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A harbor (
American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English is the m ...
), harbour (
British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and usage and is employed by a populatio ...
; see spelling differences), or haven is a sheltered
body of water A body of water or waterbody (often spelled water body) is any significant accumulation of water, generally on a planet's surface. The term most often refers to oceans, seas, and lakes, but it includes smaller pools of water such as ponds, wetla ...

body of water
where
ship A ship is a large watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional propertie ...

ship
s,
boat A boat is a watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It m ...

boat
s, and
barge A barge is a - , built mainly for and transport of bulk goods. Originally barges were towed by draft horses on an adjacent . Barges have changed throughout time. From 1967-1983 barges were considered a flat bottom boat that was nineteen feet ...

barge
s can be docked. The term ''harbor'' is often used interchangeably with ''
port A port is a maritime law, maritime facility comprising one or more Wharf, wharves or loading areas, where ships load and discharge Affreightment, cargo and passengers. Although usually situated on a sea coast or estuary, ports can a ...

port
'', which is a man-made facility built for loading and unloading vessels and dropping off and picking up passengers. Ports usually include one or more harbors.
Alexandria Port The Port of Alexandria is on the West Verge of the Nile Delta between the Mediterranean Sea and Mariut Lake in Alexandria, Egypt, and is considered the second most important city and the main port in Egypt. Alexandria port consists of two harbours ...
in
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
is an example of a port with two harbors. Harbors may be natural or artificial. An artificial harbor can have deliberately constructed breakwaters,
sea wall A seawall (or sea wall) is a form of coastal defence constructed where the sea, and associated coastal processes, impact directly upon the landforms of the coast The coast, also known as the coastline or seashore, is defined as the area w ...
s, or
jetty Aerial view of a jetty at Swakopmund, Namibia (2017) A jetty is a structure that projects from land out into water. It may also refer more specifically to a walkway accessing the centre of an enclosed waterbody. The term derives from the Fren ...

jetty
s or they can be constructed by
dredging Dredging is the excavation of material from a water environment. Possible reasons for dredging include improving existing water features; reshaping land and water features to alter drainage Drainage is the natural or artificial remova ...
, which requires maintenance by further periodic dredging. An example of an artificial harbor is
Long Beach Harbor The Port of Long Beach, also known as the Harbor Department of the City of Long Beach, is a container port in the United States, which adjoins Port of Los Angeles. Acting as a major gateway for US–Asian trade, the port occupies of land with ...
,
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

California
,
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, which was an array of
salt marshes A salt marsh or saltmarsh, also known as a coastal salt marsh or a tidal marsh, is a coastal ecosystem in the upper coastal intertidal zone between land and open saltwater or brackish water that is regularly flooded by the tides. It is domina ...
and
tidal flats , intertidal The intertidal zone, also known as the foreshore or seashore, is the area above water level Water level, also known as gauge height or stage, is the elevation of the free surface of a sea, stream, lake or reservoir relative to a ...

tidal flats
too shallow for modern
merchant ships A merchant is a person who trades in Commodity, commodities produced by other people, especially one who trades with foreign countries. Historically, a merchant is anyone who is involved in commerce, business or trade. Merchants have operated for ...
before it was first dredged in the early 20th century. In contrast, a natural harbor is surrounded on several sides by
prominence In topography Topography is the study of the forms and features of land surfaces. The topography of an area could refer to the surface forms and features themselves, or a description (especially their depiction in maps). Topography is a f ...

prominence
s of land. Examples of natural harbors include
Sydney Harbour Port Jackson, consisting of the waters of Sydney Harbour, Middle Harbour Middle Harbour (or ''Warring-Ga''), a semi–mature tide (U.S.), low tide occurs roughly at moonrise and high tide with a high Moon, corresponding to the simple ...

Sydney Harbour
, Australia and
Trincomalee Harbour Trincomalee Harbour is a seaport in Trincomalee Bay or Koddiyar Bay, a large natural harbour situated on the northeastern coast of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකා, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO; ta, இல ...
in Sri Lanka.


History

As a rule, the harbor is called the water area of the port, directly adjacent to the berth am, where the loading and unloading of ships, embarkation and disembarkation of passengers are carried out. Also in the harbor, ships can be at a long anchorage at the pier or at
anchor An anchor is a device, normally made of metal, used to connect a Watercraft, vessel to the Seabed, bed of a body of water to prevent the craft from drifting due to Leeway, wind or Ocean current, current. The word derives from Latin ''ancora'' ...

anchor
. For this purpose, special places for
anchorage Anchorage (officially called the Municipality of Anchorage; : ) is a unified municipal in the U.S. state of , on the . With an estimated 288,000 residents in 2019, it is Alaska's most populous city and contains nearly 40% of the state's popula ...
will be equipped on the territory of the harbor. The harbor can be artificial or natural. For a natural harbor, choose a place well protected from waves and wind, surrounded on several sides by land areas. '' Stanyukovich KM '' Dictionary of marine terms found in stories. Examples of natural harbors are
Sydney Harbour Port Jackson, consisting of the waters of Sydney Harbour, Middle Harbour Middle Harbour (or ''Warring-Ga''), a semi–mature tide (U.S.), low tide occurs roughly at moonrise and high tide with a high Moon, corresponding to the simple ...

Sydney Harbour
,
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
and Trincomalee Harbor in Sri Lanka. An artificial harbor usually has purpose-built breakwaters, and dredging is also used in the construction of artificial harbors. Natural harbors require maintenance through periodic depth measurements and, if necessary, further periodic dredging. An example of an artificial harbor is Long Beach Harbor,
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

California
, USA, which was an array of salt marshes and tidal banks too shallow for modern merchant ships. At the beginning of the 20th century, dredging works were carried out here.


Artificial harbors

Artificial harbors are frequently built for use as ports. The oldest artificial harbor known is the Ancient Egyptian site at
Wadi al-Jarf Wadi al-Jarf ( ar, وادي الجرف) is the present name for an area on the Red Sea coast of Egypt, south of Suez, that is the site of the oldest known artificial harbour in the world, developed about 4500 years ago. It is located at the mouth ...
, on the Red Sea coast, which is at least 4500 years old (ca. 2600-2550 BCE, reign of King Khufu). The largest artificially created harbor is
Jebel Ali Jebel Ali ( ar, جبل علي) is a port town The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Trieste.html"_;"title="Barcola_near_Trieste">Barcola_near_Trieste,_a_small_local_port A_port_is_a_ Barcola_near_Trieste,_a_small_local_port">Trieste. ...
in
Dubai Dubai ( ; ar, دبي, translit=Dubayy , ) is the most populous city in the United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country i ...

Dubai
. Other large and busy artificial harbors include: *
Port of Houston The Port of Houston is one of the world's largest ports and serves the metropolitan area of Houston, Texas Houston ( ) is the List of cities in Texas by population, most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas, List of United States cities by ...
,
Texas Texas (, ; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambigu ...

Texas
, United States; *
Port of Long Beach The Port of Long Beach, also known as the Harbor Department of the City of Long Beach, is a container port in Singapore A container port or container terminal is a facility where Intermodal container, cargo containers are transshipped bet ...

Port of Long Beach
, California, United States; *
Port of Los Angeles The Port of Los Angeles, also promoted as "America's Port", is a seaport managed by the Los Angeles Harbor Department, a unit of the City of Los Angeles. It occupies of land and water along of waterfront and adjoins the separate Port of Long Bea ...

Port of Los Angeles
in San Pedro, California, United States. *
Port of Rotterdam The Port of Rotterdam is the largest port, seaport in Europe, and the world's largest seaport outside of East Asia, located in and near the city of Rotterdam, in the province of South Holland in the Netherlands. From 1962 until 2004, it was the ...

Port of Rotterdam
,
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...

Netherlands
; *
Port of Savannah The Port of Savannah is a major U. S. seaport File:PorticcioloCedas.jpg, The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Barcola near Trieste, a small local port A port is a maritime law, maritime facility which may comprise one or more Wharf, ...
,
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia (, ; ) is a country located at the intersection of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It is a part of the Caucasus region, bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north and east by ...
, United States; The Ancient Carthaginians constructed fortified, artificial harbors called
cothon A cothon ( el, κώθων, lit=drinking vessel) is an artificial, protected inner harbour A harbor (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the se ...
s.


Natural harbors

A natural harbor is a
landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body A planet is an astronomical body Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws ...

landform
where a section of a body of water is protected and deep enough to allow anchorage. Many such harbors are
ria A ria (; gl, ría) is a coastal inlet An inlet is an indentation of a shoreline, usually long and narrow, such as a small bay or arm, that often leads to an enclosed body of salt water, such as a sound In physics, sound is a vibration th ...

ria
s. Natural harbors have long been of great strategic naval and
economic An economy (; ) is an area of the production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products ...

economic
importance, and many great cities of the world are located on them. Having a protected harbor reduces or eliminates the need for breakwaters as it will result in calmer waves inside the harbor. Some examples are: *
Bali Strait , native_name_lang = Indonesian , image = Bali Strait (Selat Bali).JPG , caption = Aerial view of the Strait with Java on the left and Bali on the right , image_bathymetry = , caption_bathymetry = ...

Bali Strait
, Indonesia * Berehaven Harbour, Ireland *
Balikpapan Bay , native_name_lang = Indonesian , other_name = , image = COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Gezicht over de Baai van Balikpapan met olietanks en steigers van de Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij (BPM) TMnr 60018717.jpg , caption ...
in
East Kalimantan East Kalimantan (Indonesian language, Indonesian: ) is a province of Indonesia. Its territory comprises the eastern portion of Borneo. It had a population of about 3.03 million at the 2010 Census (within the current boundary), 3.42 million at the ...
, Indonesia *
Mumbai Mumbai (, ; also known as Bombay — List of renamed Indian cities and states#Maharashtra, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian States and union territories of India, state of Maharashtra. According to the United ...

Mumbai
in
Maharashtra Maharashtra (; , abbr. MH or Maha, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper) ...

Maharashtra
, India *
Boston Harbor Boston Harbor is a natural harbor and estuary of Massachusetts Bay, and is located adjacent to the city of Boston, Massachusetts. It is home to the Port of Boston, a major shipping facility in the northeastern United States. History Since it ...
in
Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * ...

Massachusetts
, United States *
Burrard Inlet , image = Burrard Inlet 201807.jpg , image_size = 250px , alt = , caption = Aerial view of Burrard Inlet , image_bathymetry = Burrard-Inlet-map-en.svg , alt_bathymetry = , caption_bath ...
in
Vancouver Vancouver ( ) is a major city in western Canada Western Canada, also referred to as the Western Provinces and more commonly known as the West, is a region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth desc ...

Vancouver
,
British Columbia ( en, Splendour without diminishment) , image_map = British Columbia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = None , Slogan = Beautiful British C ...

British Columbia
,
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
* Cork Harbour, Ireland *
Grand Harbour The Grand Harbour ( mt, il-Port il-Kbir; it, Porto Grande), also known as the Port of Valletta, is a natural harbour on the island of Malta Malta (, ; in Maltese: ; Italian: ), officially known as the Republic of Malta ( mt, Repubbli ...

Grand Harbour
,
Malta Malta ( , , ), officially known as the Republic of Malta ( mt, Repubblika ta' Malta ) and formerly Melita, is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies south of Italy, east of Tunisi ...

Malta
*
Guantánamo Bay Guantánamo Bay ( es, Bahía de Guantánamo) is a bay in Guantánamo Province at the southeastern end of Cuba. It is the largest harbor on the south side of the island and it is surrounded by steep hills which create an enclave that is cut off ...
,
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud Isla de la Juventud (; en, Isle of Youth) is the second-largest Cuban islan ...

Cuba
*
Gulf of Paria The Gulf of Paria ( es, Golfo de Paria) is a shallow (180 m at its deepest) semi-enclosed inland sea located between the island of Trinidad (Republic of Trinidad and Tobago) and the east coast of Venezuela. It separates the two countries by a ...

Gulf of Paria
,
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago (, ), officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is the southernmost island country in the Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean C ...

Trinidad and Tobago
*
Halifax Harbour Halifax Harbour (''Jipugtug'' in Mi'kmaq language) is a large Harbour#Natural harbors, natural harbour on the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, Canada, located in the Halifax Regional Municipality. Harbour description The Mi'kmaq peo ...
in
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital ...

Nova Scotia
,
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
*
Hamilton Harbour 250px, The Burlington Bay James N. Allan Skyway bridges the waters of Hamilton Harbour. Hamilton Harbour, formerly known as Burlington Bay, lies on the western tip of Lake Ontario Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes File:Locat ...
in
Ontario ("Loyal she began, loyal she remains") , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , cap ...

Ontario
,
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
*
Killybegs Killybegs () is a town in County Donegal County Donegal ( ; ga, Contae Dhún na nGall) is a counties of Ireland, county of Ireland in the provinces of Ireland, province of Ulster. It is named after the town of Donegal (town), Donegal (, meani ...

Killybegs
in
County Donegal County Donegal ( ; ga, Contae Dhún na nGall) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William ...
,
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...

Ireland
*
Kingston Harbour Kingston Harbour in Jamaica Jamaica () is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea. Spanning in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles and the Caribbean (after Cuba and Hispaniola). Jamaica lies about south of C ...

Kingston Harbour
,
Jamaica Jamaica (; ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or ...

Jamaica
*
Marsamxett Harbour Marsamxett Harbour (), historically also referred to as Marsamuscetto, is a natural harbour on the island of Malta. It is located to the north of the larger Grand Harbour. The harbour is generally more dedicated to leisure use than the Grand ...

Marsamxett Harbour
, Malta *
Milford Haven Milford Haven ( cy, Aberdaugleddau, meaning "mouth of the two Rivers Cleddau") is a town and community A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as Norm (social), norms, religion, values, Convention (norm), ...
in
Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the Wales–England border, east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, and the Bristol Channel to the south. It ...

Wales
,
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
*
New York Harbor New York Harbor is at the mouth of the Hudson River where it empties into New York Bay near the East River tidal estuary, and then into the Atlantic Ocean on the east coast of the United States. It is one of the largest Harbor#Natural harbors, ...

New York Harbor
in the United States *
Pago Pago Harbor Image:Fagatogo Dock.jpg, 300px, A portion of the docks at Fagatogo in Pago Pago Harbor. In the background is Rainmaker Mountain. Pago Pago Harbor on Tutuila Island in American Samoa is one of the world's largest natural harbors. The capital, Pago P ...

Pago Pago Harbor
in
American Samoa #REDIRECT American Samoa American Samoa ( sm, Amerika Sāmoa, ; also ' or ') is an unincorporated territory of the United States Under United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) ...

American Samoa
*
Pearl Harbor Pearl Harbor is an American lagoon File:Kara-Bogaz Gol from space, September 1995.jpg, Garabogazköl, Garabogaz-Göl lagoon in Turkmenistan A lagoon is a shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by a narrow landform, su ...

Pearl Harbor
in
Hawaii Hawaii ( ; haw, Hawaii or ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...

Hawaii
, United States *
Poole Harbour Poole Harbour is a large natural harbour A harbor (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the ...
in England, United Kingdom * Port Hercules,
Principality of Monaco Monaco (; ), officially the Principality of Monaco (french: Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', whic ...

Principality of Monaco
*
Sydney Harbour Port Jackson, consisting of the waters of Sydney Harbour, Middle Harbour Middle Harbour (or ''Warring-Ga''), a semi–mature tide (U.S.), low tide occurs roughly at moonrise and high tide with a high Moon, corresponding to the simple ...

Sydney Harbour
in
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
, technically a ria * Tanjung Perak in
Surabaya Surabaya (; Javanese : ꦱꦸꦫꦧꦪ read : Suråbåyå; Van Ophuijsen Spelling (Old Spelling) : Soerabaja) is the capital of the Indonesian province of East Java East Java ( id, Jawa Timur) is a province A province is almost always ...

Surabaya
, Indonesia *
Port of Tobruk The Port of Tobruk ( ar, ميناء طبرق) is a port located at Tobruk, Libya. Opened in 1986, it is located in Eastern Libya near the Egyptian border - about east of Benghazi. The entrance to the main channel into the port is between Tobruk Po ...
in
Tobruk Tobruk or Tobruck ( grc, Αντίπυργος, Antipyrgus) (; ar, طبرق, Tubruq ''Ṭubruq''; also Transliteration, transliterated as ''Tobruch'' and ''Tubruk'') is a port city on Libya's eastern Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean coast, near th ...
,
Libya Libya (; ar, ليبيا, Lībiyā), officially the State of Libya ( ar, دولة ليبيا, Dawlat Lībiyā), is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to Egypt–Libya border, th ...

Libya
*
Presque Isle Bay Presque Isle Bay is a natural bay located off the coast of Erie, Pennsylvania, United States. Its embayment is about in length, about across at its widest point, and an average depth of about . The bay is at an elevation of 571 ft (174 m) a ...

Presque Isle Bay
in
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( , elsewhere ; pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basi ...

Pennsylvania
, United States *
Prince William Sound Prince William Sound (russian: Чугацкий залив ''Čugatski zaliv'') is a sound In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , ...

Prince William Sound
in
Alaska Alaska (; ale, Alax̂sxax̂; ; ems, Alas'kaaq; Central Alaskan Yup'ik language, Yup'ik: ''Alaskaq''; tli, Anáaski) is a U.S. state in the Western United States, on the northwest extremity of the country's West Coast of the United State ...

Alaska
, United States *
Puget Sound Puget Sound () is a of the , an inlet of the , and part of the . It is located along the northwestern coast of the of . It is a complex system of interconnected marine waterways and basins, with one major and two minor connections to the ope ...
in
Washington state Washington (), officially the State of Washington, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The S ...
, United States *
Roadstead of Brest The roadstead of Brest (''rade de Brest'') is a roadstead or bay located in the Finistère department in Brittany in northwestern France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country p ...
in
Brittany Brittany (; french: link=no, Bretagne ; br, Breizh, or ; Gallo: ''Bertaèyn'' ) is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to ...
, France *
San Francisco Bay San Francisco Bay is a shallow estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed Coast, coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zon ...

San Francisco Bay
in California, United States *
Scapa Flow #REDIRECT Scapa Flow Scapa Flow viewed from its eastern end in June 2009 Scapa Flow (; ) is a body of water in the Orkney Islands, Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is par ...

Scapa Flow
in
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
, United Kingdom * Sept-Îles in
Côte-Nord Côte-Nord (, French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in W ...

Côte-Nord
, in
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
,
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
* Shelburne in
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital ...

Nova Scotia
,
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
*
Subic Bay Subic may refer to: * Šubić family The Šubić family was one of the Twelve noble tribes of Croatia and a great noble house which constituted Croatian statehood in the Middle Ages. They held the county of Bribir (Dalmatia), Bribir (''Varvaria'') ...
in
Zambales Zambales ( tgl, Lalawigan ng Zambales; ilo, Probinsia ti Zambales; xsb, Probinsya nin Zambales; pam, Lalawigan ning Zambales; pag, Luyag na Zambales) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or ...
,
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
*
Tampa Bay Tampa Bay is a large natural harbor A harbor (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the ...
in
Florida Florida is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. Florida is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia (U.S. state), Geor ...

Florida
, United States *
Trincomalee Harbour Trincomalee Harbour is a seaport in Trincomalee Bay or Koddiyar Bay, a large natural harbour situated on the northeastern coast of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකා, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO; ta, இல ...
,
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකාව, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO ()), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is ...

Sri Lanka
*
Tuticorin Thoothukudi (formerly Tuticorin) is a port city, a municipal corporation and an industrial city in Thoothukudi district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The city lies in the Coromandel Coast of Bay of Bengal. Thoothukudi is the capital and hea ...
in
Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu (; ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspape ...

Tamil Nadu
, India *
Victoria Harbour Victoria Harbour is a natural landform harbor, harbour in Hong Kong separating Hong Kong Island in the south from the Kowloon Peninsula to the north. The harbour's deep, sheltered waters and strategic location on the South China Sea were inst ...

Victoria Harbour
in
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Pe ...

Hong Kong
* Visakhapatnam Harbour, India *
Vizhinjam Vizhinjam is a region located in the city of Thiruvananthapuram, the capital of the state of Kerala in India. It is located 16km south west from the city centre and 17km south of Trivandrum International Airport along NH66. Adani Ports & SEZ Limit ...

Vizhinjam
in
Trivandrum Thiruvananthapuram (; ), also known by its former name Trivandrum , is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or c ...
,
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
*
Waitemata Harbour Waitemata or Waitematā may refer to: * Waitemata HarbourWaitemata may refer to: * Waitemata Harbour, the primary harbour of Auckland, New Zealand * Waitematā Local Board, a local board of Auckland Council, formed in 2010 **Waitematā and Gulf Wa ...
in
Auckland Auckland ( mi, Tāmaki Makaurau) is a large metropolitan city in the North Island of New Zealand. The List of New Zealand urban areas by population, most populous urban area in the country, Auckland has an urban population of about It is locate ...

Auckland
, New Zealand *
Zihuatanejo Harbor
Zihuatanejo Harbor
,
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organi ...

Mexico


Ice-free harbors

For harbors near the North and South Poles, being ice-free is an important advantage, especially when it is year-round. Examples of these are: * Hammerfest, Norway * Liinakhamari,
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
* Murmansk, Russia *
Nakhodka Nakhodka ( rus, Нахо́дка, p=nɐˈxotkə) is a port The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Trieste.html"_;"title="Barcola_near_Trieste">Barcola_near_Trieste,_a_small_local_port A_port_is_a_ Barcola_near_Trieste,_a_small_local_ ...
in
Nakhodka Bay Nakhodka Bay or Nakhodka Gulf () is a bay of the Peter the Great Gulf of the Sea of Japan , koreanname = North Korean name , context = north , hangul = , hanja = , rr = Joseon Donghae , mr = C ...

Nakhodka Bay
, Russia *
Newcastle upon Tyne Newcastle upon Tyne ( , ), often simply Newcastle, is the largest city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedi ...

Newcastle upon Tyne
,
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
* Pechenga, Russia *
Prince Rupert Harbour
Prince Rupert Harbour
,
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
* Valdez,
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
* Vardø, Norway *
Vostochny Port Vostochny Port (russian: Восто́чный порт) is an Intermodal freight transport, intermodal container port at the eastern end of the Trans-Siberian Railway. It is the largest port in the Russian Far East. It is located in Vrangel (an ...
, Russia The world's southernmost harbor, located at
Antarctica Antarctica ( or ) is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Oc ...

Antarctica
's Winter Quarters Bay (77° 50′ South), is sometimes ice-free, depending on the summertime
pack ice Drift ice, also called brash ice, is sea ice that is not attached to the shoreline or any other fixed object (shoals, grounded icebergs, etc.).Leppäranta, M. 2011. The Drift of Sea Ice. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Unlike fast ice, which is "fastene ...
conditions.


Important harbors

Although the
world's busiest port The world's busiest ports are commonly ranked by cargo tonnage and by volume of container shipment measured in TEUs. Since the 2000s, the Port of Shanghai The Port of Shanghai (), located in the vicinity of Shanghai, comprises a deep-sea ...
is a contested title, in 2017 the world's busiest harbor by cargo tonnage was the
Port of Ningbo-Zhoushan The Port of Ningbo-Zhoushan is a port that is the busiest in the world in terms of cargo tonnage. It handled 888.96 million tons of cargo in 2015. The port is located in Ningbo Ningbo (; , Putonghua, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ), C ...
. The following are large natural harbors:


See also

* Boyd's Automatic tide signalling apparatus *Dock (maritime), Dock *Ice pier *Inland harbor *List of marinas *List of seaports *Mandracchio *Marina *Mulberry harbour *Quay *Roadstead *Seaport *Shipyard *Wharf


Notes


External links


Harbor Maintenance Finance and Funding
Congressional Research Service * {{Ports and harbors Ports and harbours, Coastal construction Nautical terminology Bodies of water it:Porto tt:Лиман Infrastructure Industrial buildings