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Industrial archaeology (IA) is the systematic study of material evidence associated with the
industrial Industrial may also refer to: Industry * Industrial archaeology, the study of the history of the industry * Industrial engineering, engineering dealing with the optimization of complex industrial processes or systems * Industrial loan company, a f ...
past. This evidence, collectively referred to as
industrial heritage Reconstructed historical factory in Žilina (Slovakia) for production of safety matches. Originally built in 1915 for the business firm ''Wittenberg and son''.">Slovakia.html" ;"title="Žilina (Slovakia">Žilina (Slovakia) for production of saf ...
, includes buildings, machinery, artifacts, sites, infrastructure, documents and other items associated with the production, manufacture, extraction, transport or construction of a product or range of products. The field of industrial archaeology incorporates a range of disciplines including
archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis Analysis is the process of breaking a complexity, complex topic or Substance theory, substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better underst ...
,
architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Architecture (Latin ''archi ...

architecture
,
construction Construction is a general term meaning the and to form , , or ,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ''Oxford English Dictionary'' Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) Oxford University Press 2009 and comes from ''constructio'' (from ''com-' ...

construction
,
engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more speciali ...

engineering
, historic preservation,
museology Museology or museum studies is the study of museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is a building or institution that Preservation (library and archival science), cares for and displays a collection (artwork), collection of ...
,
technology Technology ("science of craft", from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. I ...

technology
,
urban planning Urban planning, also known as regional planning, town planning, city planning, or rural planning, is a technical and political process that is focused on the development and design A design is a plan or specification for the construction o ...
and other specialties, in order to piece together the history of past industrial activities. The scientific interpretation of material evidence is often necessary, as the written record of many industrial techniques is often incomplete or nonexistent. Industrial archaeology includes both the examination of standing structures and sites that must be studied by an excavation. The field of industrial archaeology developed during the 1950s in
Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , it is the largest of the British Isles, the List of European islands by area, largest European island, and the List of i ...

Great Britain
, at a time when many historic industrial sites and artifacts were being lost throughout that country, including the notable case of
Euston Arch The Euston Arch, built in 1837 (and demolished in 1962), was the original entrance to Euston station, facing onto Drummond Street, London. The Arch was demolished when the station was rebuilt in the 1960s, but much of the original stone was later ...

Euston Arch
in
London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary down to the North Sea, and has b ...

London
. In the 1960s and 1970s, with the rise of national
cultural heritage Cultural heritage is the legacy of tangible and intangible heritage assetA heritage asset is an item that has value because of its contribution to a nation’s society, knowledge and/or culture. They are usually physical assets, but some countries ...
movements, industrial archaeology grew as a distinct form of archaeology, with a strong emphasis on preservation, first in Great Britain, and later in the United States and other parts of the world. During this period, the first organized national industrial heritage inventories were begun, including the Industrial Monuments Survey in England and the
Historic American Engineering Record Heritage Documentation Programs (HDP) is a division of the U.S. National Park Service (NPS) responsible for administering the Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS), Historic American Engineering Record (HAER), and Historic American Landscape ...
in the United States. Additionally, a number of regional and national IA organizations were established, including the North American-based
Society for Industrial Archeology The Society for Industrial Archeology (SIA) is a North American nonprofit organization dedicated to studying and preserving historic industrial sites, structures and equipment. It was founded in 1971 in Washington, D.C., and its members are primaril ...
in 1971, and the British-based
Association for Industrial Archaeology The Association for Industrial Archaeology (AIA) was established in 1973 to promote the study of industrial archaeology and to encourage improved standards of recording, research, conservation and publication. It aims to support individuals and gr ...
in 1973. That same year, the ''First International Conference on the Conservation of Industrial Monuments'' was held at
Ironbridge Ironbridge is a large village in the borough of in Shropshire, England. Located on the bank of the , at the heart of the , it lies in the of The Gorge. Ironbridge developed beside, and takes its name from, , a bridge that was built in 1779 ...

Ironbridge
in
Shropshire Shropshire (; alternatively Salop; abbreviated in print only as Shrops; demonym Salopian ) is a landlocked historic Counties of England, county in the West Midlands (region), West Midlands region of England. It is bordered by Wales to the we ...

Shropshire
. This conference led, in 1978, to the formal establishment of
The International Committee for the Conservation of the Industrial Heritage The International Committee for the Conservation of the Industrial Heritage, usually known by its acronym TICCIH, is the international society dedicated to the study of industrial archaeology and the protection, promotion and interpretation of the i ...
(commonly known as "TICCIH") as a worldwide organization for the promotion of industrial heritage. The members of these and other IA groups are generally a diverse mix of professionals and amateurs who share a common interest in promoting the study, appreciation and preservation of
industrial heritage Reconstructed historical factory in Žilina (Slovakia) for production of safety matches. Originally built in 1915 for the business firm ''Wittenberg and son''.">Slovakia.html" ;"title="Žilina (Slovakia">Žilina (Slovakia) for production of saf ...
resources.


Industrial archaeology topics and sites

Industrial archaeology covers a wide range of topics, from early
ironworks An ironworks or iron works is an industrial plant where iron is smelted and where heavy iron and steel products are made. The term is both singular and plural, i.e. the singular of ''ironworks'' is ''ironworks''. Ironworks succeed Bloomery, bl ...
and water-powered mills to large modern factories, as well as ancillary sites and structures such as worker housing, warehouses and infrastructure.
IA topics generally fall into one of four categories: *Extractive (also known as "basic materials", which includes mining, quarrying, petroleum, lumbering, etc.), *Manufacturing (mills and factories, including their power systems and machinery), *Public utilities (water, sewer, electric, gas, etc.), and *Transport (canals, railways, roads, aviation, bridges, tunnels, etc.). Additionally, the topic of power generation (water, wind, steam, electric, etc.), while applicable to each of the four major IA categories, is sometimes considered its own category. The work of industrial archaeologists has led to greater public awareness of
industrial heritage Reconstructed historical factory in Žilina (Slovakia) for production of safety matches. Originally built in 1915 for the business firm ''Wittenberg and son''.">Slovakia.html" ;"title="Žilina (Slovakia">Žilina (Slovakia) for production of saf ...
, including the creation of industry museums and the inclusion of sites on national and international historic cultural registers in many parts of the world. Notable examples include the
Ironbridge Gorge Museums The Ironbridge Gorge Museum Trust is an industrial heritage Reconstructed historical factory in Žilina (Slovakia) for production of safety matches. Originally built in 1915 for the business firm ''Wittenberg and son''.">Slovakia.html" ;"t ...
,
Engelsberg Ironworks Engelsberg Ironworks ( sv, Engelsbergs bruk) is an ironworks in ''Ängelsberg'', a village in Fagersta Municipality in Västmanland, Sweden. It was built in 1681 by Per Larsson Gyllenhöök (1645-1706) and developed into one of the world's most mode ...
and
Lowell National Historical Park Lowell National Historical Park is a National Historical Park of the United States located in Lowell, Massachusetts Lowell () is a city in the U.S. Commonwealth of Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachus ...
, among many others.


History of industrial archaeology


Early developments

One of the earliest forerunners of the mid-20th-century IA-movement was the Sheffield Trades Technical Societies, established in 1918 at the
University of Sheffield , mottoeng = To discover the causes of things , established = – University of SheffieldPredecessor institutions: – Sheffield Medical School , mottoeng = Art is long, life is short , established = 1828 – Sheffield School ...
to preserve elements of that city's industrial history. In 1920, the
Newcomen Society The Newcomen Society is an international learned society that promotes and celebrates the history of engineering and technology. It was founded in London in 1920 and takes its name from Thomas Newcomen, one of the inventors associated with the ...
was founded in Great Britain to foster the study of the history of engineering and technology, including many relics of the
industrial revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
, such as steam engines, canals, iron bridges, machinery, and other historical artifacts. The Newcomen Society also established the ''Journal of Industrial Archaeology'' in 1964, first national IA-publication in the UK. Another early development was the formation of the Cornish Engines Preservation Committee (CEPC) in 1935, to rescue the Levant Mine and Beam Engine in
Cornwall Cornwall (; kw, Kernow ) is a historic county and ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are ar ...

Cornwall
. During the early 20th century, the historic preservation movement in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
was still in its infancy. Most of the historic sites that received any attention were related to presidents and political figures, or the early
colonial periodColonial period (a period in a country's history where it was subject to management by a Colonialism, colonial power) may refer to: * Spanish conquest of Guatemala * Viceroyalty of Peru * Colonial history of the United States * British Raj, British ...
. However, in 1925, one of the first industrial museums in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
opened at Old Slater Mill, in
Pawtucket, Rhode Island Pawtucket is a city in Providence County Providence County is the List of counties in Rhode Island, most populous county in the U.S. state of Rhode Island. As of the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census, the county's population was 626,667, ...
, at the site of the first successful
textile mill Textile manufacturing is a major industry Industry may refer to: Economics * Industry (economics) In macroeconomics, an industry is a branch of an economy that produces a closely related set of raw materials, goods, or services. For ...
in the country, built in 1793. The museum was founded by a group of business leaders with ties to the
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography ...

New England
textile industry, during a period of decline due to Southern competition. The Old Slater Mill Association had the foresight to restore the old mill to its early 19th-century appearance, and fill it with a representative collection of textile machinery. In 1966, Old Slater Mill was declared a
National Historic Landmark A National Historic Landmark (NHL) is a building, district, object, site, or structure that is officially recognized by the United States government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government or U.S. governme ...
. In the early 1970s, Paul E. Rivard, then the director of the Old Slater Mill museum was one of the key figures in the founding of the
Society for Industrial Archeology The Society for Industrial Archeology (SIA) is a North American nonprofit organization dedicated to studying and preserving historic industrial sites, structures and equipment. It was founded in 1971 in Washington, D.C., and its members are primaril ...
. Another notable example of an early industrial archaeology site (one that predates the widespread IA-movement), is the
Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site is a National Historic Site about 10 miles (16 kilometers) northeast of Downtown Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachuse ...
in
Saugus, Massachusetts Saugus is a town A town is a . Towns are generally larger than s and smaller than , though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and use The word "town" shares an origin with the ...
. It is the site of the first integrated iron works in North America, and was reconstructed in the 1950s after extensive archaeological excavations that began in the late 1940s by Roland W. Robbins.


Beginnings of the IA movement

The term “industrial archaeology” was popularised in Great Britain in 1955 by Michael Rix of
Birmingham University , mottoeng = Through efforts to heights , established = 1825 – Birmingham School of Medicine and Surgery1836 – Birmingham Royal School of Medicine and Surgery1843 – Queen's College1875 – Mason Science College Mason Science Colleg ...
, who wrote an article in ''The Amateur Historian'', about the need for greater study and preservation of 18th and 19th century industrial sites and relics of the British
industrial revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
. In 1959,
Council for British Archaeology The Council for British Archaeology (CBA) is an educational charity established in 1944 in the UK. It works to involve people in archaeology and to promote the appreciation and care of the historic environment for the benefit of present and futu ...
(CBA) established an industrial archaeology research committee. The CBA soon developed a standardized record card for industrial monuments, which it distributed to volunteer groups around the UK. In 1965, the National Record of Industrial Monuments (NRIM) was created as a central archive for the record cards that had been collected by Angus Buchanan at the
University of Bath A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various Discipline (academia), academic d ...

University of Bath
. By the late 1960s, a number of local industrial archaeology groups had been formed in the UK, including the Gloucestershire Society for Industrial Archaeology in 1963, the Bristol Industrial Archaeological Society in 1967, and the
Greater London Industrial Archaeology Society The Greater London Industrial Archaeology Society (GLIAS) is the industrial archaeology society for the Greater London area. Origins and Responsibilities Founded in 1968http://www.glias.org.uk/index.htm by individuals who had been involved in th ...
in 1968, among others. The primary mission of these local IA groups during this period was recording the remaining relics of industrial history, especially those deemed to be most at risk from urban redevelopment schemes. Depending on the condition of the site or artifact, recording typically consists of compiling a brief summary of the site's history through available records, including old maps or photographs, followed by detailed onsite measurements, drawings and photographs of the existing conditions of the site. Generally, a report is prepared and copies are filed in a public archive for the benefit of future generations. Most recording trips are intended to obtain a general overview of existing conditions, and are not meant to be an exhaustive study. One of the first areas to be the subject of a systematic study of industrial archaeology was the
Ironbridge Gorge The Ironbridge Gorge is a deep gorge A canyon (; archaic British English spelling: ''cañon'') or gorge is a deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from weathering and the erosion, erosive activity of a river over Geologic time ...
in
Shropshire Shropshire (; alternatively Salop; abbreviated in print only as Shrops; demonym Salopian ) is a landlocked historic Counties of England, county in the West Midlands (region), West Midlands region of England. It is bordered by Wales to the we ...

Shropshire
,
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
. This landscape developed from the 17th century as one of the first industrial landscapes in the world, and by the 18th century had a range of extractive industries as well as extensive
iron Iron () is a chemical element In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behav ...

iron
making,
ceramic A ceramic is any of the various hard, brittle, heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant Corrosion is a Erosion, natural process that converts a refined metal into a more chemically stable form such as oxide, hydroxide, carbonate or sulfide. ...

ceramic
manufacturing, and a series of early railways. The Ironbridge Gorge Museum Trust was established in 1967, and the significance of the
Ironbridge Gorge The Ironbridge Gorge is a deep gorge A canyon (; archaic British English spelling: ''cañon'') or gorge is a deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from weathering and the erosion, erosive activity of a river over Geologic time ...
was recognized in 1986 with its designation as a
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
. In 1963, British journalist Kenneth Hudson published the first IA text, titled ''Industrial archaeology: an introduction''. Four years later in April 1967, Hudson spoke at a seminar at the
Smithsonian Institution The Smithsonian Institution ( ), or simply, the Smithsonian, is a group of museums and education and research centers, the largest such complex in the world, created by the U.S. government "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge". Founded ...

Smithsonian Institution
in
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscaped ...
, at what is considered the birth of the IA-movement in the United States. The seminar, which was attended by an audience of historic preservationists, museum professionals and others, focused on what was being done to promote the study of industrial archaeology in Great Britain and in Europe, and what needed to be done in the United States. By this time, a number of select historic industrial sites had been recorded by the
Historic American Buildings Survey Heritage Documentation Programs (HDP) is a division of the U.S. National Park Service The National Park Service (NPS) is an agency Agency may refer to: * a governmental or other institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntingto ...
(HABS), which until then had mainly concentrated its efforts on architecturally significant sites. In 1967, the notable ''New England Textile Mills Survey'' (NETMS) was performed under the HABS umbrella, led by Robert M. Vogel, curator of the Division of Mechanical and Civil at the Smithsonian Museum of History and Technology. The NETMS was the first large-scale, industrial recording project by HABS. It was followed by the ''New England Textile Mill Survey II'' in 1968. The full reports from the 1967 and 1968 textile mill surveys are now available for public viewing on the Library of Congress website, including the Amoskeag Millyard in
Manchester, New Hampshire Manchester is a city in Hillsborough County in southern New Hampshire New Hampshire ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine and the ...
, which was drastically altered soon after the survey was completed. The success of the 1967 and 1968 mill surveys led to the formation of the
Historic American Engineering Record Heritage Documentation Programs (HDP) is a division of the U.S. National Park Service (NPS) responsible for administering the Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS), Historic American Engineering Record (HAER), and Historic American Landscape ...
(HAER) in 1969, in conjunction with the
American Society of Civil Engineers The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) is a tax-exempt Tax exemption is the reduction or removal of a liability to make a compulsory payment that would otherwise be imposed by a ruling power upon persons, property, income, or transac ...
. Since then, thousands of industrial / engineering sites and structures throughout the United States have been recorded by HAER, and are on record at th
Library of Congress
for public benefit.


1970s-1980s

By the early 1970s, industrial archaeology was, for the most part, being practiced in a few select countries by amateurs and professionals with different backgrounds and objectives. While much had been accomplished during the preceding decade, the "new" field of industrial archaeology was still struggling to gain acceptance as a true scholarly pursuit. In October 1971, a group of representatives from various museums, universities, and government organizations in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
and
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
met in
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscaped ...
to establish a means to improve the exchange of ideas and information. The result was the first national-level, IA-related
academic society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization An organization, or organisation ( Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is an entity – such as a compan ...
in the world; the
Society for Industrial Archeology The Society for Industrial Archeology (SIA) is a North American nonprofit organization dedicated to studying and preserving historic industrial sites, structures and equipment. It was founded in 1971 in Washington, D.C., and its members are primaril ...
(SIA). It was decided that the name of the Society would take on the US-Government's spelling of ''"archeology"'', instead of "archaeology". The first SIA newsletter was published in January 1972, with Robert M. Vogel as editor. In April of that same year the new group held its first annual conference in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
. In 1975, the SIA introduced its
academic journal An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial Serial may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media The presentation of w ...
,
IA, The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology ''IA: The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology'' is a biannual peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of se ...
, with Emory Kemp as editor. In 1973, the
Association for Industrial Archaeology The Association for Industrial Archaeology (AIA) was established in 1973 to promote the study of industrial archaeology and to encourage improved standards of recording, research, conservation and publication. It aims to support individuals and gr ...
(AIA) was founded in Great Britain. It brought together the numerous local IA-groups that had been formed throughout the country. The AIA publishes a newsletter, ''Industrial Archaeology News'', along with its academic journal, ''Industrial Archaeology Review'', introduced in 1976. Many AIA members have been active in promoting the mission of IA throughout Europe and the rest of the world. With the rapid decline of many established industries in North America and Europe during the 1970s, industrial archaeologists began to take on a new role of recording and preserving recently closed sites, as opposed to antique relics from earlier periods. Among the notable projects during this decade was the successful transformation of
Sloss Furnaces Sloss Furnaces is a National Historic Landmark A National Historic Landmark (NHL) is a National Register of Historic Places property types, building, district, object, site, or structure that is officially recognized by the Federal government of ...

Sloss Furnaces
in
Birmingham, Alabama Birmingham ( ) is a city in the north central region of the U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory wher ...
after it shut down in 1971 into an open air industrial museum. Sloss Furnaces was declared a NHL in 1981. The museum opened in 1983 and offers a variety of educational and civic programs. In 1982, I.A.Recordings was founded by a small group of volunteers in the UK, to record past and present industries on film and video, as a resource for future generations. During the 1980s, the scope of the field of industrial archaeology in Great Britain shifted away from what was taken place in North America, where the theories of social archaeology that were developed in the
historical archaeology Historical archaeology is a form of archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis Analysis is the process of breaking a complexity, complex topic or Substance theory, substance int ...
field began to be applied to the study of industrial sites. British industrial archaeologists meanwhile mainly focused on the recording of the technical aspects of sites and artifacts. One key development during this period was the shift toward thematic studies of monuments by type, including three initial textile mill surveys in
Greater Manchester Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county The metropolitan counties are a type of county-level administrative division Administrative division, administrative unit,Article 3(1). country subdivision, administrative region, subnational ...

Greater Manchester
,
Yorkshire Yorkshire (; abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England Northern England, also known as the North of England or simply the North, is the most northern area of England England ...

Yorkshire
and eastern
Cheshire Cheshire ( ;), archaically the County Palatine of Chester, is a historic and ceremonial county in northwest England North West England is one of nine official regions of England The regions, formerly known as the government office re ...

Cheshire
led by Keith Falconer.


Since 1990

Since 1990, there has been an ever-increasing awareness of the importance of industrial heritage, confirmed most prominently by the addition of numerous industrial sites to the
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
World Heritage List A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
. Many preserved industrial sites have become a vital part of
heritage tourism Cultural heritage tourism (or just heritage tourism) is a branch of tourism at the archaeological site An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites) in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either prehistoric ...
, including the
European Route of Industrial Heritage The European Route of Industrial Heritage (ERIH) is a tourist route of the most important industrial heritage sites in Europe. This is a tourism industry information initiative to present a network of industrial heritage sites across Europe. The ...
(ERIH), established in 1999. Based on the success of the ''Route der Industriekultur'' in
Ruhr The Ruhr ( ; german: Ruhrgebiet ), also referred to as Ruhr area, Ruhr district, Ruhr region, or Ruhr valley, is a polycentric Polycentric is an English adjective, meaning "having more than one center," derived from the Greek words ''polús'' ( ...

Ruhr
,
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
, the ERIH has expanded to consist of sixteen routes in seven countries, with plans for new routes in additional countries. The number of industrial sites that have been preserved and converted to other uses such as apartments, public spaces or museums instead of being demolished is also a testament to the efforts of industrial archaeologists. Industrial archaeology has gradually gained acceptance in the academic arena. In the UK, where the field developed largely from the efforts of volunteer researchers, the emergence of developer-funded projects in the past two decades has led to an increased presence of professional practitioners, with the application of theoretical archaeology methods such as
landscape archaeology Landscape archaeology, a sub-discipline of archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthropology, ...
to the industrial setting. However, while many university
archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis Analysis is the process of breaking a complexity, complex topic or Substance theory, substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better underst ...
departments now include the industrial period in their degree courses, industrial archaeology remains a fairly limited field of study, with few dedicated industrial archaeology programs, such as those offered at
Michigan Technological University Michigan Technological University (Michigan Tech, MTU, or simply Tech) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such ...

Michigan Technological University
and the
Ironbridge Institute The Ironbridge Institute is a centre offering postgraduate and professional development courses in cultural heritage, located in the Ironbridge Gorge region of Shropshire, England. The institute is located in Coalbrookdale, just outside Ironbridge ...
. Widespread appreciation of the importance of industrial heritage by the general public is still lacking in many areas, as the subject often maintains the perception of being "not old enough" to truly be considered
archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis Analysis is the process of breaking a complexity, complex topic or Substance theory, substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better underst ...
. Additionally, there are often negative associations with neglected or abandoned industrial sites, including the social, economic and environmental consequences ("
brownfield In urban planning, brownfield land is any previously developed land that is not currently in use that may be potentially contaminated. The term is also used to describe real property, land previously used for industrial or commercial purposes wi ...
" sites). As with other history-based fields, one of the continuing challenges of industrial archaeologists throughout the world is the competition for ever-decreasing public funding for their research, educational and preservation projects. The sheer number of historic industrial sites and limited funding often means that many are still being lost to neglect, fire and demolition. In 2003, the ''Nizhny Tagil Charter'' was adopted by TICCIH at its XII Congress in Nizhny Tagil, Russia. It is the international standard for the study, documentation, conservation and interpretation of the
industrial heritage Reconstructed historical factory in Žilina (Slovakia) for production of safety matches. Originally built in 1915 for the business firm ''Wittenberg and son''.">Slovakia.html" ;"title="Žilina (Slovakia">Žilina (Slovakia) for production of saf ...
.


IA organizations

There are national industrial archaeology societies in many countries. They bring together people interested in researching, recording, preserving and presenting industrial heritage. Industrial architecture, mineral extraction, heritage-based tourism, power technology,
adaptive reuse Adaptive reuse refers to the process of reusing Reuse is the action or practice of using an item, whether for its original purpose (conventional reuse) or to fulfil a different function (creative reuse or repurposing). It should be distinguished f ...
, and transport history are just some of the themes that are investigated by society members. Most groups publish periodic newsletters and host a variety of conferences, seminars and tours of IA-sites and still-active industries (known as process tours). IA organizations may also be involved in advising on historic conservation matters, or advising government units on revision or demolition of significant sites or buildings.


See also

*
Arthur Raistrick Arthur Raistrick (16 August 1896 – 9 April 1991) was a British geologist, archaeology, archaeologist, academic, and writer. He was born in a working class home in Saltaire, Yorkshire. He was a scholar in many related, and some unrelated, fields. ...
*
Aviation archaeology Aviation archaeology is a recognized sub-discipline within archaeology and underwater archaeology as a whole. It is an activity practiced by both enthusiasts and academics in pursuit of finding, documenting, recovering, and preserving sites importan ...
* I.A.Recordings *
Industrial archaeology of Dartmoor The industrial archaeology of Dartmoor covers a number of the industries which have, over the ages, taken place on Dartmoor, and the remaining evidence surrounding them. Currently only three industries are economically significant, yet all three wil ...
*
Industrial heritage Reconstructed historical factory in Žilina (Slovakia) for production of safety matches. Originally built in 1915 for the business firm ''Wittenberg and son''.">Slovakia.html" ;"title="Žilina (Slovakia">Žilina (Slovakia) for production of saf ...
*
List of tunnels in the United Kingdom This is a list of road A road is a wide way leading from one place to another, typically one with a specially prepared surface which vehicles and bikes can use. Roads consist of one or two roadways (British English: carriageways), each wi ...
* Ken Major *
Major Mining Sites of Wallonia The Major Mining Sites of Wallonia is a UNESCO World Heritage Site comprising four sites in Wallonia in southern Belgium associated with the Belgian coal mining industry of the 19th and 20th centuries. The four sites of the grouping, situated in the ...
* Mill conversion *
Quarry Bank Mill Quarry Bank Mill (also known as Styal Mill) in Styal Styal (, like ''style'') is a village and civil parish on the River Bollin near Wilmslow, Cheshire, England. Styal is a commuter village, with access to Manchester in an area once known as ...

Quarry Bank Mill
* Railway archaeology *
Rex Wailes Reginald "Rex" Wailes OBE The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry An order of chivalry, order of knighthood, chivalric order, or equestrian order is an order of knights typically founded during or in ...


References


Further reading

*Birmingham, J., Jack, R.I. and Jeans, D. (1979) ''Australian pioneer technology: sites and relics'', Richmond, Vic.: Heinemann Educational Australia, *Birmingham, J., Jack, R.I. and Jeans, D. (1983) ''Industrial Archaeology in Australia: rural industry'', Richmond, Vic. : Heinemann Publishers Australia, *Buchanan, R.A. (1972) ''Industrial Archaeology in Britain'', Harmondsworth : Penguin, *Cossons, N. (ed.) (2000) ''Perspectives on Industrial Archaeology'', London : Science Museum, *Daunton, M.J. (1995) ''Progress and Poverty: an economic and social history of Britain, 1700–1850'', Oxford University Press, *Deetz, J. (1977) ''In Small Things Forgotten'', Garden City, N.Y. : Anchor Press/Doubleday, *Douet, J. (ed.). (2012) ''Industrial Heritage Re-tooled: The TICCIH guide to Industrial Heritage Conservation'', Lancaster: Carnegie, *Gordon, R.B. and Malone, P.M. (1994), ''The texture of industry : an archaeological view of the industrialization of North America'', Oxford University Press, *Hamond, F. and McMahon, M. (2002) ''Recording and Conserving Ireland's Industrial Heritage'', Kilkenny : Heritage Council, * Hills, R. L. (1989) ''Power from Steam: a history of the stationary steam engine'', Cambridge University Press, *Hudson, K. (1966) ''Industrial Archaeology: an Introduction'', 2nd rev. ed., London : John Baker, 184 p. *Hudson, K. (1969) ''World Industrial Archaeology'', Cambridge University Press, *Itzen, P. and Müller, Chr. (ed.) (2013), ''The Invention of Industrial Pasts: Heritage, political culture and economic debates in Great Britain and Germany, 1850-2010'', Augsburg: Wissner; pp. 184 *Jack, R.I. and Cremin, A. (1994) ''Australia's Age of Iron'', South Melbourne : Oxford University Press in association with Sydney University Press, *
844 __NOTOC__ Year 844 (Roman numerals, DCCCXLIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. Events By place Byzantine Empire * Spring – Battle of Mauropotamos: A Byzantine Emp ...
1971) ''Industrial Resources of Ireland'', The Development of industrial society series, Shannon, Ireland : Irish University Press, *McCutcheon, W.A. (1984) ''The Industrial Archaeology of Northern Ireland'', Rutherford, N.J. : Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, *Newman, R. and Howard-Davis, C. (2001) ''The Historical Archaeology of Britain : c.1540-1900'', Stroud : Sutton, *Orser, C.E., Jr (1996) ''Images of the Recent Past: readings in historical archaeology '', Walnut Creek ; London : Alta Mira Press, * Palmer, M. and Neverson, P. (1998) ''Industrial Archaeology : principles and practice'
[electronic_resource]
_London;_New_York_:_Routledge,_ *Thomas,_J._(ed.)_(2000)_''Interpretive_Archaeology_:_a_reader'',_London_:_Leicester_University_Press,_ *Watkins,_G._(1999)_''The_Textile_Mill_Engine:_parts_1_&_2'',_Ashbourne_:_Landmark,_


_External_links


__General_


European_Route_of_Industrial_Heritage

Ironbridge_Gorge_Museum
at_Smithsonian_Institution_ The_Smithsonian_Institution_(_),_or_simply,_the_Smithsonian,_is_a_group_of_museums_and_education_and_research_centers,_the_largest_such_complex_in_the_world,_created_by_the_U.S._government_"for_the_increase_and_diffusion_of_knowledge"._Founded__...


Steel_City:_an_Archaeology_of_Sheffield's_Industrial_PastItalian_Network_of_Industrial_Turism


__Local_IA_organisations_

''Great_Britain''
Berkshire_Industrial_Archaeology_Group_Bristol_Industrial_Archaeological_SocietyGloucestershire_Society_for_Industrial_ArchaeologyGreater_London_Industrial_Archaeology_SocietyIronbridge_Archaeology_unit_Norfolk_Industrial_Archaeology_SocietyNorth_East_Derbyshire_Industrial_Archaeology_SocietyNorthamptonshire_Industrial_Archaeology_GroupScottish_Industrial_Heritage_SocietySomerset_Industrial_Archaeological_SocietyStaffordshire_(uk)_Industrial_Archaeology_SocietySussex_Industrial_Archaeology_SocietyWarwickshire_Industrial_Archaeology_SocietyYorkshire_Archaeological_Society_-_Industrial_History_Section
''United_States'' The_Society_for_Industrial_Archeology_has_the_followin



(Montana)
New_England_ChaptersNorthern_Ohio_Chapter
(Northern_Ohio_and_Western_Pennsylvania)

(Philadelphia_metropolitan_area)_
Roebling_Chapter
(New_York_metropolitan_area_and_New_Jersey)
Samuel_Knight_Chapter
(Northern_California)


__Reference_materials_



a_web-based_resource_site


__Degree_Programs_



at_Michigan_Technological_University Michigan_Technological_University_(Michigan_Tech,_MTU,_or_simply_Tech)_is_a_public In__public_relations_and__communication_science,_publics_are_groups_of_individual_people,_and_the_public_(a.k.a._the_general_public)_is_the_totality_of_such__...


Master_of_Arts_degree
at_ [electronic_resource]
_London;_New_York_:_Routledge,_ *Thomas,_J._(ed.)_(2000)_''Interpretive_Archaeology_:_a_reader'',_London_:_Leicester_University_Press,_ *Watkins,_G._(1999)_''The_Textile_Mill_Engine:_parts_1_&_2'',_Ashbourne_:_Landmark,_


_External_links


__General_


European_Route_of_Industrial_Heritage

Ironbridge_Gorge_Museum
at_Smithsonian_Institution_ The_Smithsonian_Institution_(_),_or_simply,_the_Smithsonian,_is_a_group_of_museums_and_education_and_research_centers,_the_largest_such_complex_in_the_world,_created_by_the_U.S._government_"for_the_increase_and_diffusion_of_knowledge"._Founded__...


Steel_City:_an_Archaeology_of_Sheffield's_Industrial_PastItalian_Network_of_Industrial_Turism


__Local_IA_organisations_

''Great_Britain''
Berkshire_Industrial_Archaeology_Group_Bristol_Industrial_Archaeological_SocietyGloucestershire_Society_for_Industrial_ArchaeologyGreater_London_Industrial_Archaeology_SocietyIronbridge_Archaeology_unit_Norfolk_Industrial_Archaeology_SocietyNorth_East_Derbyshire_Industrial_Archaeology_SocietyNorthamptonshire_Industrial_Archaeology_GroupScottish_Industrial_Heritage_SocietySomerset_Industrial_Archaeological_SocietyStaffordshire_(uk)_Industrial_Archaeology_SocietySussex_Industrial_Archaeology_SocietyWarwickshire_Industrial_Archaeology_SocietyYorkshire_Archaeological_Society_-_Industrial_History_Section
''United_States'' The_Society_for_Industrial_Archeology_has_the_followin



(Montana)
New_England_ChaptersNorthern_Ohio_Chapter
(Northern_Ohio_and_Western_Pennsylvania)

(Philadelphia_metropolitan_area)_
Roebling_Chapter
(New_York_metropolitan_area_and_New_Jersey)
Samuel_Knight_Chapter
(Northern_California)


__Reference_materials_



a_web-based_resource_site


__Degree_Programs_



at_Michigan_Technological_University Michigan_Technological_University_(Michigan_Tech,_MTU,_or_simply_Tech)_is_a_public In__public_relations_and__communication_science,_publics_are_groups_of_individual_people,_and_the_public_(a.k.a._the_general_public)_is_the_totality_of_such__...


Master_of_Arts_degree
at_University_of_Birmingham">Ironbridge_Institute The_Ironbridge_Institute_is_a_centre_offering_postgraduate_and_professional_development_courses_in_cultural_heritage,_located_in_the_Ironbridge_Gorge_region_of_Shropshire,_England. The_institute_is_located_in_Coalbrookdale,_just_outside_Ironbridge_...
{{DEFAULTSORT:Industrial_Archaeology Industrial_archaeology.html" ;"title="University_of_Birmingham.html" "title="lectronic resource]">[electronic resource]
London; New York : Routledge, *Thomas, J. (ed.) (2000) ''Interpretive Archaeology : a reader'', London : Leicester University Press, *Watkins, G. (1999) ''The Textile Mill Engine: parts 1 & 2'', Ashbourne : Landmark,


External links


General


European Route of Industrial Heritage

Ironbridge Gorge Museum
at
Smithsonian Institution The Smithsonian Institution ( ), or simply, the Smithsonian, is a group of museums and education and research centers, the largest such complex in the world, created by the U.S. government "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge". Founded ...

Smithsonian Institution

Steel City: an Archaeology of Sheffield's Industrial PastItalian Network of Industrial Turism


Local IA organisations

''Great Britain''
Berkshire Industrial Archaeology Group Bristol Industrial Archaeological SocietyGloucestershire Society for Industrial ArchaeologyGreater London Industrial Archaeology SocietyIronbridge Archaeology unit Norfolk Industrial Archaeology SocietyNorth East Derbyshire Industrial Archaeology SocietyNorthamptonshire Industrial Archaeology GroupScottish Industrial Heritage SocietySomerset Industrial Archaeological SocietyStaffordshire (uk) Industrial Archaeology SocietySussex Industrial Archaeology SocietyWarwickshire Industrial Archaeology SocietyYorkshire Archaeological Society - Industrial History Section
''United States'' The Society for Industrial Archeology has the followin



(Montana)
New England ChaptersNorthern Ohio Chapter
(Northern Ohio and Western Pennsylvania)

(Philadelphia metropolitan area)
Roebling Chapter
(New York metropolitan area and New Jersey)
Samuel Knight Chapter
(Northern California)


Reference materials



a web-based resource site


Degree Programs



at
Michigan Technological University Michigan Technological University (Michigan Tech, MTU, or simply Tech) is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such ...

Michigan Technological University

Master of Arts degree
at University of Birmingham">Ironbridge Institute The Ironbridge Institute is a centre offering postgraduate and professional development courses in cultural heritage, located in the Ironbridge Gorge region of Shropshire, England. The institute is located in Coalbrookdale, just outside Ironbridge ...
{{DEFAULTSORT:Industrial Archaeology Industrial archaeology"> Secondary sector of the economy