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Grant-maintained schools or GM schools were
state school State schools (in England, Wales, and New Zealand) or public schools (Scottish English Scottish English ( gd, Beurla Albannach) is the set of varieties Variety may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Algebraic variety, th ...
s in
England and Wales England and Wales () is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom, parts of the United Kingdom. England and Wales forms the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England and follows ...

England and Wales
between 1988 and 1998 that had opted out of local government control, being funded directly by a grant from central government. Some of these schools had selective admissions procedures.


History

Grant-maintained status was created by the
Education Reform Act 1988 The Education Reform Act 1988 is widely regarded as the most important single piece of education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, ...
, as part of the programme of the
Conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as well as the philosophy of art (its own area of philosophy that comes out of ae ...

Conservative
government to create greater diversity in educational provision and to weaken the influence of
local education authorities Local education authorities (LEAs) are the local councils in England and Wales that are responsible for education within their jurisdiction. The term is used to identify which council (district or county) is locally responsible for education in ...
. GM schools would be owned and managed by their own boards of
school governor In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, school governors are the overseers of a school. In state school State schools (in England, Wales, and New Zealand) or public schools (Scottish English Scottish English ( gd, Beurla Albannach) is ...
s, rather than the local authority. Proposals to convert to grant-maintained status could be initiated by the governing body or by a number of parents, but would then be determined by a ballot of parents.
Skegness Grammar School ''(A sound conscience is a wall of brass)'' , established = (1933 at current site) , closed = , type = Grammar schoolAcademy (English school), AcademyDay and boarding school , religion = , president = , head_labe ...
was the first school to apply for, and to receive, grant-maintained status, whilst
Castle Hall School Castle Hall Academy (formerly Castle Hall School) is a mixed 11–16 Academy An academy ( Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect ...
in
Mirfield Mirfield is a town and civil parishes in England, civil parish in Kirklees, West Yorkshire, England. Historic counties of England, Historically part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, it is on the A644 road (Great Britain), A644 road between Bri ...
was the first GM school to open. The Education Act 1993 made it possible for
independent school An independent school is independent in its finances and governance. Also known as private schools, non-governmental, privately funded, or non-state schools, they are not administered by local, state or national governments. In British Engli ...
s to convert to grant-maintained status, and for independent sponsors to set up new grant-maintained schools. Schools entering the state sector under these provisions included: * some
Roman Catholic Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...

Roman Catholic
secondary schools, some of which had earlier been
direct grant grammar school A direct grant grammar school was a type of selective Selective may refer to: * Selective school, a school that admits students on the basis of some sort of selection criteria ** Selective school (New South Wales) Selective strength: the human b ...
s: Loreto Grammar School,
St. Ambrose College St Ambrose College is a Congregation of Christian Brothers, Christian Brothers' Roman Catholic boys' grammar school in Hale Barns, Altrincham, Greater Manchester, England. It was founded in 1946 by Dr Joseph Robertson. In 2012 the school became a ...
, St Anselm's College, St. Edward's College, St. Joseph's College,
Upton Hall School FCJ Upton Hall School FCJ is a girls' grammar school with Academy (English school), academy status located in Merseyside, England. Admissions It is one of four Roman Catholic, Catholic schools in the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral. The school is ...
and
Virgo Fidelis Convent Senior School The Laurels School is a Roman Catholic Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (met ...
, * some Jewish and Muslim primary schools, including the Islamia Primary School founded by Yusuf Islam (
Cat Stevens Yusuf Islam (born Steven Demetre Georgiou; ), commonly known by his stage names Cat Stevens, Yusuf, and Yusuf / Cat Stevens, is a British singer-songwriter and multi-instrumentalist. His musical style consists of folk music, folk, pop, rock, a ...
). Grant-maintained schools were allowed to set their own admissions criteria, which were sometimes at variance with those applied by the
local education authorities Local education authorities (LEAs) are the local councils in England and Wales that are responsible for education within their jurisdiction. The term is used to identify which council (district or county) is locally responsible for education in ...
. Some schools successfully applied to become fully selective
grammar school A grammar school is one of several different types of school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students under the direction of teachers. Most coun ...
s, others introduced partial selection, and some practised selection by interview. The popularity of GM schools in some areas was attributed to the poor financial support offered by local education authorities. GM schools were entitled to apply to central government for capital grants for essential building works. The additional funding, distinct admissions policies and semi-independent status of grant-maintained schools were controversial and caused friction with LEAs. At their peak in early 1998, there were 1,196 grant-maintained schools, most of them secondary schools. Within the state sector, they accounted for 3% of primary schools, 19% of secondary schools and 2% of
special school Special education (known as special-needs education, aided education, exceptional education, exceptional student education, special ed., SEN, or SPED) is the practice of educating students in a way that provides accommodations that address the ...
s.


Legacy

Grant-maintained status was abolished by the
School Standards and Framework Act 1998 The School Standards and Framework Act 1998 was the major education legislation passed by the incoming Labour Labour or labor may refer to: * Childbirth Childbirth, also known as labour or delivery, is the ending of pregnancy where one or mo ...
.School Standards and Framework Act 1998
Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
GM schools that had previously been
voluntary aided A voluntary aided school (VA school) is a state-funded school in England and Wales England and Wales () is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom, parts of the United Kingdom. England and W ...
, or which had private sponsors, normally returned to voluntary aided status, while others became
foundation school In England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the to the east and the to the south. The ...
s. However schools could choose a different status, and a few became
voluntary controlled A voluntary controlled school (VC school) is a state-funded school in England and Wales in which a foundation (charity), foundation or charitable trust, trust (usually a Christian denomination) has some formal influence in the running of the school. ...
or community schools. Though funded through local authorities, voluntary aided and foundation schools retain some independence. They own the school buildings and grounds, employ the staff and control their own admissions. After the abolition of grant-maintained status, the only schools still directly funded by central government were the 15
City Technology College In England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the ...
s. In 2000 the
Labour Labour or labor may refer to: * Childbirth Childbirth, also known as labour or delivery, is the ending of pregnancy where one or more babies leaves the uterus by passing through the vagina or by Caesarean section. In 2015, there were about 13 ...
government introduced a new kind of directly funded school, the City Academy, later renamed
Academy An academy (Attic Greek Attic Greek is the Greek language, Greek dialect of the regions of ancient Greece, ancient region of Attica, including the ''polis'' of classical Athens, Athens. Often called classical Greek, it was the prestige (sociol ...
. Following the
2010 General Election2010 general election may refer to: * 2010 Anguillan general election * 2010 Australian federal election * 2010 Bougainvillean general election * 2010 Brazilian general election * 2010 Burmese general election * 2010 Cook Islands general election * ...
the
Academies Act 2010 The Academies Act 2010 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Delibera ...
was enacted, vastly expanding possibilities for schools to become academies. It was described by journalist Mike Baker as "not an extension of the Labour government's academies, but the recreation of the grant-maintained (GM) schools".


See also

*
Education in England Education in England is overseen by the United Kingdom's Department for Education. Local government in England, Local government authorities are responsible for implementing policy for public education and State-funded schools (England), state- ...
*
Education in Wales Education in Wales differs in certain respects from education elsewhere in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and ...


References

{{reflist State schools in the United Kingdom Defunct schools in England Defunct schools in Wales Public education in the United Kingdom School types 1988 establishments in the United Kingdom 1998 disestablishments in the United Kingdom 1998 disestablishments in England 1998 disestablishments in Wales