called the state sector) is the part of the economy composed of both public services and public enterprises. Public sectors include public goods and governmental services such as the military, law enforcement, infrastructu ...
employee Employment is the relationship between two party (law), parties, usually based on a employment contract, contract where work is paid for, where one party, which may be a corporation, for profit, not-for-profit organization, co-operative or ot ...

employee
whose duties primarily involve the
enforcement Enforcement is the proper execution of the process of ensuring compliance with law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. ...
of
laws Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its bounda ...

laws
. The phrase can include
police officer A police officer, also known as a policeman or policewoman, is a warranted law employee of a police force The police are a constituted body of persons empowered by a state, with the aim to enforce the law, to ensure the safety, ...

police officer
s,
prosecutors A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the common law adversarial system or the Civil law (legal system), civil law inquisitorial system. The prosecution is the legal party responsible for presenting the ...
(who are law enforcement officers but not peace officers), municipal law enforcement officers,
special police Special police usually describes a police force The police are a constituted body of persons empowered by a state, with the aim to enforce the law, to ensure the safety, health and possessions of citizens, and to prevent crime and civil ...
officers,
customs officer A customs officer is a law enforcement agent who enforces customs Customs is an authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and ...
s,
state trooper File:SEK-Schnellboot (Schlauchboot) (10585073613).jpg, Spezialeinsatzkommando, SEK members of the Landespolizei, State Police of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany during an exercise State police, provincial police, or regional police are a type ...
s, special agents,
secret agent Espionage or spying is the act of obtaining Secrecy, secret or Confidentiality, confidential information from non-disclosed sources or divulging of the same without the Consent, permission of the holder of the information for a tangible benefi ...

secret agent
s, special investigators, border patrol officers,
immigration officer An immigration officer is a law enforcement official whose job is to ensure that immigration legislation is enforced. This can cover the rules of entry for visa applicants, foreign nationals or those seeking right of asylum, asylum at the bo ...
s, court officers,
probation officer Probation and Parole Officers are officials appointed to investigate, report on, and supervise the conduct of convicted offenders on probation and/or those released from incarceration Imprisonment (from , via French , originally from Latin ...
s,
parole officer Probation and Parole Officers are officials appointed to investigate, report on, and supervise the conduct of convicted offenders on probation and/or those released from incarceration Imprisonment (from , via French , originally from Latin ...
s, arson investigators, auxiliary officers, game wardens,
sheriff A sheriff is a government official, with varying duties, existing in some countries with historical ties to England where the office originated. There is an analogous although independently developed office in Iceland that is commonly translated ...

sheriff
s,
constables A constable is a person holding a particular office, most commonly in criminal law enforcement. The office of constable can vary significantly in different jurisdictions. A constable is commonly the rank of an officer within the police The p ...
,
corrections In criminal justice 350px, United States criminal justice system flowchart Criminal justice is the delivery of justice Justice, one of the four cardinal virtues, by Vitruvio Alberi, 1589–1590. Fresco, corner of the vault, studiolo ...
,
marshal Marshal is a term used in several official titles in various branches of society A society is a group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, label. T ...
s,
deputiesA deputy is a legislator A legislator (or lawmaker) is a person who writes and passes laws, especially someone who is a member of a legislature. Legislators are often elected by the people of the state. Legislatures may be supra-national (fo ...
, detention officers,
correction officer Correction may refer to: * A euphemism for punishment * Correction (newspaper), the posting of a notice of a mistake in a past issue of a newspaper * Correction (stock market), in financial markets, a short-term price decline * Correction (novel), ...
s, sworn
campus police Campus police or university police in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consi ...
officers and public safety officers (at public and private institutions).
Security guards A security guard (also known as a security inspector, security officer, or protective agent) is a person employed by a government or private party to protect the employing party's assets (property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstra ...
are
civilian Civilians under international humanitarian law are "persons who are not members of the armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare W ...

civilian
s and therefore not law enforcement officers, unless they have been granted powers to enforce particular laws, such as those accredited under a
community safety accreditation scheme Community safety accreditation schemes enable the chief constable of a police force in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The G ...
such as a security police officer. Modern legal codes use the term ''peace officer'' (or in some jurisdictions, ''law enforcement officer'') to include every person vested by the legislating state with law enforcement authority—traditionally, anyone "sworn, badged, and armable" who can arrest, or refer such arrest for a criminal
prosecution A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in states with either the common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law Case law is the collection of past legal decisions written by co ...
. Hence, city police officers, county sheriffs' deputies, state troopers and in some states corrections officers are usually vested with the same authority within a given jurisdiction. Contract security officers may enforce certain laws and administrative regulations, which may include detainment or apprehension authority, including arresting. Peace officers may also be able to perform all duties that a law enforcement officer is tasked with, but may or may not be armed with a weapon.


Canada

In Canada, the
Criminal Code A criminal code (or penal code) is a document that compiles all, or a significant amount of, a particular jurisdiction's criminal law Criminal law is the body of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interactin ...
(R.S., c. C-34, s. 2.) defines a ''peace officer'' as: Section (b) allows for designation as a peace officer for a member of the
Correctional Service of Canada The Correctional Service of Canada (CSC; french: Service correctionnel du Canada), also known as Correctional Service Canada or Corrections Canada, is the Government of Canada, Canadian federal government agency responsible for the incarceration ...
under the following via the ''Corrections and Conditional Release Act'': Also, provincial legislatures can designate a class of officers (i.e. Conservation Officers, Park Rangers and Commercial Vehicle Safety and Enforcement) to be peace officers.


Sri Lanka

Under the ''Code Of Criminal Procedure'' a peace officer includes all
police officer A police officer, also known as a policeman or policewoman, is a warranted law employee of a police force The police are a constituted body of persons empowered by a state, with the aim to enforce the law, to ensure the safety, ...
s, a Divisional Assistant Government Agent and a Grama Niladharis appointed by a Government Agent (GA) in writing to perform police duties or keep the peace. A peace officer has the power to arrest a person without a warrant or an order from a
magistrate The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law. In ancient Rome In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– ...
under certain circumstances such as; # who in his presence commits any breach of the peace, # who has been concerned in any cognizable offense or against whom a reasonable complaint has been made or credible information has been received or a reasonable suspicion exists of his having been so concerned, # having in his possession without lawful excuse any implement of house-breaking, # who has been proclaimed as an offender, # in whose possession anything is found which may reasonably be suspected to be property stolen or fraudulently obtained and who may reasonably be suspected of having committed an offense concerning such thing # who obstructs a peace officer while in the execution of his duty or who has escaped or attempts to escape from lawful custody, # suspected of being a military deserter, # suspected of concealing his presence under circumstances which afford reason to believe that he is taking such precautions intending to commit a cognizable offense, # who has been concerned in or against whom a reasonable complaint has been made or credible information has been received or a reasonable suspicion exists of his having been concerned in any act committed at any place out of Sri Lanka During the British colonial administration of Ceylon, when uniformed policing by the Ceylon Police Force in rural areas of the island was limited, the local government agent would appoint individuals from wealthy influential families deemed loyal to the crown as a Peace Officers with police powers to keep the peace. This was an influential post, the holder had much control over the people of the area. Commonly a Native Headman (Ralahami) was appointed as the Peace Officer to maintain law and order in rural villages. Following the formation of the
State Council of Ceylon The State Council of Ceylon was the unicameral In government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative definition, gove ...
in 1931, one of its members, H. W. Amarasuriya, called for an inquiry into the headman system. A commission was formed made up of retired civil servants and lawyers headed by H.M. Wedderburn. The commission reported on reforming the headman system or replacing it with transferable District Revenue Officers. The headman system was abolished as an administrative system, with the titles of
MudaliyarMudaliar (alternatively spelled: Mudhaliar, Muthaliar, or Moodley) is a Tamil people, Tamil surname. The surname is most prevalent among Tamils from Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka. The title was primarily used by the communities like the Agamudaiyar, Agam ...
(Mudali - මුදලි) and
Muhandiram Muhandiram ( si, මුහන්දිරම්, ta, முகாந்திரம்) was a post in the native headmen system in the lower-country (coastal districts) of Ceylon (Sri Lanka) during the colonial era. It was awarded as a title of ...
retained by the government to be awarded as honors. This practice remained until the suspension of Ceylonese honors in 1956 by S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike. The minor headman positions were retained, surviving well into the 1970s when the post of
Vidane The vidane was an influential post in the native headman system in Ceylon Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකා, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO; ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO), formerly known as Ceylon, ...
was replaced with the transferable post of Grama Niladhari (Village Officer).


United States

United States federal law enforcement officers include the following: #
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) is a federal law enforcement organization within the United States Department of Justice The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a ...
(ATF) special agents #
Bureau of Diplomatic Security :''See also Diplomatic Security Service, U.S. Diplomatic Security Service (DSS)'' The Bureau of Diplomatic Security, more commonly known as Diplomatic Security, or DS, is the security and specialist law enforcement agency, law enforcement arm ...
special agents # Customs and Border Protection (CBP) officers and
United States Border Patrol The United States Border Patrol (USBP) is the United States Customs and Border Protection's (CBP) federal law enforcement arm within the United States Department of Homeland Security The United States Department of Homeland Security (DH ...
agents #
Drug Enforcement Administration The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA; ) is a Federal law enforcement in the United States, United States federal law enforcement agency under the U.S. Department of Justice tasked with combating drug trafficking and distribution within th ...

Drug Enforcement Administration
(DEA) special agents # Federal air marshals #
Federal Bureau of Investigation The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the domestic intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concept Conce ...

Federal Bureau of Investigation
(FBI) special agents # Federal Flight Deck Officers # Dept of Treasury Federal Reserve Police officers #U.S. Dept of Treasury Secret Service special agents and uniformed officers # Dept. of Interior Fish and Wildlife Service Rangers #Dept. of Interior Bureau of Land Management Law Enforcement officers # Dept. of Homeland Security Investigations (HSI) special agents # DHS
Immigration and Customs Enforcement The U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) is a federal law enforcement agency under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. ICE's stated mission is to protect the United States from the cross-border crime and illegal immigration th ...
(ICE) deportation officers # Dept. of Interior National Park Service (
park rangers A ranger, park ranger, park warden, or forest ranger is a person entrusted with protecting and preserving parklands – national, state, provincial, or local parks. Description "Parks" may be broadly defined by some systems in this context, and in ...
and
forest ranger A ranger, park ranger, park warden, or forest ranger is a person entrusted with protecting and preserving park A park is an area of natural, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation Recreation is an activ ...
s) # Dept. of Justice Federal Bureau of Prisons
corrections officer A prison officer or corrections officer is a uniformed official responsible for the custody, supervision, safety, and regulation of prisoners. They are responsible for the care, custody, and control of individuals who have been convicted of a c ...
s # Dept. of Homeland Service Transportation Security Administration US Marshals and Deputy Marshals # U.S. Coast Guard officers, warrant officers, and petty officers #
United States Postal Service The United States Postal Service (USPS; also known as the Post Office, U.S. Mail, or Postal Service) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a te ...
postal inspectors #
Federal Bureau of Prisons The Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) is a United States federal law enforcement agency under the Department of Justice A justice ministry, ministry of justice, or department of justice is a ministry or other government agency A government or ...
officers #
United States Department of Veterans Affairs Police The United States Department of Veterans Affairs Police is the uniformed law enforcement service of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, responsible for the protection of the VA Medical Centers (VAMC) and other facilities such as Outpatient C ...
# United States
military police Military police (MP) are law enforcement agencies connected with, or part of, the military of a state. In different countries it may refer to: * A section of the military responsible for policing the areas of responsibility of the armed forc ...
, including the Military Police Corps,
Air Force Security Forces Regiment (right) together with an American Security Forces Specialist during an anti-terrorist exercise at Büchel Air Base, Germany in 2007. Air force ground forces and special forces are ground forces, and may include special forces, special o ...
, Navy
master-at-arms A Master-at-Arms (US: MA; UK & some Commonwealth: MAA) may be a naval rating, responsible for law enforcement, regulating duties, security, Anti-Terrorism/Force Protection (AT/FP) for/of a country's navy; an Army officer responsible for physical t ...
, Marine Corps Police, provost marshal officers, and United States Department of Defense police


Arizona

Arizona Revised Statutes
defines a peace officer in Title 13, Section 105, as "any person vested by law with a duty to maintain public order and make arrests and includes a constable." Title 1, Section 215(27) enumerates those who are peace officers in the State of Arizona. It includes: #
sheriffs A sheriff is a government official, with varying duties, existing in some countries with historical ties to England where the office originated. There is an analogous although independently developed office in Iceland that is commonly translated ...

sheriffs
of counties #
constables A constable is a person holding a particular office, most commonly in criminal law enforcement. The office of constable can vary significantly in different jurisdictions. A constable is commonly the rank of an officer within the police The p ...

constables
#
marshals Marshal is a term used in several official titles in various branches of society. As marshals became trusted members of the courts of Middle Ages, Medieval Europe, the title grew in reputation. During the last few centuries, it has been used for ...
#
policemen officer in Hamburg en, Hamburgian(s) , timezone1 = Central European Time, CET , utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = Central European Summer Time, CEST , utc_offset1_DST ...

policemen
of cities and towns # commissioned personnel of the department of public safety # personnel who are employed by the state
department of corrections In criminal justice, particularly in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as the northern subcontinent of the Ameri ...
and the department of juvenile corrections and who have received a certificate from the Arizona peace officer standards and training board # peace officers who are appointed by a multi-county water conservation district and who have received a certificate from the Arizona peace officer standards and training board # police officers who are appointed by community college district governing boards and who have received a certificate from the Arizona peace officer standards and training board # police officers who are appointed by the Arizona board of regents and who have received a certificate from the Arizona peace officer standards and training board # police officers who are appointed by the governing body of a public airport according to section 28-8426 and who have received a certificate from the Arizona peace officer standards and training board # peace officers who are appointed by a private post-secondary institution under section 15-1897 and who have received a certificate from the Arizona peace officer standards and training board # special agents from the office of the
attorney general #REDIRECT Attorney general In most common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being stated in written opinio ...
, or of a
county attorney In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Was ...
, and who have received a certificate from the Arizona peace officer standards and training board Arizona Revised Statute
41-1823
states that except for duly elected or appointed sheriffs and constables, and probation officers in the course of their duties, no person may exercise the authority or perform the duties of a peace officer unless he is certified by the Arizona peace officers standards and training board.


California

Sections 830 through 831.7 of the
California Penal CodeImage:Californiapenalcode.jpg, 250px, Volumes of the Thomson West annotated version of the California Penal Code; the other popular annotated version is Deering's, which is published by LexisNexis The Penal Code of California forms the basis for th ...
list persons who are considered peace officers within the State of California. Peace officers include, in addition to many others, # Police; sheriffs, undersheriffs, and their deputies. (§ 830.1 # Investigators of the
California Department of Consumer Affairs The California Department of Consumer Affairs (DCA) is a department within the California Business, Consumer Services, and Housing Agency. DCA's stated mission is to serve the interests of California's consumers by ensuring a standard of professi ...

California Department of Consumer Affairs
. (§ 830.3 # Inspectors or investigators employed in the office of a district attorney. (§ 830.1 # The
California Attorney General The Attorney General of California is the state attorney general The state attorney general in each of the 50 U.S. states, of the District of Columbia, federal district, or of any of the Territories of the United States, territories is the chie ...
and special agents and investigators of the
California Department of Justice The California Department of Justice (CA DOJ or CAL DOJ) is a statewide investigative law enforcement agency and legal department of the California executive branch under the elected leadership of the California Attorney General The Attorney ...
. (§ 830.1 # Members of the
California Highway Patrol The California Highway Patrol (CHP) is a state law enforcement agency of the U.S. state of California. The CHP has patrol jurisdiction over all State highways in California, California highways and are also known as the State police (United Stat ...

California Highway Patrol
. (§ 830.2 # Special agents of the
California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation The California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR) is the agency of the government of California responsible for the operation of the California state prison and parole Parole is the early release of a prisoner who agrees to a ...
. (§ 830.2 # Game wardens of the
California Department of Fish and Wildlife The California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW), formerly known as the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), is a state agency under the California Natural Resources Agency. The Department of Fish and Wildlife manages and protects t ...
(§ 830.2 #
California State Park The California Department of Parks and Recreation, also known as California State Parks, manages the California state parks system. The system administers 280 separate park units on 1.4 million acres (570,000 hectares), with over 280 miles (450 ...
Peace Officers (§ 830.2 # Investigators of the
California Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control The California Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control (ABC) is a government agency of the state of California that regulates the manufacture, distribution, and sale of alcoholic beverages. Background Upon the repeal of prohibition in 1933 and t ...
. (§ 830.2 # Cal Expo Police Officers (§ 830.2 (§ 830.3 # Investigators of the
California Department of Motor Vehicles The California Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) is the state agency that registers motor vehicle Electric bicycles parked in Yangzhou's main street, Wenchang Lu. They are a very common way of transport in this city, in some areas almost out ...
. (§ 830.3 # The
State Fire Marshal State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
and assistant or deputy state fire marshals. (§ 830.3 # Fraud investigators of the California Department of Insurance. (§ 830.3 # Investigators of the Employment Development Department. (§ 830.3 # A person designated by a local agency as a Park Ranger (§ 830.31 # Members of the University of California Police Department, California State University Police Department or of a California Community College Police Department. (§ 830.2 [b]&[c]/ 830.32 # Members of the BART Police, San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District Police Department. (§ 830.33 # Any railroad police officer commissioned by the Governor. (§ 830.33 [e] [1]) # Welfare fraud Investigators of the California Department of Social Services. (§ 830.35 # County coroners and deputy coroners. (§ 830.35 # Firefighter/Security Officers of the California Military Department. (§ PC 830.37) # Hospital Police Officers with the California Health and Human Services Agency, California Department of State Hospitals (used to be California Department of Mental Health) and the California Department of Developmental Services (§ 830.38) # County Probation Officers, County Deputy Probation Officers, Parole officers and Prison officer, correctional officers of the
California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation The California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR) is the agency of the government of California responsible for the operation of the California state prison and parole Parole is the early release of a prisoner who agrees to a ...
. (§ 830.5 [a]& # A security officer for a private university or college deputized or appointed as a reserve deputy sheriff or police officer. (§ 830.75) Most peace officers have jurisdiction throughout the state, but many have limited powers outside their political subdivisions. Some peace officers require special permission to carry firearms. Powers are often limited to the performance of peace officers' primary duties (usually, enforcement of specific laws within their political subdivision); however, most have power of arrest anywhere in the state for any crime, public offense that poses an immediate danger to a person or property. A private person (i.e., ordinary citizen) Citizen's arrest, may arrest another person for an offense committed in the arresting person's presence, or if the other person has committed a felony whether or not in the arresting person's presence (Penal Code § 837), though such an arrest when an offense has not occurred leaves a private person open to criminal prosecution and civil liability for false arrest. A peace officer may: * without an arrest warrant, arrest a person on probable cause that the person has committed an offense in the officer's presence, or if there is probable cause that a felony has been committed and the officer has probable cause to believe the person to be arrested committed the felony. (Penal Code § 836). * Is immune from civil liability for false arrest if, at the time of arrest, the officer had probable cause to believe the arrest was lawful. Persons are required to comply with certain instructions given by a peace officer, and certain acts (e.g., battery) committed against a peace officer carry more severe penalties than the same acts against a private person. It is unlawful to resist, delay, or obstruct a peace officer in the course of the officer's duties (Penal Code § 148[a][1]).


New York State

New York State grants peace officers very specific powers under NYS Criminal Procedure Law, that they may make Warrantless arrest, warrantless arrests, use physical and deadly force, and issue summonses under section 2.20 of that law. There is a full list of peace officers under Section 2.10 of that law. Below are some examples. # That state has law enforcement agencies contained within existing Executive (government), executive branch departments that employ sworn peace officers to investigate and enforce laws specifically related to the department. Most often, these departments employ sworn Investigators (separate from the New York State Police) that have statewide investigative authority under the department's mission. # The New York State Bureau of Narcotic Enforcement (BNE) is a state investigative agency housed under the State Department of Health. Narcotic Investigators with the Bureau of Narcotic Enforcement are sworn peace officers who carry firearms, make arrests, and enforce the New York State Controlled Substances Act, New York State Penal Law, and New York State Public Health Law. # The New York State Department of Taxation and Finance employs sworn peace officers as Excise Tax Investigators and Revenue Crimes Investigators. These State Investigators carry firearms, make arrests, and enforce New York State Penal Law related to tax evasion and other crimes. Excise Tax Investigators may execute Search Warrants. # The New York State Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) New York State DMV Division of Field Investigations, Division of Field Investigation also employ sworn peace officers as State Investigators. All DMV Investigators carry Glock 23 firearms and enforce New York State Penal Law and New York Vehicle and Traffic Law. The DMV Division of Field Investigation investigates auto theft, odometer tampering, fraudulent documents, and identity theft crimes.


Texas

Texas Statutes, Code of Criminal Procedure, Art. 2.12, provides:


See also

*National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial *Peace Officers Memorial Day


References

Notes {{DEFAULTSORT:Law Enforcement Officer Law enforcement in the United States Law enforcement in Canada Legal professions Law enforcement, * Law enforcement occupations