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Hydrology
Hydrology (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2018; Athens is ... ὕδωρ, ''hýdōr'' meaning "water" and wikt:λόγος, λόγος, ''lógos'' meaning "study") is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and management of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources, and environmental watershed sustainability. A practitioner of hydrology is called a hydrologist. Hydrologists are scientists studying earth science, earth or environmental science, civil engineering, civil or environmental engineering, and physical geography. Using various analytical methods and scientific techniques, they collect and analyze data to help solve water related problems such as Environmentalism, environmental preservation, natural disasters, and Wate ...
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Hydrogeology
, Thailand. File:Demenovska jaskyna slobody-smaragdove jazierko.jpg, 240x240px, Demänovská Cave of Liberty, "Emerald Lake" Hydrogeology (''hydro-'' meaning water, and ''-geology'' meaning the study of the Earth) is the area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rock (geology), rocks of the Earth's crust (geology), crust (commonly in aquifers). The terms groundwater hydrology, geohydrology, and hydrogeology are often used interchangeably. Hydrogeology is the study of the laws governing the movement of subterranean water, the mechanical, chemical, and thermal interaction of this water with the porous solid, and the transport of energy, chemical constituents, and particulate matter by flow (Domenico and Schwartz, 1998). Groundwater engineering, another name for hydrogeology, is a branch of engineering which is concerned with groundwater movement and design of wells, pumps, and drains. The main concerns in groundwater eng ...
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Hydrogeology
, Thailand. File:Demenovska jaskyna slobody-smaragdove jazierko.jpg, 240x240px, Demänovská Cave of Liberty, "Emerald Lake" Hydrogeology (''hydro-'' meaning water, and ''-geology'' meaning the study of the Earth) is the area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rock (geology), rocks of the Earth's crust (geology), crust (commonly in aquifers). The terms groundwater hydrology, geohydrology, and hydrogeology are often used interchangeably. Hydrogeology is the study of the laws governing the movement of subterranean water, the mechanical, chemical, and thermal interaction of this water with the porous solid, and the transport of energy, chemical constituents, and particulate matter by flow (Domenico and Schwartz, 1998). Groundwater engineering, another name for hydrogeology, is a branch of engineering which is concerned with groundwater movement and design of wells, pumps, and drains. The main concerns in groundwater eng ...
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Ecohydrology
Ecohydrology (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2018; Athens is ... , ''oikos'', "house(hold)"; , ''hydōr'', "water"; and , ''-logia ''-logy'' is a suffix In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of ...'') is an interdisciplinary scientific field studying the interactions between water and ecological systems. It is considered a sub discipline of hydrology Hydrology (from Greek: wikt:ὕδωρ, ὕδωρ, "hýdōr" meaning "water" and wikt:λόγος, λόγος, "lógos" meaning "study") is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and management of water on Earth and other planets, ...
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Drainage Basin
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water. The drainage basin includes all the surface water from surface runoff, rain runoff, snowmelt, hail, sleet and nearby streams that run downslope towards the shared outlet, as well as the groundwater underneath the earth's surface. Drainage basins connect into other drainage basins at lower elevations in a Strahler number, hierarchical pattern, with smaller sub-drainage basins, which in turn drain into another common outlet. Other terms for ''drainage basin'' are wiktionary:catchment, catchment area, catchment basin, drainage area, river basin, water basin, and impluvium. In North America, the term ''watershed'' is commonly used to mean a drainage basin, though in other English-speaking countries, it is used only in its original sense, that of a drainage divide. In a closed drainage basin, or endorheic basin, the water converge ...
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Physical Geography
Physical geography (also known as physiography) is one of the two fields of geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the word γεωγρα .... Physical geography is the branch of natural science Natural science is a Branches of science, branch of science concerned with the description, understanding and prediction of Phenomenon, natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation. Mechanisms such as peer r ... which deals with the processes and patterns in the natural environment such as the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in ... ...
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Isotope Hydrology
Isotope hydrology is a field of geochemistry and hydrology Hydrology (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 mill ... that uses naturally occurring stable and radioactive isotopic techniques to evaluate the age and origins of surface and groundwater and the processes within the atmospheric hydrologic cycle The water cycle, also known as the hydrologic cycle or the hydrological cycle, describes the continuous movement of water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteless, odorless, .... Isotope hydrology applications are highly diverse, and used for informing water-use policy Policy is a deliberate system of guidelines to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes. A policy is a statement of intent and is implement ...
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Hydrometeorology
Hydrometeorology is a branch of meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences Atmospheric science is the study of the Earth's atmosphere File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents ... and hydrology Hydrology (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 mill ... that studies the transfer of water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known living organisms (in which it acts ... and energy In physics, energy is the physical quantity, quantitative physical property, property that must be #Energy transfer, transfer ...
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Surface-water Hydrology
Surface-water hydrology is the sub-field of hydrology concerned with above-earth water, in contrast to groundwater hydrology that deals with water below the surface of the Earth. Its applications include rainfall and Runoff model (reservoir), runoff, the routes that surface water takes (for example through rivers or reservoirs), and the occurrence of floods and droughts. Surface-water hydrology is used to predict the effects of water constructions such as dams and canals. It considers the layout of the Drainage basin, watershed, geology, soils, vegetation, nutrients, energy and wildlife. Modelled aspects include rain, precipitation, the Interception (water), interception of rain water by vegetation or artificial structures, evaporation, the runoff function and the soil-surface system itself. When surface water seeps into the ground above bedrock, it is categorized as groundwater, and the rate at which this occurs determines baseflow needs for Environmental flow, instream flow, as wel ...
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Hydrometeorology
Hydrometeorology is a branch of meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences Atmospheric science is the study of the Earth's atmosphere File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents ... and hydrology Hydrology (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 mill ... that studies the transfer of water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known living organisms (in which it acts ... and energy In physics, energy is the physical quantity, quantitative physical property, property that must be #Energy transfer, transfer ...
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Surface-water Hydrology
Surface-water hydrology is the sub-field of hydrology concerned with above-earth water, in contrast to groundwater hydrology that deals with water below the surface of the Earth. Its applications include rainfall and Runoff model (reservoir), runoff, the routes that surface water takes (for example through rivers or reservoirs), and the occurrence of floods and droughts. Surface-water hydrology is used to predict the effects of water constructions such as dams and canals. It considers the layout of the Drainage basin, watershed, geology, soils, vegetation, nutrients, energy and wildlife. Modelled aspects include rain, precipitation, the Interception (water), interception of rain water by vegetation or artificial structures, evaporation, the runoff function and the soil-surface system itself. When surface water seeps into the ground above bedrock, it is categorized as groundwater, and the rate at which this occurs determines baseflow needs for Environmental flow, instream flow, as wel ...
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Earth Science
Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science Natural science is a Branches of science, branch of science concerned with the description, understanding and prediction of Phenomenon, natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation. Mechanisms such as peer r ... related to the planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that is massive enough to be Hydrostatic equilibrium, rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and ... Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remaining 70.8% is Water distribution on Earth, covered wit .... This is a branch of science dealing with the physical and chemical constitution of Earth and its atmosphere. Earth science can be consider ...
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Rain Over Beinn Eich, Luss Hills, Scotland
Rain is liquid water in the form of droplet Raindrops in a plant. A drop or droplet is a small column of liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually Deformation (mechanics), deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress, ...s that have condensed from atmospheric An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet A planet is an astronomical body orbi ... water vapor (99.9839 °C) , - , Boiling point The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor. The boiling point of a liquid v ... and then become heavy enough to fall under gravity. Rain is a major component of the water cycle The water cycle, also known a ...
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