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Historiography is the study of the methods of
historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past and is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are con ...
s in developing
history History (from Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the invention of writing systems are considered prehistory. "History" is an umbrella term that relate ...

history
as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject. The historiography of a specific topic covers how historians have studied that topic using particular sources, techniques, and theoretical approaches. Scholars discuss historiography by topic—such as the
historiography of the United KingdomThe historiography of the United Kingdom includes the historical and archival research and writing on the history of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Bri ...
, that of WWII, the British Empire, early Islam, and
China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering approximately 9.6& ...
—and different approaches and genres, such as
political history Political history is the narrative and survey of political events, ideas, movements, organs of government, voters, parties and leaders. It is interrelated to other fields of history, especially diplomatic history, as well as constitutional history ...
and
social history Social history, often called the new social history, is a field of history History (from Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the invention of writing sy ...
. Beginning in the nineteenth century, with the development of
academic history An academic history can be a large, multivolume work such as the '' Cambridge Modern History'', written collaboratively under some central editorial control. In the 19th century the idea appeared in universities that a definitive history could b ...
, there developed a body of historiographic literature. The extent to which historians are influenced by their own groups and loyalties—such as to their nation state—remains a debated question. In the
ancient world Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – 3.0
"History"
from t ...
, chronological
annal Annals ( la, annāles, from , "year") are a concise historical History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the History of writing#I ...
s were produced in civilizations such as
ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization of Ancient history, ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile, Nile River, situated in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric ...
and
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in the ...
. However, the discipline of historiography was first established in the 5th century BC with the ''
Histories Histories or, in Latin, Historiae may refer to: * the plural of history * Histories (Herodotus), ''Histories'' (Herodotus), by Herodotus * ''The Histories'', by Timaeus (historian), Timaeus * The Histories (Polybius), ''The Histories'' (Polybius), ...
'' of
Herodotus Herodotus ( ; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, Hēródotos, ; BC) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It ...
, the founder of historiography. The
Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epistle to the Romans'', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in ...
statesman
Cato the Elder Marcus Porcius Cato (; 234–149 BC), also known as Cato the Censor ( la, Censorius), the Elder and the Wise, was a Roman soldier, senator and historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the ear ...
produced the first history in Latin, the ''
Origines ''Origines'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman R ...
'', in the 2nd century BC. His near contemporaries
Sima Tan Sima Tan (; 165–110  BCE) was a Chinese astrologer and historian during the Western Han dynasty. Education & career Sima Tan studied astronomy with Tang Du, the ''I Ching The ''I Ching'' or ''Yi Jing'' (, ), usually translated as ...
and
Sima Qian Sima Qian (; ; ) was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the H ...

Sima Qian
in the
Han Empire The Han dynasty () was the second imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang Emperor Gaozu of Han (256 – 1 June 195 BC), born Liu Bang () with courtesy name Ji (季), was the founder and f ...

Han Empire
of
China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering approximately 9.6& ...
established
Chinese historiography Chinese historiography is the study of the techniques and sources used by historians to develop the recorded history of China The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. ...
with the compiling of the ''
Shiji The ''Records of the Grand Historian'', also known by its Chinese language, Chinese name ''Shiji'', is a monumental Chinese historiography, history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Han dynasty, Western Han Dynasty offic ...

Shiji
'' (''Records of the Grand Historian''). During the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similarly to the Post-classical, Post-classical period of global history. It began with the fall of the Western Roma ...
,
medieval historiography This is a list of historians only for those with a biographical entry in Wikipedia. Major chroniclers and annalists are included. Names are listed by the person's historical periodHuman history is commonly divided into three main Era, eras — Anci ...
included the works of
chronicle A chronicle ( la, chronica, from Greek language, Greek ''chroniká'', from , ''chrónos'' – "time") is a historical account of events arranged in chronology, chronological order, as in a time line. Typically, equal weight is given for histori ...
s in
medieval Europe In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the late 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire The fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called the fall of the Roman E ...
, Islamic histories by
Muslim historians :''This is a subarticle of Islamic scholars, List of Muslim scholars and List of historians.'' The following is a list of Muslim historians writing in the Islamic historiographical tradition, which developed from hadith Ḥadīth ( or ; ...
, and the
Korean Korean may refer to: People and culture * Koreans, an ethnic group originating in the Korean Peninsula * Korean cuisine * Korean culture * Korean language * Korean alphabet, or Hangul Places * Korean Peninsula, a peninsula in East Asia * Korea, ...
and
Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of J ...
historical writings based on the existing Chinese model. During the 18th-century
Age of Enlightenment The Age of Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Reason or simply the Enlightenment); ger, Aufklärung, "Enlightenment"; it, L'Illuminismo, "Enlightenment"; pl, Oświecenie , "Enlightenment"; pt, Iluminismo, "Enlightenment"; es, link=n ...
, historiography in the Western world was shaped and developed by figures such as
Voltaire François-Marie Arouet (; 21 November 169430 May 1778), known by his ''nom de plume A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary double, is a pseudonym A pseudonym () or alias () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) is a ...

Voltaire
,
David Hume David Hume (; born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) Cranston, Maurice, and Thomas Edmund Jessop. 2020 999999 or triple nine most often refers to: * 999 (emergency telephone number) 250px, A sign on a beach ...

David Hume
, and
Edward Gibbon Edward Gibbon (; 8 May 173716 January 1794) was an English historian, writer and Member of Parliament. His most important work, '' The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire'', was published in six volumes between 1776 and 1788 an ...
, who among others set the foundations for the modern discipline. The research interests of historians change over time, and there has been a shift away from traditional diplomatic, economic, and political history toward newer approaches, especially social and
cultural studies#REDIRECT Cultural studies Cultural studies is a field of theoretically, politically, and empirically engaged cultural analysis that concentrates upon the political dynamics of contemporary culture, its historical foundations, defining traits, con ...
. From 1975 to 1995 the proportion of professors of history in American universities identifying with social history increased from 31 to 41 percent, while the proportion of political historians decreased from 40 to 30 percent.Diplomatic dropped from 5 to 3 percent, economic history dropped from 7 to 5 percent, and cultural history grew from 14 to 16 percent. Based on the number of full-time professors in U.S. history departments.
Stephen H. Haber Stephen H. Haber (born July 12, 1957) is a professor of political science and history known for his work on the political institutions and economic policies that promote innovation and improvements in living standards. Haber is a professor in the S ...
, David M. Kennedy, and Stephen D. Krasner, "Brothers under the Skin: Diplomatic History and International Relations", ''International Security'', Vol. 22, No. 1 (Summer, 1997), pp. 34–43 at p. 4
online at JSTOR
/ref> In 2007, of 5,723 faculty in the departments of history at British universities, 1,644 (29 percent) identified themselves with social history and 1,425 (25 percent) identified themselves with political history. Since the 1980s there has been a special interest in the memories and commemoration of past events—the histories as remembered and presented for popular celebration.


Terminology

In the
early modern period The early modern period of modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recove ...
, the term ''historiography'' meant "the writing of history", and ''historiographer'' meant "
historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past and is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are con ...
". In that sense certain official historians were given the title " Historiographer Royal" in
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe.The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states that the country's for ...
(from 1618),
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. En ...
(from 1660), and
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island of Great Britain, mainland Scotland has a 96-mile (154 km) Anglo-Scottish bo ...
(from 1681). The Scottish post is still in existence. Historiography was more recently defined as "the study of the way history has been and is written – the history of historical writing", which means that, "When you study 'historiography' you do not study the events of the past directly, but the changing interpretations of those events in the works of individual historians."


Antiquity

Understanding the past appears to be a universal human need, and the "telling of history" has emerged independently in civilizations around the world. What constitutes history is a philosophical question (see
philosophy of history Philosophy of history is the philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, existence, knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someo ...
). The earliest chronologies date back to
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in the ...

Mesopotamia
and
ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization of Ancient history, ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile, Nile River, situated in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric ...
, in the form of
chronicle A chronicle ( la, chronica, from Greek language, Greek ''chroniká'', from , ''chrónos'' – "time") is a historical account of events arranged in chronology, chronological order, as in a time line. Typically, equal weight is given for histori ...
s and
annal Annals ( la, annāles, from , "year") are a concise historical History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the History of writing#I ...
s. However, no historical writers in these early civilizations were known by name. By contrast, the term "historiography" is taken to refer to written history recorded in a narrative format for the purpose of informing future generations about events. In this limited sense, "ancient history" begins with the early historiography of
Classical Antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 6th century AD centred on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ...
, in about the 5th century BC.


Europe


Greece

The earliest known systematic historical thought emerged in
ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of Classical Antiquity, antiquity ( AD 600). This era was ...
, a development which would be an important influence on the writing of history elsewhere around the Mediterranean region. Greek historians greatly contributed to the development of historical methodology. The earliest known critical historical works were '' The Histories'', composed by
Herodotus of Halicarnassus Herodotus (; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, ''Hēródotos'', ; BC) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. ...
(484–425 BC) who became known as the "father of history". Herodotus attempted to distinguish between more and less reliable accounts, and personally conducted research by travelling extensively, giving written accounts of various Mediterranean cultures. Although Herodotus' overall emphasis lay on the actions and characters of men, he also attributed an important role to divinity in the determination of historical events. The generation following Herodotus witnessed a spate of local histories of the individual
city-state A city-state is an independent sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', which is ultimately derived from the Latin word ''superānus'' ...
s (''
poleis ''Polis'' (, ; grc-gre, πόλις, ), plural ''poleis'' (, , ), literally means "city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ...

poleis
''), written by the first of the
local historians Local may refer to: Geography and transportation * Local (train), a train serving local traffic demand * Local, Missouri, a community in the United States * Local government, a form of public administration, usually the lowest tier of administrati ...
who employed the written archives of city and sanctuary.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus Dionysius of Halicarnassus ( grc, Διονύσιος Ἀλεξάνδρου Ἁλικαρνασσεύς, ; – after 7 BC) was a Greek historian Hellenic historiography (or Greek historiography) involves efforts made by Greeks to track and re ...
characterized these historians as the forerunners of Thucydides, and these local histories continued to be written into
Late Antiquity Late antiquity is a periodization Periodization is the process or study of categorizing the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of time.Adam Rabinowitz. It’s about time: historical periodization and Linked Ancient World Data'. Insti ...
, as long as the city-states survived. Two early figures stand out: Hippias of Elis, who produced the lists of winners in the Olympic Games that provided the basic chronological framework as long as the pagan classical tradition lasted, and
Hellanicus of Lesbos Hellanicus (or Hellanikos) of Lesbos ( Greek: , ''Ἑllánikos ὁ Lésvios''), also called Hellanicus of Mytilene ( Greek: , ''Ἑllánikos ὁ Mutilēnaῖos'') was an ancient Greek logographer who flourished during the latter half of the 5th ce ...
, who compiled more than two dozen histories from civic records, all of them now lost.
Thucydides Thucydides (; grc-gre, Θουκυδίδης ; BC) was an Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appr ...
largely eliminated divine causality in his account of the war between Athens and Sparta, establishing a rationalistic element which set a precedent for subsequent Western historical writings. He was also the first to distinguish between cause and immediate origins of an event, while his successor
Xenophon Xenophon of Athens (; grc, Ξενοφῶν Xenophon of Athens (; grc-gre, Ξενοφῶν, , ''Xenophōn''; – 354 BC) was an Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens monta ...

Xenophon
( – 355 BC) introduced autobiographical elements and character studies in his ''
Anabasis Anabasis (from Greek ''ana'' = "upward", ''bainein'' = "to step or march") is an expedition from a coastline into the interior of a country. Anabase and Anabasis may also refer to: History * ''Anabasis Alexandri ''The Anabasis of Alexander'' ...
''. The proverbial
Philippic A philippic ()http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/English/philippic is a fiery, damning speech, or tirade, delivered to condemn a particular political actor. The term is most famously associated with two noted orators of the ancient worl ...
attacks of the Athenian orator
Demosthenes Demosthenes (; el, Δημοσθένης, translit=Dēmosthénēs; ; 384 – 12 October 322 BC) was a Greeks, Greek statesman and orator of History of Athens, ancient Athens. His Public speaking, orations constitute a significant expression o ...

Demosthenes
(384–322 BC) on Philip II of Macedon marked the height of ancient political agitation. The now lost history of
Alexander's Alexander's is a real estate investment trust A real estate investment trust (REIT) is a company that owns, and in most cases operates, income-producing real estate. REITs own many types of commercial real estate, ranging from office and apartm ...

Alexander's
campaigns by the
diadoch 250px, Bust of Seleucus ''Nicator'' ("Victor"; 358 – 281 BCE), the last of the original Diadochi. The Diadochi (; plural of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the ...

diadoch
Ptolemy I (367–283 BC) may represent the first historical work composed by a ruler.
Polybius Polybius (; grc-gre, Πολύβιος, ; ) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the R ...

Polybius
( – 120 BC) wrote on the rise of Rome to world prominence, and attempted to harmonize the Greek and Roman points of view. The
Chaldea Chaldea () was a small country that existed between the late 10th or early 9th and mid-6th centuries BCE, after which the country and its people were absorbed and assimilated into the indigenous population Babylonia. Semitic language, Semitic-s ...
n priest
Berossus Berossus, " Bel is his shepherd"; el, Βήρωσσος) was a Hellenistic The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire, as sig ...
( BC) composed a Greek-language ''History of
Babylonia Babylonia () was an Ancient history, ancient Akkadian language, Akkadian-speaking state (polity), state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq and Syria). A small Amorites, Amorite-ruled state emerged in 1894 ...
'' for the
Seleucid The Seleucid Empire (; grc, Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, ''Basileía tōn Seleukidōn'') was a Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hell ...

Seleucid
king Antiochus I, combining
Hellenistic The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire, as signified by the Battle of Actium The Battle of Actium was a naval battle in t ...

Hellenistic
methods of historiography and
Mesopotamia Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in the ...

Mesopotamia
n accounts to form a unique composite. Reports exist of other near-eastern histories, such as that of the Phoenician historian
Sanchuniathon Sanchuniathon (; grc, Σαγχουνιάθων ; probably from phn, 𐤎𐤊𐤍𐤉𐤕𐤍, SKNYTN, Sakun-yaton, " he godSakon has given"), also known as Sanchoniatho the Berytian, is the Phoenician author of three lost works originally writt ...
; but he is considered semi-legendary and writings attributed to him are fragmentary, known only through the later historians
Philo of Byblos Philo of Byblos ( grc, Φίλων Βύβλιος, ''Phílōn Býblios''; la, Philo Byblius;  – 141), also known as Herennius Philon, was an antiquarian writer of grammatical, lexical and historical History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ...
and
Eusebius Eusebius of Caesarea (; grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, ''Eusébios tés Kaisareías''; AD 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου), ...

Eusebius
, who asserted that he wrote before even the
Trojan war In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Homer), Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris (mythology), Paris of Troy took Helen of Troy, Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta. The war is one of the ...
.


Rome

The Romans adopted the Greek tradition, writing at first in Greek, but eventually chronicling their history in a freshly non-Greek language. While early Roman works were still written in Greek, the ''Origines'', composed by the Roman statesman
Cato the Elder Marcus Porcius Cato (; 234–149 BC), also known as Cato the Censor ( la, Censorius), the Elder and the Wise, was a Roman soldier, senator and historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the ear ...
(234–149 BC), was written in Latin, in a conscious effort to counteract Greek cultural influence. It marked the beginning of Latin historical writings. Hailed for its lucid style,
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of anc ...

Julius Caesar
's (100–44 BC) ''
de Bello Gallico ''Commentarii de Bello Gallico'' (; en, Commentaries on the Gallic War, italic=yes), also ''Bellum Gallicum'' ( en, Gallic War, italic=yes), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. In it Caes ...

de Bello Gallico
'' exemplifies autobiographical war coverage. The politician and orator
Cicero Marcus Tullius Cicero ( ; ; 3 January 106 – 7 December 43 BC) was a Ancient Rome, Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher and Academic skepticism, Academic Skeptic, who tried to uphold republican principles during crisis of th ...

Cicero
(106–43 BCE) introduced rhetorical elements in his political writings.
Strabo Strabo''Strabo'' (meaning "squinty", as in strabismus Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object. The eye that is focused on an object can alternate. The condition may be pres ...

Strabo
(63 BC –  AD) was an important exponent of the
Greco-Roman File:Merida Roman Theatre2.jpg, Roman Theatre of Mérida, Spain. The term "Greco-Roman world" (also "Greco-Roman culture" or ; spelled Graeco-Roman in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth), as understood by modern scholars and writers, r ...
tradition of combining geography with history, presenting a descriptive history of peoples and places known to his era.
Livy Titus Livius (; 59 BC – AD 17), known in English as Livy ( ), was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ...
(59 BC – 17 AD) records the rise of
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
from
city-state A city-state is an independent sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', which is ultimately derived from the Latin word ''superānus'' ...
to
empire An empire is a "political unit" made up of several territories and peoples, "usually created by conquest, and divided between a dominant center and subordinate peripheries". Narrowly defined, an empire is a sovereign state called an empire and w ...

empire
. His speculation about what would have happened if
Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (''basileus'') of the Ancient Greece, ancient Greek kingdom of Macedonia (ancient kingdom) ...

Alexander the Great
had marched against Rome represents the first known instance of alternate history. Biography, although popular throughout antiquity, was introduced as a branch of history by the works of
Plutarch Plutarch (; grc-gre, Πλούταρχος, ''Ploútarchos''; ; AD 46–after AD 119) was a Greek Middle Platonism, Middle Platonist philosopher, historian, Biography, biographer, essayist, and priest at the Temple of Apollo (Delphi), Temple of ...

Plutarch
( – 127 CE) and
Suetonius Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus (), commonly known as Suetonius ( ; c. AD 69 – after AD 122), was a Roman historianRoman historiography stretches back to at least the 3rd century BC and was indebted to earlier Greek historiography. The Romans ...

Suetonius
( – after 130 CE) who described the deeds and characters of ancient personalities, stressing their human side.
Tacitus Publius Cornelius Tacitus ( , ; – ) was a Roman historian and politician. Tacitus is widely regarded as one of the greatest Roman historians by modern scholars. He lived in what has been called the Silver Age of Latin literature Classic ...

Tacitus
( CE) denounces Roman immorality by praising
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
virtues, elaborating on the
topos In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It ...
of the
Noble savage#REDIRECT Noble savage A noble savage is a literary stock character who embodies the concept of the indigene, outsider, wild human, an " other" who has not been "corrupted" by civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any comple ...
.


East Asia


China

The Han dynasty eunuch
Sima Qian Sima Qian (; ; ) was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the H ...

Sima Qian
(around 100 BCE) was the first in China to lay the groundwork for professional historical writing. His work superseded the older style of the ''
Spring and Autumn Annals The ''Spring and Autumn Annals'' or ''Chunqiu'' is an ancient Chinese chronicle that has been one of the core Chinese classics Chinese classic texts or canonical texts () or simply dianji (典籍) refers to the Chinese texts which originated ...
'', compiled in the 5th century BC, the ''
Bamboo Annals The ''Bamboo Annals'' (), also known as the ''Ji Tomb Annals'' (), is a chronicle A chronicle ( la, chronica, from Greek language, Greek ''chroniká'', from , ''chrónos'' – "time") is a historical account of events arranged in chronology, ...
'' and other court and dynastic
annals Annals ( la, annāles, from , "year") are a concise historical History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the History of writing#I ...
that recorded history in a
chronological 222px, Joseph Scaliger's ''De emendatione temporum'' (1583) began the modern science of chronology Chronology (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European language ...
form that abstained from
analysis Analysis is the process of breaking a complexity, complex topic or Substance theory, substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better understanding of it. The technique has been applied in the study of mathematics and logic since before Ari ...

analysis
. Sima's ''
Shiji The ''Records of the Grand Historian'', also known by its Chinese language, Chinese name ''Shiji'', is a monumental Chinese historiography, history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Han dynasty, Western Han Dynasty offic ...

Shiji
'' (''
Records of the Grand Historian The ''Records of the Grand Historian'', also known by its Chinese name ''Shiji'', is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Western Han Dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father ...

Records of the Grand Historian
'') pioneered the "Annals-biography" format, which would become the standard for prestige history writing in China. In this genre a history opens with a chronological outline of court affairs, and then continues with detailed biographies of prominent people who lived during the period in question. The scope of his work extended as far back as the 16th century BC, and included many treatises on specific subjects and individual biographies of prominent people. He also explored the lives and deeds of commoners, both contemporary and those of previous eras. Whereas Sima's had been a universal history from the beginning of time down to the time of writing, his successor
Ban Gu Ban Gu (AD32–92) was a Chinese historian, politician, and poet best known for his part in compiling the ''Book of Han'', the second of China's Ershisi shi, 24 dynastic histories. He also wrote a number of ''fu (literature), fu'', a major ...

Ban Gu
wrote an annals-biography history limiting its coverage to only the
Western Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...
, the
Book of Han The ''Book of Han'' or ''History of the Former Han'' is a history of China finished in 111, covering the Western, or Former Han dynasty from the first emperor in 206 BCE to the fall of Wang Mang Wang Mang (Chinese: 王莽) (c. 45 – 6 O ...
(96 AD). This established the notion of using dynastic boundaries as start- and end-points, and most later Chinese histories would focus on a single dynasty or group of dynasties. The Records of the Grand Historian and Book of Han were eventually joined by the
Book of the Later Han The ''Book of the Later Han'', also known as the ''History of the Later Han'' and by its Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It i ...
(488 CE) (replacing the earlier, and now only partially extant, Han Records from the Eastern Pavilion) and the
Records of the Three Kingdoms The ''Records of the Three Kingdoms'' is a Chinese historical text which covers the history of the late Eastern Han dynasty (c. 184–220 CE) and the Three Kingdoms The Three Kingdoms () from 220 to 280 AD was the tripartite division ...
(297 CE) to form the "Four Histories". These became mandatory reading for the
Imperial Examinations Chinese imperial examinations, or ''keju'' (lit. "subject recommendation"), were a civil service examination system in Imperial China The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Sha ...
and have therefore exerted an influence on Chinese culture comparable to the
Confucian Classics Chinese classic texts or canonical texts () or simply dianji (典籍) refers to the Chinese texts which originated before the imperial unification by the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, particularly the "Four Books and Five Classics The Four Books and ...
. More annals-biography histories were written in subsequent dynasties, eventually bringing the number to between twenty-four and twenty-six, but none ever reached the popularity and impact of the first four. Traditional Chinese historiography describes history in terms of dynastic cycles. In this view, each new dynasty is founded by a morally righteous founder. Over time, the dynasty becomes morally corrupt and dissolute. Eventually, the dynasty becomes so weak as to allow its replacement by a new dynasty. In 281 AD the tomb of
King Xiang of Wei King Xiang of Wei () (died 296 BC), personal name Wei Si (), was king of Wei from 318 BC to 296 BC. He was the son of King Hui of Wei King Hui of Wei (; 400-319 BC), originally called Marquis Hui of Wei, and after 344, King Hui of Liang () was the ...
(d. 296 BC) was opened, inside of which was found a historical text called the
Bamboo Annals The ''Bamboo Annals'' (), also known as the ''Ji Tomb Annals'' (), is a chronicle A chronicle ( la, chronica, from Greek language, Greek ''chroniká'', from , ''chrónos'' – "time") is a historical account of events arranged in chronology, ...
, after the writing material. It is similar in style to the Spring and Autumn Annals and covers the time from the
Yellow Emperor The Yellow Emperor, also known as the Yellow Thearch, or by his Chinese name Huangdi (), is a deity A deity or god is a supernatural being considered divinity, divine or sacred. The ''Oxford Dictionary of English'' defines deity as "a God ( ...

Yellow Emperor
to 299 BC. Opinions on the authenticity of the text has varied throughout the centuries, and in any event it was re-discovered too late to gain anything like the same status as the Spring and Autumn.


Middle Ages to Renaissance


Christendom

Christian historical writing arguably begins with the narrative sections of the New Testament, particularly Luke-Acts, which is the
primary source In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source (also called an original source) is an Artifact (archaeology), artifact, document, diary, manuscript, autobiography, recording, or any other source of information that was crea ...

primary source
for the
Apostolic Age Christianity in the 1st century covers the formative history of Christianity The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christian countries, and the Church with its various denominations, from the 1st century to the pr ...
, though its historical reliability is disputed. The first tentative beginnings of a specifically Christian historiography can be seen in
Clement of Alexandria Titus Flavius Clemens, also known as Clement of Alexandria ( grc, Κλήμης ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς; – ), was a Christian theology, Christian theologian and philosopher who taught at the Catechetical School of Alexandria. Among his pupi ...
in the second century. The growth of Christianity and its enhanced status in the Roman Empire after
Constantine I Constantine I ( la, Flavius Valerius Constantinus; ; 27 February 22 May 337), also known as Constantine the Great, was a Roman emperor from 306 to 337. Born in Naissus, Dacia Mediterranea (now Niš, Serbia), he was the son of Constantius Chlor ...
(see
State church of the Roman Empire The state church of the Roman Empire refers to the church approved by the Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throug ...
) led to the development of a distinct Christian historiography, influenced by both
Christian theology Christian theology is the theology of Christianity, Christian belief and practice. * help them better understand Christian tenets * make comparative religion, comparisons between Christianity and other traditions * Christian apologetics, defend ...
and the nature of the
Christian Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Greek ...
, encompassing new areas of study and views of history. The central role of the Bible in Christianity is reflected in the preference of Christian historians for written sources, compared to the classical historians' preference for oral sources and is also reflected in the inclusion of politically unimportant people. Christian historians also focused on development of religion and society. This can be seen in the extensive inclusion of written sources in the ''
Ecclesiastical History __NOTOC__ Church history or ecclesiastical history as an academic discipline studies the history of Christianity The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christian countries, and the Church with its various denominati ...
'' of
Eusebius of Caesarea Eusebius of Caesarea (; grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, ''Eusébios tés Kaisareías''; AD 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου), ...

Eusebius of Caesarea
around 324 and in the subjects it covers.''Historiography''
, Concordia University Wisconsin, retrieved on 2 November 2007
Christian theology considered time as linear, progressing according to divine plan. As God's plan encompassed everyone, Christian histories in this period had a universal approach. For example, Christian writers often included summaries of important historical events prior to the period covered by the work. Writing history was popular among Christian monks and clergy in the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similarly to the Post-classical, Post-classical period of global history. It began with the fall of the Western Roma ...
. They wrote about the history of Jesus Christ, that of the Church and that of their patrons, the dynastic history of the local rulers. In the
Early Middle Ages The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, sometimes referred to as the Dark Ages (historiography), Dark Ages, is typically regarded by historians as lasting from the late 5th or early 6th century to the 10th century. They marked the start ...
historical writing often took the form of
annals Annals ( la, annāles, from , "year") are a concise historical History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the History of writing#I ...
or
chronicle A chronicle ( la, chronica, from Greek language, Greek ''chroniká'', from , ''chrónos'' – "time") is a historical account of events arranged in chronology, chronological order, as in a time line. Typically, equal weight is given for histori ...
s recording events year by year, but this style tended to hamper the analysis of events and causes. An example of this type of writing is the ''
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle The ''Anglo-Saxon Chronicle'' is a collection of annals in Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoke ...
'', which was the work of several different writers: it was started during the reign of
Alfred the Great Alfred the Great (848/49 – 26 October 899) was king of the West Saxons This is a list of monarchs of Wessex until 886 AD. For later monarchs, see the List of English monarchs. While the details of the later monarchs are confirmed by a number ...

Alfred the Great
in the late 9th century, but one copy was still being updated in 1154. Some writers in the period did construct a more
narrative A narrative, story or tale is any account of a series of related events or experiences, whether nonfictional ( memoir, biography, news report, documentary, Travel literature, travelogue, etc.) or fictional (fairy tale, fable, legend, Thriller ( ...

narrative
form of history. These included
Gregory of Tours Gregory of Tours (30 November 538 – 17 November 594 AD) was a Gallo-Roman The term "Gallo-Roman" describes the Romanization (cultural), Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire. This was characterized by the Gaulish ...
and more successfully
Bede Bede ( ; ang, Bǣda , ; 672/326 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, The Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable ( la, Beda Venerabilis), was an English Benedictine The Benedictines, officially the Order of Saint Benedict ( la, Ordo Sanc ...

Bede
, who wrote both
secular Secularity, also the secular or secularness (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latiu ...

secular
and
ecclesiastical {{Short pages monitor * Parish, Peter, ed. ''Reader's Guide to American History'' (Routledge, 1997), 880 pp; detailed guide to historiography of American topic
excerpt and text search
* Popkin, Jeremy D. ''From Herodotus to H-Net: The Story of Historiography'' (Oxford UP, 2015). * Daniel Woolf, Woolf, Daniel et al. ''The Oxford History of Historical Writing'' (5 vol 2011–r12), covers all major historians since AD 600; se
listings
** ''The Oxford History of Historical Writing: Volume 1: Beginnings to AD 600'' online at DOI:10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199218158.001.0001 ** ''The Oxford History of Historical Writing: Volume 3: 1400–1800'' online at DOI:10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199219179.001.0001 ** ''The Oxford History of Historical Writing: Volume 4: 1800–1945'' online at DOI:10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199533091.001.0001


Histories of historical writing

* Arnold, John H. ''History: A Very Short Introduction'' (2000). New York: Oxford University Press. * Barnes, Harry Elmer. ''A history of historical writing'' (1962) * Barraclough, Geoffrey. ''History: Main Trends of Research in the Social and Human Sciences'', (1978) * Bauer, Stefan. ''The Invention of Papal History: Onofrio Panvinio between Renaissance and Catholic Reform'' (Oxford University Press, 2020). * Bentley, Michael. ed., ''Companion to Historiography'', Routledge, 1997, , 39 chapters by experts * Boyd, Kelly, ed. ''Encyclopedia of historians and historical writing'' (2 vol. Taylor & Francis, 1999), 1562 pp * Breisach, Ernst. ''Historiography: Ancient, Medieval and Modern'', 3rd edition, 2007, * Budd, Adam, ed. ''The Modern Historiography Reader: Western Sources.'' (Routledge, 2009). * Cline, Howard F., ed.''Latin American History: Essays on Its Study and Teaching, 1898–1965''. 2 vols. Austin: University of Texas Press 1965. * Cohen, H. Floris ''The Scientific Revolution: A Historiographical Inquiry'', (1994), * Conrad, Sebastian. ''The Quest for the Lost Nation: Writing History in Germany and Japan in the American Century'' (2010) * Crymble, Adam. ''Technology and the Historian: Transformations in the Digital Age'' (University of Illinois, 2021), 241 pp * Fitzsimons, M.A. et al. eds. ''The development of historiography'' (1954) 471 pages; comprehensive global coverage
online free
* Gilderhus, Mark T. ''History and Historians: A Historiographical Introduction'', 2002, * Iggers, Georg G. ''Historiography in the 20th Century: From Scientific Objectivity to the Postmodern Challenge'' (2005) * Kramer, Lloyd, and Sarah Maza, eds. ''A Companion to Western Historical Thought'' Blackwell 2006. 520 pp; . * Arnaldo Momigliano, Momigliano, Arnaldo. ''The Classical Foundation of Modern Historiography'', 1990, * ''The Oxford History of Historical Writing'' (5 vol 2011), Volume 1: Beginnings to AD 600; Volume 2: 600–1400; Volume 3: 1400–1800; Volume 4: 1800–1945; Volume 5: Historical Writing since 194
catalog
* Rahman, M. M. ed. ''Encyclopaedia of Historiography'' (2006
Excerpt and text search
* Soffer, Reba. '' History, Historians, and Conservatism in Britain and America: From the Great War to Thatcher and Reagan'' (2009
excerpt and text search
* Thompson, James Westfall. ''A History of Historical Writing. vol 1: From the earliest Times to the End of the 17th Century'' (1942
online edition
''A History of Historical Writing. vol 2: The 18th and 19th Centuries'' (1942
online edition
* Woolf, Daniel, ed. ''A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing'' (2 vol. 1998) * Woolf, Daniel. "Historiography", in ''New Dictionary of the History of Ideas'', ed. M.C. Horowitz, (2005), vol. I. * Woolf, Daniel. ''A Global History of History'' (Cambridge University Press, 2011) * Woolf, Daniel, ed. ''The Oxford History of Historical Writing''. 5 vols. (Oxford University Press, 2011–12).2011) * Woolf, Daniel, ''A Concise History Of History'' (Cambridge University Press, 2019)


Feminist historiography

* Bonnie G. Smith, ''The Gender of History: Men, Women, and Historical Practice'', Harvard University Press 2000 * Gerda Lerner, ''The Majority Finds its Past: Placing Women in History'', New York: Oxford University Press 1979 * Judith M. Bennett, ''History Matters: Patriarchy and the Challenge of Feminism'', University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006 * Julie Des Jardins, ''Women and the Historical Enterprise in America'', University of North Carolina Press, 2002 * Donna Guy, "Gender and Sexuality in Latin America" in ''The Oxford Handbook of Latin American History'', José C. Moya, ed. New York: Oxford University Press 2011, pp. 367–81. * Asunción Lavrin, "Sexuality in Colonial Spanish America" in ''The Oxford Handbook of Latin American History'', José C. Moya, ed. New York: Oxford University Press 2011, pp. 132–54. * Mary Ritter Beard, ''Woman as force in history: A study in traditions and realities'' * Mary Spongberg, ''Writing women's history since the Renaissance'', Palgrave Macmillan, 2002 * Clare Hemmings, "Why Stories Matter: The Political Grammar of Feminist Theory", Duke University Press 2011


National and regional studies

* Berger, Stefan et al., eds. ''Writing National Histories: Western Europe Since 1800'' (1999
excerpt and text search
how history has been used in Germany, France & Italy to legitimize the nation-state against socialist, communist and Catholic internationalism * Iggers, Georg G. ''A new Directions and European Historiography'' (1975) * LaCapra, Dominic, and Stephen L. Kaplan, eds. ''Modern European Intellectual History: Reappraisals and New Perspective'' (1982)


Asia and Africa

* Cohen, Paul. ''Discovering History in China: American Historical Writing on the Recent Chinese Past''. New York, London:: Columbia University Press, Studies of the East Asian Institute, 1984. 237p. Reprinted: 2010, with a New Introduction by the Author. .http://www.worldcat.org/title/discovering-history-in-china-american-historical-writing-on-the-recent-chinese-past/oclc/456728837/viewport * R.C. Majumdar, Historiography in Modem India (Bombay, 1970) * Marcinkowski, M. Ismail. ''Persian Historiography and Geography: Bertold Spuler on Major Works Produced in Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia, India and Early Ottoman Turkey'' (Singapore: Pustaka Nasional, 2003) * Martin, Thomas R. ''Herodotus and Sima Qian: The First Great Historians of Greece and China: A Brief History with Documents'' (2009) * E. Sreedharan, A Textbook of Historiography, 500 B.C. to A.D. 2000 (2004) * Arvind Sharma, Hinduism and Its Sense of History (Oxford University Press, 2003) * Shourie, Arun (2014). Eminent historians: Their technology, their line, their fraud. Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India : HarperCollins Publishers. * Yerxa, Donald A. ''Recent Themes in the History of Africa and the Atlantic World: Historians in Conversation'' (2008
excerpt and text search


Britain

* Bann, Stephen. ''Romanticism and the Rise of History'' (Twayne Publishers, 1995) * Bentley, Michael. ''Modernizing England's Past: English Historiography in the Age of Modernism, 1870–1970'' (2006
excerpt and text search
* Cannadine, David. ''In Churchill's Shadow: Confronting the Passed in Modern Britain'' (2003) * Furber, Elizabeth, ed. ''Changing Views on British History; Essays on Historical Writing Since 1939'' (1966); 418pp; essays by scholars * * * Hale, John Rigby, ed. ''The evolution of British historiography: from Bacon to Namier'' (1967). * Howsam, Leslie. "Academic Discipline or Literary Genre?: The Establishment of Boundaries in Historical Writing." ''Victorian Literature and Culture'' (2004) 32#2 pp. 525–45
online
* Hexter, J. H. ''On Historians: Reappraisals of some of the makers of modern history'' (1979); covers Carl Becker, Wallace Ferguson, Fernan Braudel, Lawrence Stone, Christopher Hill, and J.G.A. Pocock * Howsam, Leslie. "Academic Discipline or Literary Genre?: The Establishment of Boundaries in Historical Writing." ''Victorian Literature and Culture'' 32.02 (2004): 525–545
online
* Jann, Rosemary. ''The Art and Science of Victorian History'' (1985) * Jann, Rosemary. "From Amateur to Professional: The Case of the Oxbridge Historians." ''Journal of British Studies'' (1983) 22#2 pp: 122–47. * Kenyon, John. ''The History Men: The Historical Profession in England since the Renaissance'' (1983) * Loades, David. ''Reader's Guide to British History'' (2 vol. 2003) 1700pp; 1600-word-long historiographical essays on about 1000 topics * Mitchell, Rosemary. '' Picturing the Past: English History in Text and Image 1830–1870'' (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000) * Philips, Mark Salber. ''Society and Sentiment: Genres of Historical Writing in Britain, 1740–1820'' (Princeton University Press, 2000). * Richardson, Roger Charles, ed. ''The debate on the English Revolution'' (2nd ed. Manchester University Press, 1998) * Schlatter, Richard, ed. ''Recent Views on British History: Essays on Historical Writing Since 1966'' (1984) 525 pp; 13 topics essays by scholars


=British Empire

= * Berger, Carl. ''Writing Canadian History: Aspects of English Canadian Historical Writing since 1900'', (2nd ed. 1986) * Bhattacharjee, J. B. ''Historians and Historiography of North East India'' (2012) * Davison, Graeme. ''The Use and Abuse of Australian History'', (2000
online edition
* Farrell, Frank. ''Themes in Australian History: Questions, Issues and Interpretation in an Evolving Historiography'' (1990) * Gare, Deborah. "Britishness in Recent Australian Historiography", ''The Historical Journal'', Vol. 43, No. 4 (Dec., 2000), pp. 1145–115
in JSTOR
* Ranajit Guha, Guha, Ranajiit. ''Dominance Without Hegemony: History and Power in Colonial India'' (Harvard UP, 1998) * Jack Granatstein, Granatstein, J. L. ''Who Killed Canadian History?'' (1998) * Mittal, S. C ''India distorted: A study of British historians on India'' (1995), on 19th century writers * Saunders, Christopher. ''The making of the South African past: major historians on race and class'', (1988) * Winks, Robin, ed. ''The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume V: Historiography'' (2001)


France

* Burke, Peter. ''The French Historical Revolution: The Annales School 1929–2014'' (John Wiley & Sons, 2015). * * Daileader, Philip and Philip Whalen, eds. ''French Historians 1900–2000: New Historical Writing in Twentieth-Century France'' (2010) 40 long essays by experts
excerpt
* Revel, Jacques, and Lynn Hunt, eds. ''Histories: French Constructions of the Past'', (1995). 654pp; 65 essays by French historians * Stoianovich, Traian. ''French Historical Method: The Annales Paradigm'' (1976)


Germany

* Fletcher, Roger. "Recent developments in West German Historiography: the Bielefeld School and its critics." ''German Studies Review'' (1984): 451–480
in JSTOR
* Hagemann, Karen, and Jean H. Quataert, eds. ''Gendering Modern German History: Rewriting Historiography'' (2008) * Iggers, Georg G. ''The German Conception of History: The National Tradition of Historical Thought from Herder to the Present'' (2nd ed. 1983) * Rüger, Jan, and Nikolaus Wachsmann, eds. ''Rewriting German history: new perspectives on modern Germany'' (Palgrave Macmillan, 2015)
excerpt
* Sheehan, James J. "What is German history? Reflections on the role of the nation in German history and historiography." ''Journal of Modern History'' (1981): 2–23
in JSTOR
* Sperber, Jonathan. "Master Narratives of Nineteenth-century German History." ''Central European History'' (1991) 24#1: 69–91
online
* Stuchtey, Benedikt, and Peter Wende, eds. ''British and German historiography, 1750–1950: traditions, perceptions, and transfers'' (2000).


Latin America

* Adelman, Jeremy, ed. ''Colonial Legacies''. New York: Routledge 1999. * Coatsworth, John. "Cliometrics and Mexican History," ''Historical Methods''18:1 (Winter 1985)31–37. * * * Lockhart, James. "The Social History of Early Latin America". ''Latin American Research Review'' 1972. * Moya, José C. ''The Oxford Handbook of Latin American History''. New York: Oxford University Press 2011. * *


United States

* Hofstadter, Richard. ''The Progressive Historians: Turner, Beard, Parrington'' (1968) * Peter Novick, Novick, Peter. ''That Noble Dream: The "Objectivity Question" and the American Historical Profession'' (1988), * Palmer, William W. "All Coherence Gone? A Cultural History of Leading History Departments in the United States, 1970–2010", ''Journal of The Historical Society'' (2012), 12: 111–53. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-5923.2012.00360.x * Palmer, William. ''Engagement with the Past: The Lives and Works of the World War II Generation of Historians'' (2001) * Parish, Peter J., ed. ''Reader's Guide to American History'' (1997), historiographical overview of 600 topics * Wish, Harvey. ''The American Historian'' (1960), covers pre-1920


Themes, organizations, and teaching

* Carlebach, Elishiva, et al. eds. ''Jewish History and Jewish Memory: Essays in Honor of Yosef Hayim Yerushalmi'' (1998
excerpt and text search
* Charlton, Thomas L. ''History of Oral History: Foundations and Methodology'' (2007) * Darcy, R. and Richard C. Rohrs, ''A Guide to Quantitative History'' (1995) * Dawidowicz, Lucy S. ''The Holocaust and Historians''. (1981). * Ernest, John. ''Liberation Historiography: African American Writers and the Challenge of History, 1794–1861''. (2004) * Evans, Ronald W. ''The Hope for American School Reform: The Cold War Pursuit of Inquiry Learning in Social Studies''(Palgrave Macmillan; 2011) 265 pages * Marc Ferro, Ferro, Marc, ''Cinema and History'' (1988) * Green, Anna, and Kathleeen Troup. ''The Houses of History: A Critical Reader in Twentieth Century History and Theory''. 2 ed. Manchester University Press, 2016. * Pat Hudson, Hudson, Pat. ''History by Numbers: An Introduction to Quantitative Approaches'' (2002) * Keita, Maghan. ''Race and the Writing of History''. Oxford UP (2000) * Leavy, Patricia. ''Oral History: Understanding Qualitative Research'' (2011
excerpt and text search
* Loewen, James W. ''Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong'', (1996) *Patrick Manning (professor), Manning, Patrick, ed. ''World History: Global And Local Interactions'' (2006) * Maza, Sarah. ''Thinking About History''. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2017. do
10.7208/chicago/9780226109473.001.0001
* Meister, Daniel R. "The biographical turn and the case for historical biography" ''History Compass'' (Dec. 2017) DOI: 10.1111/hic3.12436
abstract
* Morris-Suzuki, Tessa. ''The Past Within Us: Media, Memory, History'' (2005), * Ritchie, Donald A. ''The Oxford Handbook of Oral History'' (2010
excerpt and text search
* Tröhler, Daniel "History and Historiography. Approaches to Historical Research in Education" T. Fitzgerald (ed.), ''THandbook of Historical Studies in Education'' (2019); https://www.researchgate.net/publication/336511356_History_and_Historiography_Approaches_to_Historical_Research_in_Education_Introduction_to_the_section_Foundations_and_directions_of_the_International_Handbook_of_Historical_Studies_in_Education_Debate


External links


International Commission for the History and Theory of Historiography


short guide to Historiographical terms
Web Portal on Historiography and Historical Culture
from University of Barcelona [Dead link as of 2021-04]
Basic guide to historiography research for undergraduates

''Cromohs'' – cyber review of modern historiography open-access electronic scholarly journal


{{Authority control Historiography, Philosophy of history