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Impeachment is the process by which a
legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure i ...
or other legally constituted tribunal initiates charges against a
public official An official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual working space with it) in an organization An organization, or organisation ( Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is an ...

public official
for misconduct. It may be understood as a unique process involving both
political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the Cognition, cognitive process resulting in the selection ...

political
and
legal Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its boundari ...
elements. In Europe and
Latin America Latin America is the portion of the Americas comprising countries and regions where Romance languages—languages that derived from Latin—such as Spanish language in the Americas, Spanish, American Portuguese, Portuguese, and French language, Fr ...

Latin America
impeachment tends to be confined to
ministerial Minister may refer to: * Minister (Christianity), a Christian cleric * Minister (government), a member of government who heads a ministry (government department) ** Minister without portfolio, a member of government with the rank of a normal minist ...
officials as the unique nature of their positions may place ministers beyond the reach of the law to prosecute, or their misconduct is not codified into law as an offense except through the unique expectations of their high office. Both " peers and
commoners '' A commoner, also known as the ''common man'', ''commoners'', the ''common people'' or the ''masses'', is an ordinary person in a community or nation who does not have any significant social status, especially one who is a member of neither Roya ...
" have been subject to the process however. From 1990 to 2020 there have been at least 272 impeachment charges against 132 different
heads of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of statebeing an embodiment of the State itself or representatitve of its international persona." in its unity and leg ...
in 63 countries. Most
democracies Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' and ''kratos'' 'rule') is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polit ...
(with the notable exception of the United States) involve the courts (often a national
constitutional court A constitutional court is a high court High court usually refers to the superior court In common law systems, a superior court is a court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Ad ...

constitutional court
) in some way. In
Latin America Latin America is the portion of the Americas comprising countries and regions where Romance languages—languages that derived from Latin—such as Spanish language in the Americas, Spanish, American Portuguese, Portuguese, and French language, Fr ...

Latin America
, which includes almost 40% of the world's
presidential system A presidential system, or single executive system, is a form of government in which a head of government (President (government title), president) leads an Executive (government), executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch in s ...
s, ten presidents from six countries were removed from office by their national legislatures via impeachments or declarations of incapacity between 1978 and 2019. National legislations differ regarding both the consequences and definition of impeachment, but the intent is nearly always to expeditiously vacate the office. In most nations the process begins in the
lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorporated community in Apache County *Chambers, Nebraska *Chambers, Wes ...
of a bicameral assembly who bring charges of misconduct, then the upper house administers a trial and sentencing. Most commonly, an official is considered impeached after the house votes to accept the charges, and impeachment itself does not remove the official from office. Because impeachment involves a departure from the normal constitutional procedures by which individuals achieve high office (election, ratification, or appointment) and because it generally requires a
supermajority A supermajority, supra-majority, qualified majority, or special majority is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of more than one-half used for a majority A majority, also calle ...
, they are usually reserved for those deemed to have committed serious abuses of their office. In the United States, for example, impeachment at the federal level is limited to those who may have committed " Treason, Bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors"—the latter phrase referring to offenses against the government or the constitution, grave
abuses of power Abuse is the improper usage or treatment of a thing, often to unfairly or improperly gain benefit. Abuse can come in many forms, such as: physical or verbal maltreatment, injury, assault An assault is the act of inflicting physical harm ...
, violations of the
public trust The Public Trust of New Zealand was a government-appointed corporation sole A corporation sole is a Legal person, legal entity consisting of a single ("sole") incorporated office, occupied by a single ("sole") natural person.political crime In criminology, a political crime or political offence is an Crime, offence involving overt acts or Omission (criminal law), omissions (where there is a duty to act), which prejudice the interests of the State (polity), state, its government, or ...
s, even if not
indictable In many common law jurisdiction Jurisdiction (from Latin ''Wikt:ius#Latin, juris'' 'law' + ''Wikt:dictio, dictio'' 'declaration') is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice, as defined by the kind of case, and the ...
criminal offenses. Under the
United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the Supremacy Clause, supreme law of the United States, United States of America. This founding document, originally comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government. Its first ...

United States Constitution
, the
House of Representatives House of Representatives is the name of legislative bodies A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is ...
has the sole power of impeachments while the
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...
has the sole power to try impeachments (''i.e.'', to acquit or convict); the validity of an impeachment trial is a
political question In United States constitutional law United States constitutional law is the body of law governing the interpretation and implementation of the United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the Un ...
that is
nonjusticiable Justiciability concerns the limits upon legal issues over which a court can exercise its judicial authority. It includes, but is not limited to, the legal concept of standing, which is used to determine if the party bringing the suit is a part ...
(''i.e.''., is not reviewable by the courts). In the United States, impeachment is a remedial rather than penal process, intended to "effectively 'maintain constitutional government' by removing individuals unfit for office"; persons subject to impeachment and removal remain "liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law." Impeachment is provided for in the constitutional laws of many countries including Brazil, France, India, Ireland, the Philippines, Russia, South Korea, and the United States. It is distinct from the
motion of no confidence A motion of no confidence, vote of no confidence, or no confidence motion, sometimes in the reverse as a motion of confidence or vote of confidence, is a statement or vote about whether a person in a position of responsibility (government, manage ...
procedure available some countries whereby a motion of censure can be used to remove a government and its ministers from office (such a procedure is not applicable in countries with presidential forms of government like the United States).


Etymology and history

The word "impeachment" likely derives from
Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular o ...
''empeechier'' from
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an appa ...

Latin
word ''impedīre'' expressing the idea of catching or ensnaring by the 'foot' (''pes, pedis''), and has analogues in the modern verb ''empêcher'' (to prevent) and the modern
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
''impede''. Medieval popular etymology also associated it (wrongly) with derivations from the Latin ''impetere'' (to attack). The process was first used by the English "
Good Parliament The Good Parliament is the name traditionally given to the English Parliament The Parliament of England was the legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the st ...
" against
William Latimer, 4th Baron Latimer William Latimer, 4th Baron Latimer, KG (24 March 1330 – 28 May 1381) was an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Eng ...
in the second half of the 14th century. Following the English example, the constitutions of
Virginia Virginia (), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), '' ...

Virginia
(1776),
Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * ...

Massachusetts
(1780) and other states thereafter adopted the impeachment mechanism, but they restricted the punishment to removal of the official from office. In
West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of Africa. The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania ...

West Africa
, Kings of the
Ashanti Empire The Asante Empire (Asante Twi Asante, also known as Ashanti, Ashante, or Asante Twi Twi (), also known as Akan kasa, or Akan-speak, is a dialect of the spoken in southern and central by several million people, mainly of the , the large ...
who violated any of the
oaths Traditionally an oath (from Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British En ...
taken during his or her enstoolment, were destooled by Kingmakers. For instance, if a king punished citizens arbitrarily or was exposed to be corrupt, he would be destooled. Destoolment entailed Kingmakers removing the sandals of the king and bumping his buttocks on the ground three times. Once destooled from office, his sanctity and thus reverence are lost as he cannot exercise any powers he had as king; this includes Chief administrator, Judge, and Military Commander. The now previous king is disposed of the Stool, swords and other
regalia Regalia is a Latin plurale tantum A ''plurale tantum'' (Latin for "plural only"; ) is a noun that appears only in the plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form ...
which symbolize his office and authority. He also loses the position as custodian of the land. However, despite being destooled from office, the king remains a member of the Royal Family from which he was elected.


In various jurisdictions


Brazil

In Brazil, as in most other Latin American countries, "impeachment" refers to the definitive removal from office. The
president of Brazil The president of Brazil ( pt, Presidente do Brasil), officially the president of the Federative Republic of Brazil ( pt, Presidente da República Federativa do Brasil) or simply the ''President of the Republic'', is both the head of state ...
may be provisionally removed from office by the
Chamber of Deputies The chamber of deputies is the lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorporated community in Apach ...
and then tried and definitely removed from office by the Federal Senate. The
Brazilian Constitution The Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil ( pt, Constituição da República Federativa do Brasil) is the Constitution, supreme law of Brazil. It is the foundation and source of the legal authority underlying the existence of Brazil a ...
requires that two-thirds of the Deputies vote in favor of the opening of the impeachment process of the President and that two-thirds of the Senators vote for impeachment. State governors and municipal mayors can also be impeached by the respective legislative bodies. Article 2 of Law nº 1.079, from 10 April 1950, or “The Law of Impeachment,” states that “The crimes defined in this law, even when simply attempted, are subject to the penalty of loss of office, with disqualification for up to five years for the exercise of any public function, to be imposed by the Federal Senate in proceedings against the President of the Republic, Ministers of State, Ministers of the Supreme Federal Tribunal, or the Attorney General.” Initiation: An accusation of a responsibility crime against the President may be brought by any Brazilian citizen however the President of the Chamber of Deputies holds prerogative to accept the charge, which if accepted will be read at the next session and reported to the President of the Republic. Extraordinary Committee: An extraordinary committee is elected with member representation from each political party proportional to that party's membership. The President is then allowed ten parliamentary sessions for defense, which lead to two legislative sessions to form a rapporteur's legal opinion as to if impeachment proceedings will or will not commence in the Senate. The rapporteur's opinion is voted on in the lower house; and on a simple majority it is accepted, failing that, the Committee accepts an opinion produced by the majority. example, if the rapporteur's opinion is that no impeachment is warranted, and the Committee vote fails to accept it, then the Committee adopts the opinion to proceed with impeachment. Likewise, if the rapporteur's opinion is to proceed with impeachment, and the Committee vote fails, then the Committee adopts the opinion not to impeach. If the vote succeeds, then the rapporteur's opinion is so adopted. Chamber of Deputies: The Chamber issues a call-out vote to accept the opinion of the committee, requiring either a supermajority in favor of an impeachment opinion, or a supermajority against a dismissal opinion to authorize the Senate impeachment proceedings. The Senate: The process in the Senate had been historically lacking in procedural guidance until 1992, when the Federal Senate published in the Official Diary of the Union the step-by-step procedure of the Senate's impeachment process, which involves the formation of another special committee and closely resembles the lower house process, with time constraints imposed on the steps taken. The committee's opinion must be presented within 10 days, after which it is put to a call-out vote at the next session. The vote must proceed within a single session; the vote on President Rousseff endured for over 20 hours. A simple majority vote in the Senate begins formal deliberation on the complaint, suspends the President from office, installs the Vice President as acting president, and begins a 20-day period for written defense as well as 180-days for a trial. Failing that, the case is closed Senate plenary deliberation: The committee interrogates the accused or their counsel, from which they have a right to abstain, and also a probative session which guarantees the accused rights to contradiction, or ''audiatur et altera pars,'' allowing access to the courts and due process of law under Article 5 of the constitution. The accused has 15 days to present written arguments in defense and answer to the evidence gathered, and then the committee shall issue an opinion on the merits within ten days. The entire package is published for each senator before a single plenary session issues a call-out vote, which shall proceed to trial on a simple majority and close the case otherwise. Senate trial: A hearing for the complainant and the accused convenes within 48 hours of notification from deliberation, from which a trial is scheduled by the president of the Supreme Court no less than ten days after the hearing. The senators sit as judges as witnesses are interrogated and cross-examined; all questions must be presented to the president of the Supreme Court, who presides over the trial. The president of the Supreme Court allots time for debate and rebuttal, after which time the parties leave the chamber and the senate deliberates on indictment. The President of the Supreme Court reads the summary of the grounds, the charges, the defense and the evidence to the Senate, who each in turn issue their judgement. On indictment by a supermajority, the president of the Supreme Court pronounces the sentence and the accused is immediately notified. This concludes the proceeding if the accused was not already acquitted. Upon conviction, the officeholder has their political rights revoked for eight years—which bars them from running for any office during that time.
Fernando Collor de Mello Fernando Affonso Collor de Mello (; born 12 August 1949) is a Brazilian politician who served as the 32nd president of Brazil from 1990 to 1992, when he resigned in a failed attempt to stop his impeachment trial by the Brazilian Senate. Collor ...
, the 32nd President of Brazil, resigned in 1992 amidst impeachment proceedings. Despite his resignation, the Senate nonetheless voted to convict him and bar him from holding any office for eight years, due to evidence of
bribery Bribery is defined by ''Black's Law Dictionary ''Black's Law Dictionary'' is the most widely used law dictionary Image:Legal Dictionaries.jpg, 300px, Several English and Russian legal dictionaries A law dictionary (also known as legal dictionary) ...

bribery
and misappropriation. In 2016, the
Chamber of Deputies The chamber of deputies is the lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorporated community in Apach ...
initiated an impeachment case against President
Dilma Rousseff Dilma Vana Rousseff (; bg, Дилма Вана Русеф; born 14 December 1947) is a Brazilian economist and politician who served as the 36th president of Brazil President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president ...
on allegations of budgetary mismanagement. On 12 May 2016, after 20 hours of deliberation, the admissibility of the responsibility crime accusation was approved by the Senate with 55 votes in favor and 22 against, and Vice President
Michel Temer Michel Miguel Elias Temer Lulia (; born 23 September 1940) is a Brazilian politician, lawyer and writer who served as the 37th from 31 August 2016 to 31 December 2018. He took office after the and removal from office of his predecessor . He ha ...

Michel Temer
was notified to assume the duties of the President pending trial. On August 31, 61 senators voted in favor of impeachment and 20 voting against it, achieving the 2/3 majority needed for Rousseff's removal.The vote to disqualify her for five years failed having only 42 years.


Croatia

The process of impeaching the
president of Croatia The president of Croatia, officially denoted as the President of the Republic of Croatia ( hr, Predsjednik / Predsjednica Republike Hrvatske), is the head of state, commander-in-chief of the Military of Croatia, military and chief representative ...
can be initiated by a two-thirds majority vote in favor in the
Sabor The Croatian Parliament ( hr, Hrvatski sabor) or the Sabor is the Unicameralism, unicameral legislature of the Republic of Croatia. Under the terms of the Constitution of Croatia, Croatian Constitution, the Sabor represents the nation, people ...

Sabor
and is thereafter referred to the
Constitutional Court A constitutional court is a high court High court usually refers to the superior court In common law systems, a superior court is a court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Ad ...
, which must accept such a proposal with a two-thirds majority vote in favor in order for the president to be removed from office. This has never occurred in the history of the Republic of
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
. In case of a successful impeachment motion a president's constitutional term of five years would be terminated and an election called within 60 days of the vacancy occurring. During the period of vacancy the presidential powers and duties would be carried out by the
speaker of the Croatian Parliament The speaker of the Croatian Parliament ( hr, Predsjednik Hrvatskog sabora, literally the president of the Croatian Parliament) is the presiding officerIn a general sense, presiding officer is synonymous with chairperson. Politics *Presiding Off ...
in his/her capacity as Acting President of the Republic.


Czech Republic

In 2013, the constitution was changed. Since 2013, the process can be started by at least three-fifths of present senators, and must be approved by at least three-fifths of all members of the Chamber of Deputies. Also, the President can be impeached for high treason (newly defined in the
Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
) or any serious infringement of the Constitution. The process starts in the
Senate of the Czech Republic The Senate of the Parliament of the Czech Republic ( cs, Senát Parlamentu České republiky), usually referred to as Senate, is the upper chamber of the Parliament of the Czech Republic. The seat of the Senate is Wallenstein Palace in Prague. ...
which has the right to only impeach the president, and the Senate passes the case to the
Constitutional Court of the Czech Republic The Constitutional Court of the Czech Republic ( cz, Ústavní soud České republiky) is a specialized type of court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate le ...
, which has to decide the verdict against the president. If the Court finds the President guilty, then the President is removed from office and is permanently barred from being elected President of the Czech Republic again. No Czech president has ever been impeached, though members of the Senate sought to impeach President Václav Klaus in 2013. This case was dismissed by the court, which reasoned that his mandate had expired.


Denmark

In Denmark the possibility for current and former ministers being impeached was established with the
Danish Constitution The Constitutional Act of the Realm of Denmark ( da, Danmarks Riges Grundlov), also known as the Constitutional Act of the Kingdom of Denmark, or simply the Constitution ( da, Grundloven, fo, Grundlógin, kl, Tunngaviusumik inatsit), is the con ...
of 1849. Unlike many other countries
Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), hu ...

Denmark
does not have a
Constitutional Court A constitutional court is a high court High court usually refers to the superior court In common law systems, a superior court is a court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Ad ...

Constitutional Court
who would normally handle these types of cases. Instead Denmark has a special Court of Impeachment (In Danish: Rigsretten) which is called upon every time a current and former minister have been impeached. The role of the Impeachment Court is to process and deliver judgments against current and former ministers who are accused of unlawful conduct in office. The legal content of ministerial responsibility is laid down in the Ministerial Accountability Act which has its background in section 13 of the Danish Constitution, according to which the ministers' accountability is determined in more detail by law. In Denmark the normal practice in terms of impeachment cases is that it needs to be brought up in the Danish Parliament (
Folketing The Folketing ( da, Folketinget, ; ), also known as the Parliament of Denmark or the Danish Parliament in English, is the unicameral In , unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or . Thus ...
) first for debate between the different members and parties in the parliament. After the debate the members of the Danish Parliament vote on whether a current or former minister needs to be impeached. If there is a majority in the Danish Parliament for an impeachment case against a current or former minister, an Impeachment Court is called into session. In Denmark the Impeachment Court consists of up to 15 Supreme Court judges and 15 parliament members appointed by the Danish Parliament. The members of the Impeachment Court in Denmark serve a six-year term in this position. In general not many impeachment cases have been raised in Denmark over the years. In fact there have only been raised six Impeachment cases by 2020. The most recent case that ended in a conviction was in 1995 where the former Minister of Justice
Erik Ninn-HansenErik Ninn-Hansen (12 April 1922 – 20 September 2014) was a Denmark, Danish politician. He served in the Cabinet of Hilmar Baunsgaard, first as Defence Minister of Denmark, Defence Minister, and later as Finance Minister of Denmark, Finance Mini ...
from the Conservative People's Party was impeached in connection with the Tamil Case. Erik Ninn-Hansen was found guilty in the case of abusing his power when he against Danish law had tried to stall and stop the advance of family reunifications of Tamil refugees in Denmark. Erik Ninn-Hansen received a suspended sentence of four months imprisonment by the Impeachment Court. In February 2021 the former Minister for Immigration and Integration from the Danish Liberal Party Venstre was impeached when it was discovered that she had possibly against both Danish and International law tried to separate couples in refugee centres in Denmark, as the wives of the couples were under legal age. According to a commission report Inger Støjberg had also lied in the Danish Parliament and failed to report relevant details to the
Parliamentary OmbudsmanParliamentary Ombudsman ( fi, Eduskunnan oikeusasiamies, sv, Riksdagens ombudsman, is, Umboðsmaður Alþingis, da, Folketingets Ombudsmand, no, Sivilombudsmannen) is the name of the principal ombudsman institutions in Finland Finland ( f ...
. This case is still awaiting trial, at the Impeachment Court in the near future.


France

In France the comparable procedure is called ''destitution''. The
president of France The president of France, officially the President of the French Republic (french: Président de la République française), is the head of state of France, as well as the Chief of the Armed Forces (France), commander-in-chief of the French Arm ...
can be impeached by the
French Parliament The French Parliament (french: Parlement français) is the bicameral Bicameralism is a type of legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, ...
for willfully violating the
Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
or the national laws. The process of impeachment is written in the 68th article of the
French Constitution The current Constitution of France was adopted on 4 October 1958. It is typically called the Constitution of the Fifth Republic, and it replaced the Constitution of the Fourth Republic, of 1946. Charles de Gaulle was the main driving force in ...
. A group of senators or a group of members of the
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliam ...
can begin the process. Then, both the National Assembly and the
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...
must acknowledge the impeachment. After the upper and lower houses' agreement, they unite to form the High Court. Finally, the High Court must decide to declare the impeachment of the
president of France The president of France, officially the President of the French Republic (french: Président de la République française), is the head of state of France, as well as the Chief of the Armed Forces (France), commander-in-chief of the French Arm ...
—or not.


Germany

The federal president of Germany can be impeached both by the
Bundestag The Bundestag (, "Federal diet (assembly), Diet") is the Germany, German Federalism, federal parliament. It is the only body that is directly elected by the German people on the federal level. It can be compared to a lower house similar to the ...

Bundestag
and by the Bundesrat for willfully violating federal law. Once the Bundestag or the Bundesrat impeaches the president, the
Federal Constitutional Court The Federal Constitutional Court (german: Bundesverfassungsgericht; abbreviated: ') is the supreme constitutional court for the Federal Republic of Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , ...
decides whether the President is guilty as charged and, if this is the case, whether to remove him or her from office. The Federal Constitutional Court also has the power to remove federal judges from office for willfully violating core principles of the
federal constitution Federal or foederal (archaic) may refer to: Politics General *Federal monarchy, a federation of monarchies *Federation, or ''Federal state'' (federal system), a type of government characterized by both a central (federal) government and states or ...

federal constitution
or a
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...

state
constitution. The impeachment procedure is regulated in Article 61 of the
Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany The Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany (german: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a g ...
. There is no formal impeachment process for the
chancellor of Germany The chancellor of Germany, officially the Federal Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (german: Bundeskanzler(in) der Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is the head of the federal government of Germany The Federal Cabinet or Federal Govern ...
, however the Bundestag can replace the chancellor at any time by voting for a new chancellor (
constructive vote of no confidenceThe constructive vote of no confidence (german: konstruktives Misstrauensvotum, es, moción de censura constructiva) is a variation on the motion of no confidence A motion of no confidence, vote of no confidence, or no confidence motion, sometimes ...
, Article 67 of the Basic Law). There has never been an impeachment against the President so far. Constructive votes of no confidence against the chancellor occurred in 1972 and 1982, with only the second one being successful.


Hong Kong

The
chief executive of Hong Kong The Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China is the representative of the Hong Kong Hong Kong (, ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic ...
can be impeached by the
Legislative Council A legislative council is the legislature, or one of the legislative chambers, of a nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, a shared terri ...
. A motion for investigation, initiated jointly by at least one-fourth of all the legislators charging the Chief Executive with "serious breach of law or dereliction of duty" and refusing to resign, shall first be passed by the council. An independent investigation committee, chaired by the
chief justice of the Court of Final Appeal The chief justice of the Hong Kong Court of Final Appeal, sometimes informally known as the chief justice of Hong Kong, is the head of the Judiciary of Hong Kong and the chief judge of the Court of Final Appeal (Hong Kong), Court of Final App ...
, will then carry out the investigation and report back to the council. If the Council find the evidence sufficient to substantiate the charges, it may pass a motion of impeachment by a two-thirds majority. However, the Legislative Council does not have the power to actually remove the chief executive from office, as the chief executive is appointed by the
Central People's Government The State Council, constitutionally synonymous with the Central People's Government since 1954 (particularly in relation to local governments), is the chief administrative authority of the People's Republic of China China, officia ...
(State Council of China). The council can only report the result to the Central People's Government for its decision.


Hungary

Article 13 of Hungary's Fundamental Law (constitution) provides for the process of impeaching and removing the
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
. The president enjoys immunity from criminal prosecution while in office, but may be charged with crimes committed during his term afterwards. Should the president violate the constitution while discharging his duties or commit a willful criminal offense, he may be removed from office. Removal proceedings may be proposed by the concurring recommendation of one-fifth of the 199 members of the country's unicameral Parliament. Parliament votes on the proposal by secret ballot, and if two thirds of all representatives agree, the president is impeached. Once impeached, the president's powers are suspended, and the Constitutional Court decides whether or not the President should be removed from office.


India

The
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
and judges, including the chief justice of the
supreme court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of just ...

supreme court
and high courts, can be impeached by the
parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
before the expiry of the term for violation of the Constitution. Other than impeachment, no other penalty can be given to a president in position for the violation of the Constitution under Article 361 of the constitution. However a president after his/her term/removal can be punished for his already proven unlawful activity under disrespecting the constitution, etc. No president has faced impeachment proceedings. Hence, the provisions for impeachment have never been tested. The sitting president cannot be charged and needs to step down in order for that to happen.


Ireland

In the
Republic of Ireland Ireland ( ga, Éire ), also known as the Republic of Ireland ('), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective id ...

Republic of Ireland
formal impeachment applies only to the Irish president. Article 12 of the
Irish Constitution The Constitution of Ireland ( ga, Bunreacht na hÉireann, ) is the fundamental law of Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Gre ...
provides that, unless judged to be "permanently incapacitated" by the
Supreme Court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of just ...
, the president can be removed from office only by the houses of the
Oireachtas The Oireachtas ( , ), sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann, is the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, count ...
(parliament) and only for the commission of "stated misbehaviour". Either house of the Oireachtas may impeach the president, but only by a resolution approved by a majority of at least two thirds of its total number of members; and a house may not consider a proposal for impeachment unless requested to do so by at least thirty of its number. Where one house impeaches the president, the remaining house either investigates the charge or commissions another body or committee to do so. The investigating house can remove the president if it decides, by at least a two-thirds majority of its members, both that the president is guilty of the charge and that the charge is sufficiently serious as to warrant the president's removal. To date no impeachment of an Irish president has ever taken place. The president holds a largely ceremonial office, the dignity of which is considered important, so it is likely that a president would resign from office long before undergoing formal conviction or impeachment.


Italy

In Italy, according to Article 90 of the
Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...
, the
President of Italy The president of Italy, officially denoted as President of the Italian Republic ( it, Presidente della Repubblica Italiana) is the head of state of Italy. In that role, the officeholder represents national unity, guarantees that Politics of Ita ...
can be impeached through a majority vote of the
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
in joint session for high treason and for attempting to overthrow the Constitution. If impeached, the president of the Republic is then tried by the Constitutional Court integrated with sixteen citizens older than forty chosen by lot from a list compiled by the Parliament every nine years. Italian press and political forces made use of the term "impeachment" for the attempt by some members of parliamentary opposition to initiate the procedure provided for in Article 90 against Presidents
Francesco Cossiga Francesco Maurizio Cossiga (, ; 1928 – 2010)
.
was an Italian politician. A member of the Giorgio Napolitano Giorgio Napolitano (; born 29 June 1925) is an Italian politician who served as the 11th president of Italy from 2006 to 2015, and the only Italian president to be re-elected to the presidency. Due to his dominant position in Italian politics, s ...

Giorgio Napolitano
(2014) and
Sergio Mattarella Sergio Mattarella (; born 23 July 1941) is an Italian politician, jurist, academic, and lawyer who has served as president of Italy since 2015. A Christian leftist politician, Mattarella served as Italian Minister for Parliamentary Relations, M ...

Sergio Mattarella
(2018).


Japan

By Article 78 of the
Constitution of Japan The Constitution of Japan (Shinjitai are the simplified forms of kanji are a set of logographic In a written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language A language is a structured ...
, judges can be impeached. The voting method is specified by laws. The
National Diet The is Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_coat = Go ...

National Diet
has two organs and they are 裁判官訴追委員会(''Saibankan sotsui iinkai'') and 裁判官弾劾裁判所(''Saibankan dangai saibansho''), which is established by Article 64 of the Constitution. The former has a role similar to prosecutor and the latter is analogous to Court. Seven judges were removed by them.


Liechtenstein

Members of the Liechtenstein Government can be impeached before the State Court for breaches of the Constitution or of other laws. As a
hereditary monarchy Hereditary monarchy is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a m ...
the Sovereign Prince can not be impeached as he "is not subject to the jurisdiction of the courts and does not have legal responsibility". The same is true of any member of the Princely House who exercises the function of head of state should the Prince be temporarily prevented or in preparation for the Succession.


Lithuania

In the
Republic of Lithuania A republic ( la, res publica ''Res publica'' (also spelt as ''rēs pūblica'' to indicate vowel length In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived length of a vowel sound: the corresponding physical measurement is length (phonetics), du ...
, the president may be impeached by a three-fifths majority in the
Seimas The Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania ( lt, Lietuvos Respublikos Seimas), or simply the Seimas (), is the unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative ...
. President
Rolandas Paksas Rolandas Paksas (; born 10 June 1956) is a Lithuania Lithuania ( ; lt, Lietuva ), officially the Republic of Lithuania ( lt, Lietuvos Respublika, links=no), is a country in the Baltic region of Europe. It is one of the Baltic states, and l ...

Rolandas Paksas
was removed from office by impeachment on 6 April 2004 after the Constitutional Court of Lithuania found him guilty of having violated his oath and the constitution. He was the first European
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional ch ...
to have been impeached.


Norway

Members of government, representatives of the national assembly (
Storting The Storting ( no, Stortinget ) is the supreme legislature of Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standa ...

Storting
et) and
Supreme Court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of just ...
judges can be impeached for criminal offenses tied to their duties and committed in office, according to the Constitution of 1814, §§ 86 and 87. The procedural rules were modeled after the U.S. rules and are quite similar to them. Impeachment has been used eight times since 1814, last in 1927. Many argue that impeachment has fallen into
desuetude In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its boun ...
. In cases of impeachment, an appointed court (Riksrett) takes effect.


Philippines

Impeachment in the Philippines follows procedures similar to the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
. Under Sections2 and 3, Article XI,
Constitution of the Philippines The Constitution of the Philippines (Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng ...
, the
House of Representatives of the Philippines The House of Representatives of the Philippines ( fil, Kapulungan ng mga Kinatawan ng Pilipinas) is the lower house of the Congress of the Philippines. Informally known as the ''Kamara'' (from the Spanish language, Spanish word ''Cámara'', mea ...
has the exclusive power to initiate all cases of impeachment against the
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
,
vice president A vice president, also director in British English, is an officer An officer is a person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason Reason is the capacity of consciously apply ...
, members of the
Supreme Court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of just ...

Supreme Court
, members of the Constitutional Commissions ( Commission on Elections, Civil Service Commission and the Commission on Audit), and the
ombudsman An ombudsman (, also , ), ombudsperson, ombud, ombuds, or public advocate is an official who is usually appointed by the government or by parliament but with a significant degree of independence. In some countries, an inspector general, citize ...
. When a third of its membership has endorsed the impeachment articles, it is then transmitted to the
Senate of the Philippines The Senate of the Philippines (Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipin ...
which tries and decide, as impeachment tribunal, the impeachment case. A main difference from U.S. proceedings however is that only one third of House members are required to approve the motion to impeach the president (as opposed to a simple majority of those present and voting in their U.S. counterpart). In the Senate, selected members of the House of Representatives act as the prosecutors and the senators act as judges with the Senate president presiding over the proceedings (the chief justice jointly presides with the Senate president if the president is on trial). Like the United States, to convict the official in question requires that a minimum of two thirds (i.e. 16 of 24 members) of all the members of the Senate vote in favor of conviction. If an impeachment attempt is unsuccessful or the official is acquitted, no new cases can be filed against that impeachable official for at least one full year.


Impeachment proceedings and attempts

President
Joseph Estrada Joseph Ejercito Estrada, KGCR (, born Jose Marcelo Ejercito; April 19, 1937), also known by the nickname Erap, is a Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ...

Joseph Estrada
was the first official
impeached Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body or other legally constituted tribunal initiates charges against a public official An official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual ...
by the House in 2000, but the trial ended prematurely due to outrage over a vote to open an envelope where that motion was narrowly defeated by his allies. Estrada was deposed days later during the 2001 EDSA Revolution. In 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008, impeachment complaints were filed against President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, but none of the cases reached the required endorsement of of the members for transmittal to, and trial by, the Senate. In March 2011, the House of Representatives Impeachment of Merceditas Gutierrez, impeached Ombudsman of the Philippines, Ombudsman Merceditas Gutierrez, becoming the second person to be impeached. In April, Gutierrez resigned prior to the Senate's convening as an impeachment court. In December 2011, in what was described as "blitzkrieg fashion", 188 of the 285 members of the House of Representatives of the Philippines, House of Representatives Impeachment of Renato Corona, voted to transmit the 56-page Articles of Impeachment against Chief Justice Renato Corona, Articles of Impeachment against
Supreme Court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of just ...

Supreme Court
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines, chief justice Renato Corona. To date, three officials had been successfully impeached by the House of Representatives, and two were not convicted. The latter, Renato Corona, Chief Justice Renato C. Corona, was convicted on 29 May 2012, by the Senate under Article II of the Articles of Impeachment (for betraying public trust), with 20–3 votes from the Senator Judges.


Peru

The first impeachment process against Pedro Pablo Kuczynski, then the incumbent President of Peru since 2016, was initiated by the Congress of Peru on 15 December 2017. According to Luis Galarreta, the President of the Congress, the whole process of impeachment could have taken as little as a week to complete. This event was part of the second stage of the 2017–2021 Peruvian political crisis, political crisis generated by the confrontation between the Government of Pedro Pablo Kuczynski and the Congress, in which the opposition Popular Force has an absolute majority. The impeachment request was rejected by the congress on 21 December 2017, for failing to obtain sufficient votes for the deposition.


Romania

The President of Romania, president can be impeached by Parliament of Romania, Parliament and is then suspended. A referendum then follows to determine whether the suspended President should be removed from office. President Traian Băsescu was impeached twice by the Parliament: in 2007 and more recently in July 2012. 2007 Romanian presidential impeachment referendum, A referendum was held on 19 May 2007 and a large majority of the electorate voted against removing the president from office. For the most recent suspension 2012 Romanian presidential impeachment referendum, a referendum was held on July 29, 2012; the results were heavily against the president, but the referendum was invalidated due to low turnout.


Russia

In 1999, members of the State Duma of Russia, led by the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, unsuccessfully attempted to impeach President Boris Yeltsin on charges relating to his role in the 1993 Russian constitutional crisis and launching the First Chechen War (1995–96); efforts to launch impeachment proceedings failed.


Singapore

The Constitution of Singapore allows the impeachment of a sitting President of Singapore, president on charges of treason, violation of the Constitution, corruption, or attempting to mislead the Presidential Elections Committee for the purpose of demonstrating eligibility to be elected as president. The Prime Minister of Singapore, prime minister or at least one-quarter of all Parliament of Singapore, members of Parliament (MPs) can pass an impeachment motion, which can succeed only if at least half of all MPs (excluding nominated members) vote in favor, whereupon the chief justice of the Supreme Court of Singapore, Supreme Court will appoint a tribunal to investigate allegations against the president. If the tribunal finds the president guilty, or otherwise declares that the president is "permanently incapable of discharging the functions of his office by reason of mental or physical infirmity", Parliament will hold a vote on a resolution to remove the president from office, which requires a three-quarters majority to succeed. No president has ever been removed from office in this fashion.


South Africa

When the Union of South Africa was established in 1910, the only officials who could be impeached (though the term itself was not used) were the chief justice and judges of the Supreme Court of South Africa. The scope was broadened when the country became a republic in 1961, to include the State President of South Africa, state president. It was further broadened in 1981 to include the new office of Vice State President of South Africa , vice state president; and in 1994 to include the Deputy President of South Africa, executive deputy presidents, the Public Protector, public protector and the Auditor-General (South Africa), Auditor-General. Since 1997, members of certain commissions established by the Constitution can also be impeached. The grounds for impeachment, and the procedures to be followed, have changed several times over the years.


South Korea

According to the Article 65 Clause 1 of Constitution of South Korea, if President, Prime Minister, or other state council members including Supreme Court of South Korea, Supreme Court and Constitutional court members, violate the Constitution or other laws of official duty, the National Assembly (South Korea), National Assembly can impeach them. Clause2 states the impeachment bill may be proposed by one third or more of the total members of the National Assembly, and shall require majority voting and approved by two thirds or more of the total members of the National Assembly. This article also states that any person against whom a motion for impeachment has been passed shall be suspended from exercising his power until the impeachment has been adjudicated and shall not extend further than removal from public office, provided that it shall not exempt the person impeached from civil or criminal liability. Two presidents have been impeached since the establishing of the Republic of Korea in 1948. Roh Moo-hyun in 2004 was impeached by the National Assembly but was overturned by the Constitutional Court of Korea, Constitutional Court. Park Geun-hye in 2016 was impeached by the National Assembly, and the impeachment was confirmed by the Constitutional Court on March 10, 2017. In February 2021, Judge Lim Seong-geun of the Busan High Court was impeached by the National Assembly for meddling in politically sensitive trials, the first ever impeachment of a judge in Korean history. Unlike presidential impeachments, only a simple majority is required to impeach.


Turkey

In Turkey, according to the Constitution of Turkey, Constitution, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, Grand National Assembly may initiate an investigation of the President of Turkey, president, the Vice President of Turkey, vice president or any member of the Cabinet of Turkey, Cabinet upon the proposal of simple majority of its total members, and within a period less than a month, the approval of three-fifths of the total members. The investigation would be carried out by a commission of fifteen members of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, Assembly, each nominated by the political parties in proportion to their representation therein. The commission would submit its report indicating the outcome of the investigation to the Speaker of the Grand National Assembly, speaker within two months. If the investigation is not completed within this period, the commission's time may be renewed for another month. Within ten days of its submission to the speaker, the report would be distributed to all members of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, Assembly, and ten days after its distribution, the report would be discussed on the floor. Upon the approval of two thirds of the total number of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, Assembly by secret vote, the person or persons, about whom the investigation was conducted, may be tried before the Constitutional Court of Turkey, Constitutional Court. The trial would be finalized within three months, and if not, a one-time additional period of three months shall be granted. The president, about whom an investigation has been initiated, may not call for an Elections in Turkey, election. The President of Turkey, president, who is convicted by the Constitutional Court of Turkey, Court, would be removed from office. The provision of this article shall also apply to the offenses for which the president allegedly worked during his term of office.


Ukraine

During the crisis which started in November 2013, the increasing political stress of the face-down between the protestors occupying Maidan Nezalezhnosti, Independence Square in Kyiv and the State Security forces under the control of President Yanukovych led to deadly armed force being used on the protestors. Following the negotiated return of Kyiv's City Hall on 16 February 2014, occupied by the protesters since November 2013, the security forces thought they could also retake "Maidan", Independence Square. The ensuing fighting from 17 through 21 February 2014 resulted in a considerable number of deaths and a more generalised alienation of the population, and the withdrawal of President Yanukovych to his support area in the East of Ukraine. In the wake of the president's departure, Parliament convened on 22 February; it reinstated the 2004 Constitution, which reduced presidential authority, and voted impeachment of President Yanukovych as ''de facto'' recognition of his departure from office as President of an integrated Ukraine. The president riposted that Parliament's acts were illegal as they could pass into law only by presidential signature.


United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, in principle, anybody may be prosecuted and tried by the two Houses of Parliament of the United Kingdom, Parliament for any crime. The first recorded impeachment is that of
William Latimer, 4th Baron Latimer William Latimer, 4th Baron Latimer, KG (24 March 1330 – 28 May 1381) was an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Eng ...
during the
Good Parliament The Good Parliament is the name traditionally given to the English Parliament The Parliament of England was the legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the st ...
of 1376. The latest was that of Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville which started in 1805 and which ended with his acquittal in June 1806. Over the centuries, the procedure has been supplemented by other forms of oversight including Select committee (United Kingdom), select committees, Motions of no confidence in the United Kingdom, confidence motions, and judicial review, while the privilege of peers to trial only in the House of Lords was abolished in 1948, and thus impeachment, which has not kept up with modern norms of democracy or procedural fairness, is generally considered obsolete.


United States

In the federal system, the Article One of the United States Constitution provides that the
House of Representatives House of Representatives is the name of legislative bodies A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure Parliamentary procedure is ...
has the "sole Power of Impeachment" and the Senate has "the sole Power to try all Impeachments." Article Two provides that "The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors."ArtII.S4.1.2.1 Offices Eligible for Impeachment
''Constitution Annotated'', Congress.gov.
In the United States, impeachment is the first of two stages; an official may be impeached by a majority vote of the House, but conviction and removal from office in the Senate requires "the concurrence of two thirds of the members present". Impeachment is analogous to an indictment. According to the House practice manual, "Impeachment is a constitutional remedy to address serious offenses against the system of government. It is the first step in a remedial process—that of removal from public office and possible disqualification from holding further office. The purpose of impeachment is not punishment; rather, its function is primarily to maintain constitutional government." Impeachment may be understood as a unique process involving both
political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the Cognition, cognitive process resulting in the selection ...

political
and
legal Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its boundari ...
elements. The Constitution provides that "Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law." It is generally accepted that "a former President may be prosecuted for crimes of which he was acquitted by the Senate." The United States House of Representatives, U.S. House of Representatives has impeached an official 21 times since 1789: four times for presidents, 15 times for federal judges, once for a Cabinet secretary, and once for a senator. Of the 21, the Senate voted to remove 8 (all federal judges) from office. The four impeachments of presidents were: Impeachment of Andrew Johnson, Andrew Johnson in 1868, Impeachment of Bill Clinton, Bill Clinton in 1998, and Donald Trump twice: First impeachment of Donald Trump, first in 2019, and Second impeachment of Donald Trump, a second time in 2021. All four impeachments were followed by acquittal in the Senate. An Impeachment process against Richard Nixon, impeachment process was also commenced against Richard Nixon, but he resigned in 1974 to avoid likely removal from office. Almost all State constitution (United States), state constitutions set forth parallel impeachment procedures for state governments in the United States, state governments, allowing the State legislature (United States), state legislature to impeach officials of the state government. From 1789 through 2008, 14 Governor (United States), governors have been impeached (including two who were impeached twice), of whom seven governors were convicted.Research Response: Governors' Impeachments in U.S. History
Illinois General Assembly Legislative Research Unit (July 8, 2008).


See also

* List of impeachments of heads of state


References


Further reading

{{Authority control Impeachment, Accountability Political terminology of the United States