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A house is a single-unit residential
building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house A house is a single-unit residential building, which may range in complexity from a rudimentary hut to a complex st ...

building
. It may range in complexity from a rudimentary
hut A hut is a primitive dwelling, which may be constructed of various local materials. Huts are a type of vernacular architecture Stone and clay houses in rural Nepal Vernacular architecture is architecture characterised by the use of local ...

hut
to a complex structure of
wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. ...

wood
,
masonry Masonry is the building of structures from individual units, which are often laid in and bound together by ; the term ''masonry'' can also refer to the units themselves. The common materials of masonry construction are , building such as , , an ...

masonry
,
concrete Concrete is a composed of fine and coarse bonded together with a fluid (cement paste) that hardens (cures) over time. Concrete is the second-most-used substance in the world after water, and is the most widely used building material. Its ...

concrete
or other material, outfitted with
plumbing Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications. Plumbing uses pipes, valves, plumbing fixtures, tanks, and other apparatuses to convey fluids. Heating and cooling (HVAC), waste removal, and potable water delive ...

plumbing
, electrical, and
heating, ventilation, and air conditioning File:Control circuit in household HVAC unit.jpg, The control circuit in a household HVAC installation. The wires connecting to the blue terminal block on the upper-right of the board lead to the thermostat. The fan enclosure is directly behind th ...
systems.Schoenauer, Norbert (2000). ''6,000 Years of Housing'' (rev. ed.) (New York: W.W. Norton & Company). Houses use a range of different
roof A roof is the top covering of a , including all materials and constructions necessary to support it on the walls of the building or on uprights, providing protection against , , , extremes of , and . A roof is part of the . The characteristic ...

roof
ing systems to keep precipitation such as rain from getting into the dwelling space. Houses may have
door A door is a hinge A barrel hinge A hinge is a mechanical bearing that connects two solid objects, typically allowing only a limited angle of rotation between them. Two objects connected by an ideal hinge rotate relative to each other about a ...

door
s or
lock Lock may refer to: *Lock and key A lock is a mechanics, mechanical or Electronics, electronic fastening device that is released by a physical object (such as a key, Keycard lock, keycard, fingerprint, Radio-frequency identification, RFID card ...
s to secure the dwelling space and protect its inhabitants and contents from
burglar Burglary, also called breaking and entering and sometimes housebreaking, is illegally entering a building or other areas to commit a crime. Usually that offence is theft Theft is the taking of another person's property or Service (economics ...
s or other trespassers. Most conventional modern houses in Western cultures will contain one or more
bedroom A bedroom is a room In a building, a room is any space Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction. Physical space is often conceived in three linear dimensions, al ...

bedroom
s and
bathroom A typical bathroom in a restaurant. A bathroom or washroom is a room In a building, a room is any space Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction. Physical space is ...

bathroom
s, a
kitchen A kitchen is a room In a building, a room is any space Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction. Physical space is often conceived in three linear dimensions, al ...

kitchen
or cooking area, and a
living room In Western architecture, a living room, also called a lounge room (Australian English Australian English (AusE,AusEng, AuE, AuEng, en-AU) is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to Australia. Aus ...

living room
. A house may have a separate
dining room A dining room is a room (architecture), room for eating, consuming food. In modern times it is usually adjacent to the kitchen for convenience in serving, although in medieval times it was often on an entirely different floor level. Historically ...

dining room
, or the eating area may be integrated into another room. Some large houses in North America have a
recreation room A recreation room (also known as a rec room, rumpus room, play room, playroom, games room, or ruckus room) is a room (architecture), room used for a variety of purposes, such as parties, games and other everyday or casual activities. The term ''r ...
. In traditional agriculture-oriented societies,
domestic animals This page gives a list of domestic animals, also including a list of animals which are or may be currently undergoing the process of domestication Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assume ...
such as chickens or larger livestock (like cattle) may share part of the house with humans. The social unit that lives in a house is known as a
household A household consists of one or several persons who live in the same dwelling In law, a dwelling (also residence, abode) is a self-contained unit of accommodation used by one or more households as a home A home, or domicile, is a s ...

household
. Most commonly, a household is a
family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the well-being of its members and of society. Ideally, families would off ...

family
unit of some kind, although households may also be other
social groups Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology The word "Social" derives fr ...
, such as
roommate A roommate is a person with whom one shares a living facility such as a room In a building, a room is any space Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction. Physical ...
s or, in a
rooming house A rooming house, also called a "multi-tenant house", is a "dwelling with multiple rooms rented out individually", in which the tenants share bathroom and kitchen facilities. Rooming houses are often used as housing for low-income people, as roomin ...
, unconnected individuals. Some houses only have a dwelling space for one family or similar-sized group; larger houses called
townhouse A townhouse, townhome, town house, or town home, is a type of Terraced house, terraced housing. A modern townhouse is often one with a small footprint on multiple floors. In a different British usage, the term originally referred to any type of ...

townhouse
s or
row house In architecture and city planning, a terrace or terraced house (British English, UK) or townhouse (American English, US) is a form of medium-density housing that originated in Europe in the 16th century, whereby a row of attached dwellings party ...
s may contain numerous family dwellings in the same structure. A house may be accompanied by outbuildings, such as a garage for vehicles or a
shed A shed is typically a simple, single-story roofed structure in a back garden A back garden is a residential garden located at the rear of a property, on the other side of the house from the front garden. Such gardens have a special place in ...

shed
for gardening equipment and tools. A house may have a
backyard A backyard, or back yard, is a yard 300px, Bronze Yard №11, the official standard of length for the Parliament _ _ In_modern_politics_and_history,_a_parliament_is_a_legislature,_legislative_body_of_government._Generally,_a_moder ...

backyard
or a
front yard On a residential block of land, a front yard (United States, Canada, Australia) or front garden (United Kingdom, Europe) is the portion of land between the street 250px, Street in downtown Bucharest (Romania) A street is a public thoroughfa ...

front yard
or both, which serve as additional areas where inhabitants can relax or eat.


Etymology

The English word ''
house A house is a single-unit residential building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and functio ...
'' derives directly from the Old English ''hus'' meaning "dwelling, shelter, home, house," which in turn derives from
Proto-Germanic Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; also called Common Germanic) is the reconstructed Reconstruction may refer to: Politics, history, and sociology *Reconstruction (law), the transfer of a company's (or several companies') business to a new ...
''husan'' (reconstructed by etymological analysis) which is of unknown origin. The house itself gave rise to the letter 'B' through an early
Proto-Semitic Proto-Semitic is the hypothetical Linguistic reconstruction, reconstructed proto-language ancestral to the Semitic languages. There is no consensus regarding the location of the Proto-Semitic ''Urheimat''; scholars hypothesize that it may have or ...
hieroglyphic Egyptian hieroglyphs () were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt, used for writing the Egyptian language. Hieroglyphs combined logographic, syllabary, syllabic and alphabetic elements, with a total of some 1,000 distinct characters.The ...
symbol depicting a house. The symbol was called "bayt", "bet" or "beth" in various related languages, and became ''
beta Beta (, ; uppercase , lowercase , or cursive Cursive (also known as script, among other names) is any style of penmanship Penmanship is the technique of writing Writing is a medium of human communication that involves the represen ...

beta
'', the Greek letter, before it was used by the Romans. ''
Beit A Beit (also spelled bait, ar, بيت  , literally "a house A house is a single-unit residential building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or ...

Beit
'' in Arabic means house, while in Maltese ''bejt'' refers to the roof of the house.


Elements


Layout

Ideally,
architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that h ...

architect
s of houses design
room In a building, a room is any space Space is the boundless extent in which and events have relative and . In , physical space is often conceived in three s, although modern s usually consider it, with , to be part of a boundless known ...

room
s to meet the needs of the people who will live in the house.
Feng shui Feng shui, also known as Chinese geomancy Geomancy (Greek language, Greek: γεωμαντεία, "earth divination") is a method of divination that interprets markings on the ground or the patterns formed by tossed handfuls of soil, ro ...

Feng shui
, originally a
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...

Chinese
method of moving houses according to such factors as rain and micro-climates, has recently expanded its scope to address the design of interior spaces, with a view to promoting harmonious effects on the people living inside the house, although no actual effect has ever been demonstrated. Feng shui can also mean the "aura" in or around a dwelling, making it comparable to the
real estate Real estate is property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, (more genera ...

real estate
sales concept of "indoor-outdoor flow". The
square footage The square foot (plural square feet; abbreviated sq. ft, sf, or ft2; also denoted by '2) is an imperial unit The imperial system of units, imperial system or imperial units (also known as British Imperial or Exchequer Standards of 1826) is the ...
of a house in the United States reports the area of "living space", excluding the garage and other non-living spaces. The "square metres" figure of a house in Europe reports the area of the walls enclosing the home, and thus includes any attached garage and non-living spaces. The number of floors or levels making up the house can affect the square footage of a home. Humans often build houses for domestic or
wild animals File:Manis temminckii (29645803646).jpg, A ground pangolin Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal species (biology), species, but has come to include all organisms that grow or live wild in an area without being introduced s ...

wild animals
, often resembling smaller versions of human domiciles. Familiar animal houses built by humans include
birdhouse
birdhouse
s, henhouses and
doghouse A doghouse, dog house, dogshed or kennel is a small shed A shed is typically a simple, single-story roofed structure in a back garden A back garden is a residential garden located at the rear of a property, on the other side of the house ...
s, while housed agricultural animals more often live in
barn in Lubbock, Texas, U.S., was used as a teaching facility until 1967. , Coggeshall, England, originally part of the Cistercian monastery of Coggeshall. Dendrochronologically dated from 1237–1269, it was restored in the 1980s by the Coggeshall ...

barn
s and
stable A stable is a building in which livestock Livestock are the domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and c ...
s.


Parts

Many houses have several large rooms with specialized functions and several very small rooms for other various reasons. These may include a living/eating area, a sleeping area, and (if suitable facilities and services exist) separate or combined washing and lavatory areas. Some larger properties may also feature rooms such as a spa room, indoor pool, indoor basketball court, and other 'non-essential' facilities. In traditional agriculture-oriented societies, domestic animals such as chickens or larger livestock often share part of the house with humans. Most conventional modern houses will at least contain a bedroom, bathroom, kitchen or cooking area, and a living room. The names of parts of a house often echo the names of parts of other buildings, but could typically include: * Alcove * Atrium *
Attic An attic (sometimes referred to as a ''loft 's Near West Side A loft is a building's upper storey or elevated area in a room directly under the roof (American usage), or just an attic: a storage space under the roof usually accessed by a lad ...
*
Basement A basement or cellar is one or more Storey, floors of a building that are completely or partly below the storey, ground floor. It generally is used as a utility space for a building, where such items as the boiler, water heating, water heate ...

Basement
/
cellar
cellar
*
Bathroom A typical bathroom in a restaurant. A bathroom or washroom is a room In a building, a room is any space Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction. Physical space is ...

Bathroom
*
Bedroom A bedroom is a room In a building, a room is any space Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction. Physical space is often conceived in three linear dimensions, al ...

Bedroom
(or
nursery Nursery may refer to: Childcare * Nursery (room), a room within the house designed for the care of a young child or children. * Nursery school, a daycare facility for preschool-age children * Prison nursery, for imprisoned mothers with their young ...
) * Box-room / storage room * Conservatory *
Dining room A dining room is a room (architecture), room for eating, consuming food. In modern times it is usually adjacent to the kitchen for convenience in serving, although in medieval times it was often on an entirely different floor level. Historically ...

Dining room
*
Family room A family room is an informal, all-purpose room in a house A house is a single-unit residential building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory ...

Family room
or den *
Fireplace A fireplace or hearth A hearth is the place in a where a is or was traditionally kept for home heating and for , usually constituted by at least a horizontal hearthstone and often enclosed to varying degrees by any combination of , , , ...

Fireplace
*
Foyer A lobby is a room in a building used for entry from the outside. Sometimes referred to as a foyer, reception area or an entrance hall, it is often a large room or complex of rooms (in a theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of ...

Foyer
*
Front room Front may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Films * The Front (1943 film), ''The Front'' (1943 film), a 1943 Soviet drama film * ''The Front'', 1976 film Music *The Front (band), an American rock band signed to Columbia Records and activ ...
* Garage *
Hallway A hallway or corridor is a room used to connect other rooms. In 1597 John Thorpe John Thorpe or Thorp (c.1565–1655?; fl.1570–1618) was an English architect. Life Little is known of his life, and his work is dubiously inferred, rather th ...

Hallway
/
passage Passage may refer to: Places * Passage West, a town in County Cork, Ireland * Passage: 19th century English name for Pasaia (''Pasaje'', or ''Pasage'') People *Joseph Maldonado-Passage (born 1963), American former zoo operator and convicted fel ...

passage
/
Vestibule Vestibule or Vestibulum can have the following meanings, each primarily based upon a common origin, from early 17th century French, derived from Latin ''vestibulum, -i n.'' "entrance court". Anatomy In general, vestibule is a small space or cavity ...
*
Hearth A hearth is the place in a where a is or was traditionally kept for home heating and for , usually constituted by at least a horizontal hearthstone and often enclosed to varying degrees by any combination of , , , smoke hood, or . Hearths a ...

Hearth
*
Home-office Small office/home office (or single office/home office; sometimes short SOHO) refers to the category of business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods an ...
or
study Study or studies may refer to: General * Education **Higher education * Clinical trial * Experiment * Observational study * Research * Study skills, abilities and approaches applied to learning Other * Study (art), a drawing or series of drawing ...
*
Kitchen A kitchen is a room In a building, a room is any space Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction. Physical space is often conceived in three linear dimensions, al ...

Kitchen
*
Larder A larder is a cool area for storing food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates ...

Larder
*
Laundry room A laundry room (also called a utility room) is a room (architecture), room where clothes are washed and dried. In a modern home, a laundry room would be equipped with an automatic washing machine and clothes dryer, and often a large basin, call ...

Laundry room
*
Library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order to meet the user's needs on a daily basis. A library provi ...

Library
*
Living room In Western architecture, a living room, also called a lounge room (Australian English Australian English (AusE,AusEng, AuE, AuEng, en-AU) is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to Australia. Au ...

Living room
*
Loft A loft is a building's upper storey A storey (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone subst ...

Loft
* Nook *
Pantry A pantry is a room where beverages, food, and sometimes dishes, household cleaning chemicals, linens, or provisions are stored. Food and beverage pantries serve in an ancillary capacity to the kitchen. The word "pantry" derives from the same ...
*
Parlour A parlour (or parlor) is a reception room; part of the Burrell Collection in Glasgow, Scotland A drawing room is a room (architecture), room in a house where visitors may be entertained, and a historical term for what would now usually be ca ...

Parlour
*
Pew A pew () is a long bench (furniture), bench seat or enclosed box, used for seating Member (local church), members of a Local church, congregation or choir in a Church (building), church, synagogue or sometimes a courtroom. Overview The first ...

Pew
/
porch A porch (from Old French ''porche'', from Latin ''porticus'' "colonnade", from ''porta'' "passage") is a room or gallery located in front of an entrance of a building. A porch is placed in front of the facade of a building it commands, and forms ...

porch
*
Recreation room A recreation room (also known as a rec room, rumpus room, play room, playroom, games room, or ruckus room) is a room (architecture), room used for a variety of purposes, such as parties, games and other everyday or casual activities. The term ''r ...
/
rumpus room A recreation room (also known as a rec room, rumpus room, play room, playroom, or ruckus room) is a room In a building, a room is any space Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative positio ...
/
television Television, sometimes shortened to TV or telly, is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical A cylinder (from Gre ...

television
room *
Shrine A shrine ( la, scrinium "case or chest for books or papers"; Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern lan ...

Shrine
s to serve the religious functions associated with a family *
Stairwell
Stairwell
*
Sunroom A sunroom, also frequently called a solarium (and sometimes a "Florida room", "garden conservatory", "garden room", "patio room", "sun parlor", "sun porch", "three season room" or "winter garden"), is a room that permits abundant daylight and v ...
*
Swimming pool A swimming pool, swimming bath, wading pool, paddling pool, or simply pool, is a structure designed to hold water to enable Human swimming, swimming or other leisure activities. Pools can be built into the ground (in-ground pools) or built ...

Swimming pool
*
Window A window is an opening in a wall A wall is a structure and a surface that defines an area; carries a load; provides security Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential Potential generally refers to a currently unrealize ...

Window
*
Workshop Beginning with the Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent ...

Workshop


History

Little is known about the earliest origin of the house and its interior, however it can be traced back to the simplest form of shelters. An exceptionally well-preserved house dating to the fifth millennium BC and with its contents still preserved was for example excavated at
Tell Madhur Tell Madhur (also Madhhur) is a Tell (archaeology), tell, or archaeological settlement mound, in Diyala Governorate (Iraq). The site was excavated due to it being flooded by the Lake Hamrin, reservoir created by the Hemrin Dam, Hamrin Dam. Madhur ...
in
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country i ...

Iraq
.
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testament of the Christian Bible Roman ...
architect
Vitruvius Vitruvius (; c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC) was a Roman architect and engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled ''De architectura (''On architecture'', published as ''Ten Books on Architecture'') i ...

Vitruvius
' theories have claimed the first form of
architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Architecture (Latin ''archi ...

architecture
as a frame of timber branches finished in mud, also known as the primitive hut. Hill, Jonathan, “Immaterial Architecture”, New York:
Routledge Routledge () is a British multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a so ...
, 2006.
Philip Tabor later states the contribution of 17th century Dutch houses as the foundation of houses today.


Middle Ages

In the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
, the
Manor Houses A manor house was historically the main residence of the lord of the manor. The house formed the administrative centre of a Manorialism, manor in the European feudal system; within its great hall were held the lord's manorial courts, communal ...
facilitated different activities and events. Furthermore, the houses accommodated numerous people, including family, relatives, employees, servants and their guests. Their lifestyles were largely communal, as areas such as the
Great Hall #REDIRECTGreat hall#REDIRECTGreat hall A great hall is the main room of a royal palace, nobleman's castle or a large manor house or hall house in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted fr ...

Great Hall
enforced the custom of dining and meetings and the
Solar Solar may refer to: Astronomy * Of or relating to the Sun. ** A solar telescope 175px, The Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope at Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, La Palma in the Canary Islands. A solar telescope is a special purpose telescope used ...
intended for shared sleeping beds. During the 15th and 16th centuries, the Italian Renaissance Palazzo consisted of plentiful rooms of connectivity. Unlike the qualities and uses of the Manor Houses, most rooms of the
palazzo A palace is a grand residence, especially a royal residence, or the home of a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to eith ...

palazzo
contained no purpose, yet were given several doors. These doors adjoined rooms in which Robin Evans describes as a "matrix of discrete but thoroughly interconnected chambers."Evans, Robin “Translations from Drawing to Building: Figures, Doors and Passages” London: Architectural Associations Publications 2005 The layout allowed occupants to freely walk room to room from one door to another, thus breaking the boundaries of
privacy Privacy (, ) is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves or information about themselves, and thereby express themselves selectively. When something is private to a person, it usually means that something is inherently special ...

privacy
. :"Once inside it is necessary to pass from one room to the next, then to the next to traverse the building. Where passages and staircases are used, as inevitably they are, they nearly always connect just one space to another and never serve as general distributors of movement. Thus, despite the precise architectural containment offered by the addition of room upon room, the villa was, in terms of occupation, an open plan, relatively permeable to the numerous members of the household." Although very public, the open
plan A plan is typically any diagram or list of steps with details of timing and resources, used to achieve an Goal, objective to do something. It is commonly understood as a modal logic, temporal set (mathematics), set of intended actions through whi ...
encouraged sociality and connectivity for all inhabitants. An early example of the segregation of rooms and consequent enhancement of privacy may be found in 1597 at the Beaufort House built in
Chelsea, London Chelsea is an affluent area in west 250px, A compass rose with west highlighted in black West or Occident is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet-based dir ...
. It was designed by English architect
John Thorpe John Thorpe or Thorp (c.1565–1655?; fl.1570–1618) was an English architect. Life Little is known of his life, and his work is dubiously inferred, rather than accurately known, from a folio of drawings in the Sir John Soane's Museum Sir ...
who wrote on his plans, "A Long Entry through all". The separation of the passageway from the room developed the function of the
corridor Corridor or The Corridor may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Films *The Corridor (1968 film), ''The Corridor'' (1968 film), a 1968 Swedish drama film *The Corridor (1995 film), ''The Corridor'' (1995 film), a 1995 Lithuanian drama fi ...
. This new extension was revolutionary at the time, allowing the integration of one door per room, in which all universally connected to the same corridor.
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...
architect Sir Roger Pratt states "the common way in the middle through the whole length of the house,
voids Void may refer to: Science, engineering, and technology * Void (astronomy), the spaces between galaxy filaments that contain no galaxies * Void (composites), a pore that remains unoccupied in a composite material * Void, synonym for vacuum, a s ...
the offices from one molesting the other by continual passing through them."Pratt, Sir Roger “Sir R. Pratt on Architecture” 1928
Social hierarchies A hierarchy (from the Greek: , from , 'president of sacred rites') is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another. Hierarch ...
within the 17th century were highly regarded, as architecture was able to epitomize the servants and the upper class. More privacy is offered to the occupant as Pratt further claims, "the ordinary servants may never publicly appear in passing to and fro for their occasions there." This social divide between rich and poor favored the physical integration of the corridor into housing by the 19th century. Sociologist
Witold Rybczynski Witold Rybczynski (born 1 March 1943) is a Canadian American architecture, architect, professor and writer. He is currently the Martin and Margy Meyerson Professor Emeritus of Urbanism at the University of Pennsylvania. Early life Rybczynski wa ...
wrote, "the subdivision of the house into day and night uses, and into formal and informal areas, had begun." Rooms were changed from public to private as single entryways forced notions of entering a room with a specific purpose.


Industrial Revolution

Compared to the large scaled houses in England and the Renaissance, the 17th Century Dutch house was smaller, and was only inhabited by up to four to five members. This was because they embraced "self-reliance" in contrast to the dependence on servants, and a design for a lifestyle centered on the family. It was important for the Dutch to separate work from domesticity, as the home became an escape and a place of
comfort Comfort (or being comfortable'')'' is a sense of physical or psychological pleasure, ease, often characterized as a lack of suffering, hardship. Persons who are lacking in comfort are uncomfortable, or experiencing discomfort. A degree of psyc ...

comfort
. This way of living and the home has been noted as highly similar to the
contemporary Contemporary history, in English-language historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject. ...

contemporary
family and their dwellings. By the end of the 17th century, the house layout was transformed to become employment-free, enforcing these ideas for the future. This came in favour for the
industrial revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...
, gaining large-scale factory production and workers. The house layout of the Dutch and its functions are still relevant today.


19th and 20th centuries

In the American context, some professions, such as doctors, in the 19th and early 20th century typically operated out of the front room or parlor or had a two-room office on their property, which was detached from the house. By the mid-20th-century, the increase in high-tech equipment created a marked shift whereby the contemporary doctor typically worked from an
office An office is a space where an Organization, organization's employees perform Business administration, administrative Work (human activity), work in order to support and realize objects and Goals, plans, action theory, goals of the organizatio ...
or
hospital A hospital is a health care Healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health Health is a state of physical, mental and social well-being Well-being, also known as ''wellness'', ''prudential value'' or ''quality of life'', refe ...

hospital
. The introduction of
technology Technology ("science of craft", from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. I ...

technology
and electronic systems within the house has questioned the impressions of privacy as well as the segregation of
work from home Telecommuting, also called remote working, telework, teleworking, working from home (WFH), mobile work, remote job, work from anywhere (WFA), and flexible workplace, is a employment, work arrangement in which employees do not commuting, commute ...
. Technological advances of
surveillance Surveillance is the monitoring of behavior, many activities, or information for the purpose of information gathering, influencing, managing Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization An organization, or org ...

surveillance
and
communications Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Rep ...

communications
allow insight of personal habits and private lives. As a result, the "private becomes ever more public, the desire for a protective home life increases, fuelled by the very media that undermine it," writes Jonathan Hill. Work has been altered by the increase of communications. The "deluge of information", has expressed the efforts of work, conveniently gaining access inside the house. Although commuting is reduced, the desire to separate working and living remains apparent. On the other hand, some architects have designed homes in which eating, working and living are brought together.


Gallery

File:Casa dr. Ion Popescu, Str. Decebal nr. 9, Ploiești.JPG, The
Belle Époque The Belle Époque or La Belle Époque (; French language, French for "Beautiful Epoch") is the term often given to a period of History of France, French and European history, usually dated to between 1871–80 and the outbreak of World War I ...
Ion Popescu House from
Ploiești Ploiești (, , ), formerly spelled Ploești, is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. L ...
,
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...

Romania
File:Casas standard.png, Standard montevidean houses in
Uruguay Uruguay (; ; pt, Uruguai), officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay ( es, República Oriental del Uruguay), is a country in South America. It shares borders with Argentina to its west and southwest and Brazil to its north and northeast; whi ...

Uruguay
. File:Bhutanese Farmhouse Soe Yaksa.jpg, Farmhouse in
Bhutan Bhutan (; dz, འབྲུག་ཡུལ་, Druk Yul, ), officially known as the Kingdom of Bhutan ( dz, འབྲུག་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་, Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in the Eastern Himalayas. It is bordered by Chin ...

Bhutan
File:Cambo 169.jpg, Khmer house in
Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ពុជា, ), officially the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is in area, bordered by Thailand to Cambodia–T ...

Cambodia
File:La cabaña de Alpina.jpg, Traditional house in
Colombia Colombia ( , ; ), officially the Republic of Colombia, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by conv ...

Colombia
File:Rumah Minangkabau.jpg,
MinangkabauMinangkabau may refer to: * Minangkabau culture, culture of the Minangkabau people * Minangkabau Culture Documentation and Information Center * Minangkabau F.C., a football club based in Padang, West Sumatra * Minangkabau Highlands, West Sumatra * Mi ...
traditional house in
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is t ...

Indonesia
File:Faza in Kenya's Coast Province.JPEG, Traditional houses in
Faza Faza is a small town on the North coast on Pate Island Pate (Paté) Island () is located in the Indian Ocean close to the northern coast of Kenya Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya ( sw, Jamhuri ya Kenya), is a country in Eastern ...

Faza
,
Kenya ) , national_anthem = "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu" (, ) is the national anthem of Kenya. History "Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu"'s lyrics were originally written in Swahili language, Kiswahili, the national language of Kenya ...

Kenya
File:Banaue Philippines Batad-Rice-Terraces-03.jpg, Traditional village house in
Banaue (or alternatively spelled as Banawe), officially the is a in the province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, ...

Banaue
,
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
File:Brgule 006.jpg, House in Brgule,
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may ref ...

Serbia
File:Varassaari5.JPG, A traditional
Finnish Finnish may refer to: * Something or someone from, or related to Finland * Finnish culture * Finnish people or Finns, the primary ethnic group in Finland * Finnish language, the national language of the Finnish people * Finnish cuisine See also

...

Finnish
house from the beginning of 20th century in
Jyväskylä Jyväskylä (; la, Granivicus) is a city and municipality in Finland in the western part of the Finnish Lakeland. It is located about 150 km north-east from Tampere, the third largest city in Finland; and about 270 km north from Helsink ...

Jyväskylä
File:Gokayama Suganuma 五箇山菅沼地区 PA101516.jpg, Traditional house in
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
File:দোতলা টিনের ঘর, ঢাকা.jpg, Traditional two-story tin shed house in
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
File:Kamena kuca u Pokreveniku.jpg, Traditional stone house in Serbia File:Xaniyê Gundê Dîlan.JPG, A traditional Kurdish stone house File:Grachtenstad De Laak.jpg, Energy-efficient houses in
Amersfoort Amersfoort is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. ...

Amersfoort
,
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...

Netherlands
File:NorthYorkHouse2.JPG, A house in
Ontario ("Loyal she began, loyal she remains") , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , cap ...

Ontario
, Canada File:Muurschildering Loevenhoutsedijk- Hoogstraat 90, Utrecht.jpg, A decorated house in
Utrecht Utrecht ( , ) is the List of cities in the Netherlands by province, fourth-largest city and a List of municipalities of the Netherlands, municipality of the Netherlands, capital and most populous city of the Provinces of the Netherlands, provin ...

Utrecht
, Netherlands File:House (May 30, 2020).jpg, A single living house in
Addis Ababa Addis Ababa ( am, አዲስ አበባ ' , "new flower"), also known as Finfinne ( om, Finfinne "natural spring") and Sheger ( ', ), is the and largest city of . According to the 2007 census, the city has a population of 2,739,551 inhabitants. ...

Addis Ababa
, Ethiopia File:Gentrification with new and new homes side by side in Old East Dallas.jpg, Old and new houses side by side in Dallas


Construction

In many parts of the world, houses are constructed using scavenged materials. In
Manila Manila ( , ; fil, Maynila, ), officially the City of Manila ( fil, Lungsod ng Maynila, ), is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are ...

Manila
's
Payatas Payatas is a barangay A barangay (; abbreviated as Brgy. or Bgy.), sometimes referred to by its archaic name barrio (abbreviated as Bo.), is the smallest administrative division in the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ...
neighborhood, slum houses are often made of material sourced from a nearby garbage dump. In
Dakar Dakar (; ; wo, Ndakaaru) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and ...

Dakar
, it is common to see houses made of recycled materials standing atop a mixture of garbage and sand which serves as a foundation. The garbage-sand mixture is also used to protect the house from flooding. In the United States, modern house construction techniques include
light-frame construction upright=1.35, The erection of a wooden frame in Sabah, Malaysia Framing, in construction Construction is a general term meaning the art and science to form Physical object, objects, systems, or organizations,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b ...
(in areas with access to supplies of wood) and
adobe Adobe (; ) is a building material Building material is material used for construction Construction is a general term meaning the art and science to form Physical object, objects, systems, or organizations,"Construction" def. 1.a. ...

adobe
or sometimes (in arid regions with scarce wood-resources). Some areas use brick almost exclusively, and quarried stone has long provided foundations and walls. To some extent, aluminum and steel have displaced some traditional
building material Building material is material used for construction. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, rocks, sand, and wood, even twigs and leaves, have been used to construct buildings. Apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-mad ...

building material
s. Increasingly popular alternative construction materials include
insulating concrete form Insulating concrete form or insulated concrete form (ICF) is a system of formwork Placing a formwork component Formwork is temporary or permanent molds into which concrete File:Pantheon cupola.jpg, Interior of the Pantheon dome, seen f ...
s (foam forms filled with concrete), structural insulated panels (foam panels faced with
oriented strand board Oriented strand board (OSB) is a type of engineered wood Engineered wood, also called mass timber, composite wood, man-made wood, or manufactured board, includes a range of derivative wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue ...
or fiber cement), light-gauge steel, and
steel framing frame at 30 St Mary Axe, London, UK. Steel frame is a building technique with a "skeleton frame" of vertical steel columns and horizontal i-beam, -beams, constructed in a rectangular grid to support the floors, roof and walls of a building which a ...
. More generally, people often build houses out of the nearest available material, and often tradition or culture govern construction-materials, so whole towns, areas, counties or even states/countries may be built out of one main type of material. For example, a large portion of American houses use wood, while most British and many European houses use stone, brick, or mud. In the early 20th century, some house designers started using
prefabrication Prefabrication is the practice of assembling components of a structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated e ...
.
Sears, Roebuck & Co. Sears, Roebuck and Co., commonly known as Sears, is an American chain of department stores founded by Richard Warren Sears and Alvah Curtis Roebuck in 1892, and reincorporated by Richard Sears and Julius Rosenwald in 1906. Formerly based at the ...
first marketed their Sears Catalog Homes to the general public in 1908. Prefab techniques became popular after
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. First small inside rooms framing, then later, whole walls were prefabricated and carried to the
construction site Construction is a general term meaning the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no gener ...

construction site
. The original impetus was to use the
labor force The workforce or labour force is the labour economics, labour pooling (resource management), pool either in employment or unemployed.https://www.bls.gov/bls/glossary.htm It is generally used to describe those working for a single types of comp ...

labor force
inside a shelter during inclement weather. More recently, builders have begun to collaborate with
structural engineer Structural engineers analyze, design, plan, and research structural components and structural system The term structural system or structural frame in structural engineering refers to the load-resisting sub-system of a building or object. The ...
s who use
finite element analysis The finite element method (FEM) is a widely used method for numerically solving differential equations arising in engineering and mathematical modeling. Typical problem areas of interest include the traditional fields of structural analysis, ...
to design prefabricated steel-framed homes with known resistance to high wind loads and seismic forces. These newer products provide labor savings, more consistent quality, and possibly accelerated construction processes. Lesser-used construction methods have gained (or regained) popularity in recent years. Though not in wide use, these methods frequently appeal to homeowners who may become actively involved in the construction process. They include: * Hempcrete construction *
Cordwood construction 300px, A section of a cordwood home. Cordwood construction (also called "cordwood masonry", "cordwood building", "stackwall construction", "stovewood construction" or "stackwood construction") is a term used for a natural building A natural buil ...
*
Geodesic dome A geodesic dome is a hemispherical of a sphere A sphere (from Greek language, Greek —, "globe, ball") is a Geometry, geometrical object in solid geometry, three-dimensional space that is the surface of a Ball (mathematics), ball (viz., anal ...

Geodesic dome
s *
Straw-bale construction Straw-bale construction is a Building construction, building method that uses straw bale, bales of straw (commonly wheat, rice, rye and oats straw) as structural elements, building insulation, or both. This construction method is commonly used in n ...
*
Wattle and daub Wattle and daub is a composite material, composite building method used for making walls and buildings, in which a woven lattice of wooden strips called wattle (construction), wattle is daubed with a sticky material usually made of some combinatio ...

Wattle and daub
* *
Framing (construction) Framing, in construction, is the fitting together of pieces to give a structure support and shape. Framing materials are usually wood, engineered wood, or structural steel. The alternative to framed construction is generally called ''mass wall ...
In the developed world, energy-conservation has grown in importance in house design. Housing produces a major proportion of
carbon emissions Greenhouse gas emissions are emissions of greenhouse gases created from a range of human activities that cause climate change, as they have increased concentrations in the earth's atmosphere. These emissions mainly include carbon dioxide emissions ...
(studies have show that it is 30% of the total in the United Kingdom). Development of a number of
low-energy building upright=1.5, alt=See caption, A thermogram compares the heat radiation of the windows and walls of two buildings: a sustainable, low-energy passive house ''(right)'' and a conventional house A low-energy house is characterized by an energy-efficie ...
types and techniques continues. They include the zero-energy house, the passive solar house, the autonomous buildings, the Superinsulation, superinsulated and houses built to the ''Passive house, Passivhaus'' standard.


Legal issues

Buildings with historical importance have legal restrictions. New houses in the UK are not covered by the Sale of Goods Act. When purchasing a new house the buyer has different legal protection than when buying other products. New houses in the UK are covered by a National House Building Council guarantee.


Identification and symbolism

With the growth of dense settlement, humans designed ways of identifying houses and Land lot, parcels of land. Individual houses sometimes acquire proper names, and those names may acquire in their turn considerable emotional connotations. For example, the house of ''Howards End'' or the castle of ''Brideshead Revisited''. A more systematic and general approach to identifying houses may use various methods of house numbering. Houses may express the circumstances or opinions of their builders or their inhabitants. Thus, a vast and elaborate house may serve as a sign of conspicuous wealth whereas a low-profile house built of recycled materials may indicate support of energy conservation. Houses of particular historical significance (former residences of the famous, for example, or even just very old houses) may gain a protected status in town planning as examples of built Cultural heritage, heritage or of streetscape. Commemorative plaques may mark such structures. Home ownership provides a common measure of prosperity in economics. Contrast the importance of house-destruction, tent dwelling and house rebuilding in the wake of many natural disasters.


See also

Building * House-building * Index of construction articles Functions * Building science * Mixed-use development * Visitability Types * Boarding house * Earth sheltering * Home automation * Housing estate * Housing in Japan * Hurricane-proof house * Lodging * Lustron house * Mobile home * Modular home * Summer house * Tiny house Economics * Affordable housing * Real estate bubble ** United States housing bubble * Housing tenure * Show house Miscellaneous * Domestic robot * Homelessness * Home network * Housewarming party * Squatting Institutions * U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development ** HUD USER ** Regulatory Barriers Clearinghouse Lists * List of American houses * List of house styles * List of house types * List of real estate topics * Open-air museum


References


External links


Housing through the centuries
animation by ''The Atlantic'' {{Authority control Houses, Structural system Housing Home