HOME

TheInfoList




A hypersaline lake is a landlocked
body of water A body of water or waterbody (often spelled water body) is any significant accumulation of water, generally on a planet's surface. The term most often refers to oceans, seas, and lakes, but it includes smaller pools of water such as ponds, wetla ...

body of water
that contains significant
concentration In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in t ...

concentration
s of
sodium chloride Sodium chloride , commonly known as salt (although sea salt also contains other chemical salt (chemistry), salts), is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. With Molar mass, molar ...
or other
salts In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during ...
, with saline levels surpassing that of
ocean water Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean. On average, seawater in the world's oceans has a salinity of about 3.5% (35 g/l, 35 ppt, 600 mM). This means that every kilogram (roughly one liter by volume) of seawater has approxi ...

ocean water
(3.5%, i.e. ). Specific microbial species thrive in these high-salinity environments that are inhospitable to most lifeforms. Some of these species enter a dormant state when
desiccated in sludge Moenave Formation at the St. George Dinosaur Discovery Site at Johnson Farm, southwestern Utah Utah ( , ) is a state in the Mountain West region of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly kn ...
, and some species are thought to survive for over 250 million years. The water of hypersaline lakes has great buoyancy due to its high salt content. Hypersaline lakes are found on every continent, especially in arid or semi-arid regions. In the
Arctic The Arctic ( or ) is a polar regions of Earth, polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of Alaska (United States), Canada, Finland, Greenland (Danish Realm, ...

Arctic
, the
Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the At ...

Canadian
Devon Ice Cap The Devon Ice Cap is an ice cap on eastern Devon Island, Nunavut, Canada, covering an area of over . The highest point on Devon Island is found at the summit of the ice cap, with an elevation of . The ice cap has a maximum thickness of , and has b ...
contains two
subglacial lake A subglacial lake is a lake that is found under a glacier, typically beneath an ice cap or ice sheet. Subglacial lakes form at the boundary between ice and the underlying bedrock, where gravitational pressure decreases the pressure melting point o ...
s that are hypersaline. In
Antarctica Antarctica ( or ) is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Oc ...

Antarctica
, there are larger hypersaline water bodies, lakes in the
McMurdo Dry Valleys The McMurdo Dry Valleys are a row of largely Antarctic oasis, snow-free valleys in Antarctica, located within Victoria Land west of McMurdo Sound. The Dry Valleys experience extremely low humidity and surrounding mountains prevent the flow of ...
such as
Lake Vanda Lake Vanda is a lake in Wright Valley, Victoria Land, Ross Dependency, Antarctica. The lake is 5 km long and has a maximum depth of 69 m. On its shore, New Zealand maintained Vanda Station from 1968 to 1995. Lake Vanda is a Salinity, hyp ...
with salinity of over 35% (i.e. 10 times as salty as ocean water). The most saline water body in the world is the
Gaet'ale Pond Gaet'ale Pond is a small hypersaline lake located near the Dallol (volcano), Dallol crater in the Danakil Depression (Afar Region, Afar, Ethiopia). It is located over a hot spring of tectonic origin and has no apparent inlet or outlet streams. Th ...
, located in the
Danakil Depression The Danakil Depression is the northern part of the Afar Triangle The Afar Triangle (also called the Afar Depression) is a geological depression caused by the Afar Triple Junction 550px, The location of the triangle (the shaded area in the ...
in ,
Ethiopia Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the ...

Ethiopia
. The water of
Gaet'ale Pond Gaet'ale Pond is a small hypersaline lake located near the Dallol (volcano), Dallol crater in the Danakil Depression (Afar Region, Afar, Ethiopia). It is located over a hot spring of tectonic origin and has no apparent inlet or outlet streams. Th ...
has a
salinity Salinity () is the saltiness or amount of salt Salt is a mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific ...

salinity
of 43%, making it the saltiest water body on Earth; (i.e. 12 times as salty as ocean water). Previously, it was considered that the most
saline lake A salt lake or saline lake is a landlocked body of water (Lysefjord) in Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official wr ...

saline lake
outside of Antarctica was Lake Assal, in
Djibouti Djibouti, ar, جيبوتي ', french: link=no, Djibouti, so, Jabuuti officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA), also known as the Somali Peninsula, is a large peninsu ...

Djibouti
, which has a salinity of 34.8% (i.e. 10 times as salty as ocean water). Probably the best-known hypersaline lakes are the
Dead Sea The Dead Sea ( he, יָם הַמֶּלַח lit. Sea of Salt; ar, البحر الميت , lit. ''the Dead Sea'',The first article ''al-'' is unnecessary and usually not used. or Buhayrat, Bahret or Birket Lut, ''lit.'' "Lake/Sea of Lot") is a ...

Dead Sea
(34.2% salinity in 2010) and the
Great Salt Lake The Great Salt Lake is the largest saltwater lake A salt lake or saline lake is a landlocked body of water that has a concentration of salt (chemistry), salts (typically sodium chloride) and other dissolved minerals significantly higher tha ...

Great Salt Lake
in the state of
Utah Utah ( , ) is a U.S. state, state in the Mountain states, Mountain West subregion of the Western United States. Utah is a landlocked U.S. state bordered to its east by Colorado, to its northeast by Wyoming, to its north by Idaho, to its so ...

Utah
, USA (5–27% variable salinity). The
Dead Sea The Dead Sea ( he, יָם הַמֶּלַח lit. Sea of Salt; ar, البحر الميت , lit. ''the Dead Sea'',The first article ''al-'' is unnecessary and usually not used. or Buhayrat, Bahret or Birket Lut, ''lit.'' "Lake/Sea of Lot") is a ...

Dead Sea
, dividing
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...

Israel
and the West Bank from
Jordan Jordan ( ar, الأردن; tr. ' ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan,; tr. ') is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In ge ...

Jordan
, is the world's deepest hypersaline lake, and the
Araruama Lagoon Araruama Lagoon is a lagoon located in the Região dos Lagos, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. It is the world's largest hypersaline lake. References

Saline lakes of South America Lagoons of South America Lakes of Brazil {{RiodeJaneiro-geo- ...
in
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
is the world's largest. The Great Salt Lake, located in
Utah Utah ( , ) is a U.S. state, state in the Mountain states, Mountain West subregion of the Western United States. Utah is a landlocked U.S. state bordered to its east by Colorado, to its northeast by Wyoming, to its north by Idaho, to its so ...

Utah
, while having nearly three times the surface area of the Dead Sea, is shallower and experiences much greater fluctuations in salinity. At its lowest recorded water levels, it approaches 7.7 times the salinity of ocean water, but when its levels are high, its salinity drops to only slightly higher than that of the ocean.


See also

* * *
Halophile The halophiles, named after the Greek word for "salt-loving", are extremophiles that thrive in high salt concentrations. While most halophiles are classified into the domain Archaea, there are also bacterial halophiles and some Eukaryote, eukaryotic ...
– organism that thrives in high salt concentrations *
List of bodies of water by salinity A ''list'' is any set of items. List or lists may also refer to: People * List (surname)List or Liste is a European surname. Notable people with the surname include: List * Friedrich List (1789–1846), German economist * Garrett List (194 ...
*
Salt lake A salt lake or saline lake is a landlocked body of water (Lysefjord) in Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official wr ...

Salt lake
– one with a concentration of salts and minerals significantly higher than most lakes *


References

{{reflist, refs= {{cite book , last=Hammer , first=Ulrich T. , title=Saline lake ecosystems of the world , url=https://books.google.com/books?id=NOdvPFm6SyoC&q=Lovenula&pg=PA315 , year=1986 , publisher=Springer , isbn=90-6193-535-0 {{Cite journal , last1=Vreeland , first1=R.H. , last2=Rosenzweig , first2=W.D. , last3=Powers , first3=D.W. , year=2000 , title=Isolation of a 250 million-year-old halotolerant bacterium from a primary salt crystal , journal=Nature , volume=407 , pages=897–900 , doi=10.1038/35038060 , pmid=11057666 , issue=6806, bibcode=2000Natur.407..897V , s2cid=9879073 , name-list-style=amp {{cite book , editor-last1=Quinn , editor-first1=Joyce A. , editor-last2=Woodward , editor-first2=Susan L., title=Earth's Landscape: An Encyclopedia of the World's Geographic Features [2 volumes] , url=https://books.google.com/books?id=ErkxBgAAQBAJ&pg=PA9 , year=2015 , publisher=ABC-CLIO , isbn=978-1-61069-446-9 , page=9 {{cite encyclopedia , editor-last=Goetz , editor-first=P.W. , title=The New Encyclopædia Britannica , edition=15th , volume=3 , page=937 , year=1986 {{cite web, first=Christine , last=Wilkerson , url=http://geology.utah.gov/online/PI-39/pi39pg9.htm , title=Utah's Great Salt Lake and Ancient Lake Bonneville, PI39 – Utah Geological Survey , publisher=Geology.utah.gov , access-date=2010-08-03 , url-status=dead , archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100815024315/http://geology.utah.gov/online/PI-39/pi39pg9.htm , archive-date=2010-08-15 {{cite web , url=http://serc.carleton.edu/microbelife/extreme/hypersaline/index.html , title=Microbial life in hypersaline environments , last1=Allred , first1=Ashley , last2=Baxter , first2=Bonnie , publisher=Science Education Resource Center at
Carleton College Carleton College ( ) is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
, access-date=2010-06-17
{{cite journal , pmid=17367515 , title=Diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria from an extreme hypersaline sediment, Great Salt Lake (Utah) , last1=Kjeldsen , first1=K.U. , last2=Loy , first2=A. , last3=Jakobsen , first3=T.F. , last4=Thomsen , first4=T.R. , last5=Wagner , first5=M. , last6=Ingvorsen , first6=K. , doi=10.1111/j.1574-6941.2007.00288.x , volume=60 , issue=2 , date=May 2007 , journal=FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. , pages=287–298 , display-authors=4, doi-access=free Hydrology