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Hemimetabolism or hemimetaboly, also called incomplete
metamorphosis Metamorphosis is a biological process Biological processes are those processes that are vital for an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are ...
and paurometabolism,McGavin, George C. ''Essential Entomology: An Order-by-Order Introduction''. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. pp. 20. is the mode of development of certain insects that includes three distinct stages: the
egg An egg is the organic vessel containing the in which an develops until it can survive on its own, at which point the animal hatches. An egg results from of an . Most s, (excluding s), and lay eggs, although some, such as s, do not. eg ...
,
nymph A nymph ( grc, νύμφη, nýmphē, el, script=Latn, nímfi, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the dialects of the Gree ...
, and the adult stage, or
imago In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanism ...

imago
. These groups go through gradual changes; there is no
pupa A pupa ( la, pupa, "doll"; plural: ''pupae'') is the life stage of some insect Insects (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communicat ...

pupa
l stage. The nymph often has a thin exoskeleton and resembles the adult stage but lacks wings and functional reproductive organs. The hemimetabolous insects differ from ametabolous taxa in that the one and only adult instar undergoes no further
moulting In biology, moulting (British English), or molting (American English), also known as sloughing, shedding, or in many invertebrates, ecdysis, is the manner in which an animal routinely casts off a part of its body (often, but not always, an outer ...
.


Orders

The orders that contain hemimetabolous insects are: *
Hemiptera Hemiptera (; ) is an order Order or ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is associated with other qualities such as cleanliness Cleanliness is both the abstract state of being clean and free from germs, dirt, trash, or wast ...

Hemiptera
(
scale insect Scale insects are small insect Insects (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as L ...

scale insect
s,
aphids Aphids are small sap SAP SE () is a German multinational software corporation based in Walldorf, Baden-Württemberg Baden-Württemberg (; ) is a States of Germany, state (''Land'') in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which for ...

aphids
,
whitefly Whiteflies are Hemiptera Hemiptera (; ) is an order Order or ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is associated with other qualities such as cleanliness Cleanliness is both the abstract state of being clean and free from ...

whitefly
,
cicada The cicadas () are a superfamily, the Cicadoidea, of s in the order (true bugs). They are in the suborder , along with smaller jumping bugs such as s and s. The superfamily is divided into two families, the , with two species in Australia, an ...

cicada
s,
leafhopper A leafhopper is the common name for any species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the l ...

leafhopper
s, and
true bug Hemiptera (; ) is an order (biology), order of insects, commonly called true bugs, comprising over 80,000 species within groups such as the cicadas, aphids, planthoppers, leafhoppers, Cimex, bed bugs, and shield bugs. They range in size from to ...
s) *
Orthoptera Orthoptera () is an order (biology), order of insects that comprises the grasshoppers, locusts, and cricket (insect), crickets, including closely related insects, such as the Tettigoniidae, bush crickets or katydids and wētā. The order is subdi ...

Orthoptera
(
grasshopper Grasshoppers are a group of insect Insects (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''comm ...

grasshopper
s,
locust Locusts (derived from the Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin, is non-literary Literature broadly is any collection of written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considere ...

locust
s, and
cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two Bail (cricket), bai ...
s) *
Mantodea Mantises are an order Order or ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is associated with other qualities such as cleanliness Cleanliness is both the abstract state of being clean and free from germs, dirt, trash, or waste, ...

Mantodea
(
praying mantis Mantises are an order Order or ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is associated with other qualities such as cleanliness Cleanliness is both the abstract state of being clean and free from germs, dirt, trash, or waste, ...

praying mantis
es) *
Blattodea Blattodea is an order Order, ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is a quality that is characterized by a person’s interest in keeping their surroundings and themselves well organized, and is associated with other qualit ...

Blattodea
(
cockroach Cockroaches (or roaches) are insects of the order Blattodea, which also includes termites. About 30 cockroach species out of 4,600 are associated with human habitats. Some species are well-known as Pest (organism), pests. The cockroaches are ...

cockroach
es and
termites Termites are Eusociality, eusocial insects that are classified at the Taxonomy (biology), taxonomic rank of infraorder Isoptera, or alternatively as Taxonomic rank#All ranks, epifamily Termitoidae, within the order Blattodea (along with cockro ...

termites
) *
Dermaptera Earwigs make up the insect order (biology), order Dermaptera. With about 2,000 species in 12 family (biology), families, they are one of the smaller insect orders. Earwigs have characteristic cercus, cerci, a pair of forceps, forcep-like pince ...
(
earwigs Earwigs make up the insect Insects (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', ...
) *
Odonata Odonata is an order Order or ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is associated with other qualities such as cleanliness Cleanliness is both the abstract state of being clean and free from germs, dirt, trash, or waste, and t ...

Odonata
(
dragonflies A dragonfly is a flying insect The Pterygota (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referr ...

dragonflies
and
damselflies Damselflies are flying insect The Pterygota (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred ...
) *
Phasmatodea The Phasmatodea (also known as Phasmida, Phasmatoptera or Spectra) are an order Order or ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is associated with other qualities such as cleanliness Cleanliness is both the abstract state of ...

Phasmatodea
(
stick insects The Phasmatodea (also known as Phasmida, Phasmatoptera or Spectra) are an Order (biology), order of insects whose members are variously known as stick insects, stick-bugs, walking sticks, stick animals, or bug sticks. They are generally referre ...
) *
Phthiraptera Louse (plural: lice) is the common name for members of the clade Phthiraptera, which contains nearly 5,000 species of wingless Parasitism, parasitic insect. Phthiraptera has variously been recognized as an order (biology), order, infraorder, ...
( sucking lice) *
Ephemeroptera
Ephemeroptera
(
mayflies Mayflies (also known as shadflies or fishflies in Canada and the upper Midwestern U.S.; also up-winged flies in the United Kingdom) are aquatic insect Aquatic insects or water insects live some portion of their life cycle Life cycle, life- ...
) *
Plecoptera Plecoptera is an order (biology), order of insects, commonly known as stoneflies. Some 3,500 species are described worldwide, with new species still being discovered. Stoneflies are found worldwide, except Antarctica. Stoneflies are believed to ...

Plecoptera
(
stoneflies Plecoptera is an order (biology), order of insects, commonly known as stoneflies. Some 3,500 species are described worldwide, with new species still being discovered. Stoneflies are found worldwide, except Antarctica. Stoneflies are believed to ...
) *
Notoptera The wingless insect order Notoptera, a group first proposed in 1915, had been largely unrecognized since its original conception, until resurrected in 2004. As now defined, the order comprises five families, three of them known only from fossils ...
( icebugs and
gladiators A gladiator ( la, gladiator, "swordsman", from , "sword") was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in violent confrontations with other gladiators, wild animals, and condemned criminals. Some gla ...
)


Terminology of aquatic entomology

In aquatic
entomology Entomology () is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. Th ...
, different terminology is used when categorizing insects with incomplete
metamorphosis Metamorphosis is a biological process Biological processes are those processes that are vital for an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are ...
. Paurometabolism refers to insects whose
nymphs A nymph ( grc, νύμφη, nýmphē, el, script=Latn, nímfi, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the dialects of the Gree ...
occupy the same environment as the adults, as in the family
Gerridae The Gerridae are a family of insects in the order Hemiptera Hemiptera (; ) is an order (biology), order of insects, commonly called true bugs, comprising over 80,000 species within groups such as the cicadas, aphids, planthoppers, leafhopper ...
of
Hemiptera Hemiptera (; ) is an order Order or ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is associated with other qualities such as cleanliness Cleanliness is both the abstract state of being clean and free from germs, dirt, trash, or wast ...

Hemiptera
. The hemimetabolous insects are those whose nymphs, called
naiads In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A bel ...
, occupy aquatic habitats while the adults are terrestrial. This includes all members of the orders
Plecoptera Plecoptera is an order (biology), order of insects, commonly known as stoneflies. Some 3,500 species are described worldwide, with new species still being discovered. Stoneflies are found worldwide, except Antarctica. Stoneflies are believed to ...

Plecoptera
,
Ephemeroptera
Ephemeroptera
, and
Odonata Odonata is an order Order or ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is associated with other qualities such as cleanliness Cleanliness is both the abstract state of being clean and free from germs, dirt, trash, or waste, and t ...

Odonata
. Aquatic entomologists use this categorization because it specifies whether the adult will occupy an aquatic or semi aquatic habitat, or will be terrestrial. This classification system is similar to previously used nomenclature in terrestrial entomology.


See also

*
Holometabolism Holometabolism, also called complete metamorphosis (biology), metamorphosis, is a form of insect development which includes four life stages: egg (biology), egg, larva, pupa, and imago (or adult). Holometabolism is a synapomorphy, synapomorphic tr ...
*
Subimago Mayflies (also known as shadflies or fishflies in Canada and the upper Midwestern U.S.; also up-winged flies in the United Kingdom) are aquatic insects belonging to the order (biology), order Ephemeroptera. This order is part of an ancient gr ...
*
Metamorphosis Metamorphosis is a biological process Biological processes are those processes that are vital for an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are ...


References

{{Developmental biology Insect developmental biology he:בעלי גלגול חסר simple:Incomplete metamorphosis