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A granary is a storehouse or room in a
barn in Lubbock, Texas, U.S., was used as a teaching facility until 1967. , Coggeshall, England, originally part of the Cistercian monastery of Coggeshall. Dendrochronologically dated from 1237–1269, it was restored in the 1980s by the Coggeshall ...

barn
for
threshed
threshed
grain A grain is a small, hard, dry seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album ...

grain
or
animal feed Animal feed is food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that emb ...
. Ancient or primitive granaries are most often made out of
pottery Pottery is the process and the products of forming vessels and other objects with clay Clay is a type of fine-grained natural soil Surface-water- gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland.">Northern_Ireland.html" ;"title="g ...

pottery
. Granaries are often built above the ground to keep the stored food away from mice and other animals and from floods.


Early origins

From ancient times grain has been stored in bulk. The oldest granaries yet found date back to 9500 BC and are located in the
Pre-Pottery Neolithic A Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) denotes the first stage of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic, in early Levantine and Anatolian Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age, with a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to ...
settlements in the
Jordan Valley The Jordan Valley ( ar, غور الأردن, ''Ghor al-Urdun''; he, עֵמֶק הַיַרְדֵּן, ''Emek HaYarden'') forms part of the larger Jordan Rift Valley. Unlike most other river valleys, the term "Jordan Valley" often applies just to ...

Jordan Valley
. The first were located in places between other buildings. However beginning around 8500 BC, they were moved inside houses, and by 7500 BC storage occurred in special rooms. The first granaries measured 3 x 3 m on the outside and had suspended floors that protected the grain from rodents and insects and provided air circulation. These granaries are followed by those in
Mehrgarh Mehrgarh (; ur, ) is a Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human his ...

Mehrgarh
in the
Indus Valley The Indus ( ) is a transboundary river A transboundary river is a river that crosses at least one political border, either a border within a nation or an international boundary. Bangladesh has the highest number of these rivers, including tw ...

Indus Valley
from 6000 BC. The
ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization  A civilization (or civilisation) is a that is characterized by , , a form of government, and systems of communication (such as ). Civilizations are intimately associated with additional char ...

ancient Egypt
ians made a practice of preserving grain in years of plenty against years of scarcity. The climate of Egypt being very dry, grain could be stored in pits for a long time without discernible loss of quality. Historically, a
silo A silo (from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ap ...

silo
was a pit for storing grain. It is distinct from a granary, which is an above-ground structure.


East Asia

Simple storage granaries raised up on four or more posts appeared in the
Yangshao culture The Yangshao culture was a Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age, with a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen independently in several parts of the world. It is first seen about 12,000 ye ...
in China and after the onset of intensive agriculture in the Korean peninsula during the
Mumun pottery period#REDIRECT Mumun pottery period The Mumun pottery period is an archaeological Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cu ...
(c. 1000 B.C.) as well as in the Japanese archipelago during the Final Jōmon/Early
Yayoi period #REDIRECT Yayoi period#REDIRECT Yayoi period The , started at the beginning of the Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age, with a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen independently in sever ...
s (c. 800 B.C.). In the archaeological vernacular of Northeast Asia, these features are lumped with those that may have also functioned as residences and together are called 'raised floor buildings'. China built an elaborate system designed to minimize famine deaths. The system was destroyed in the
Taiping Rebellion The Taiping Rebellion, also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an ...
of the 1850s.


Southeast Asia

In
vernacular architecture Vernacular architecture is building done outside any academic tradition, and without professional guidance. This category encompasses a wide range and variety of building types, with differing methods of construction, from around the world, ...
of
Indonesian archipelago The islands of Indonesia, also known as the Indonesian Archipelago or Nusantara ''Nusantara'' is the Indonesian name of Maritime Southeast Asia (or parts of it). It is an Old Javanese Kawi or Old Javanese is the oldest attested phase ...

Indonesian archipelago
granaries are made of wood and bamboo materials and most of them are built raised up on four or more posts to avoid rodents and insects. Examples of Indonesian granary styles are the Sundanese ''
leuit Leuit is a type of vernacular A vernacular or vernacular language refers to the language or dialect that is spoken by people that are inhabiting a particular country or region. The vernacular is typically the native language A first languag ...

leuit
'' and Minang ''
rangkiang Rangkiang (also lumbuang) is a granary or Rice barn#Indonesia, rice barn of the Minangkabau people used to rice barn, keep rice. The rangkiang is a distinctive feature of Minangkabau people#Architecture, Minangkabau architecture. The structure is tr ...

rangkiang
''.


Great Britain

In the
South Hams South Hams is a on the south coast of , England. Services divide between those provided by headquartered in , and those provided by headquartered in the city of . Beside Totnes are its towns of , , , and — the most populous with 11,851 ...
in southwest
Great Britain Great Britain is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), ...

Great Britain
, small granaries were built on
mushroom A mushroom or toadstool is the fleshy, spore )'', growing on a thinning, thinned hybrid black poplar ''(populus, Populus x canadensis)''. The last stage of the moss#Life cycle, moss lifecycle is shown, where the sporophytes are visible befor ...

mushroom
-shaped stumps called
staddle stones Bree is a fictional village, with the land around it, in J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth Middle-earth is the fictional setting of much of the English writer J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium. The term is equivalent to the term '' Miðgarðr' ...
. They were built of timber frame construction and often had slate roofs. Larger ones were similar to s, but with the upper floor enclosed. Access to the first floor was usually via stone staircase on the outside wall. The Barn Guide by South Hams District Council Towards the close of the 19th century, warehouses specially intended for holding grain began to multiply in Great Britain. There are climatic difficulties in the way of storing grain in Great Britain on a large scale, but these difficulties have been largely overcome.


Modern

Modern grain farming operations often use manufactured steel granaries to store grain on-site until it can be trucked to major storage facilities in anticipation of shipping. The large ''mechanized'' facilities, particularly seen in Russia and North America are known as
grain elevator A grain elevator is an agrarian facility complex designed to stockpile or store grain. In the grain trade, the term "grain elevator" also describes a tower containing a bucket elevator or a pneumatic conveyor, which scoops up grain from a lower ...
s.


Moisture control

Grain must be kept away from moisture for as long as possible to preserve it in good condition and prevent mold growth. Newly harvested grain brought into a granary tends to contain excess moisture, which encourages mold growth leading to fermentation and heating, both of which are undesirable and affect quality. Fermentation generally spoils grain and may cause chemical changes that create poisonous
mycotoxins A mycotoxin (from the Greek μύκης , "fungus" and τοξίνη , "toxin") is a toxic Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism In biology, an organism (from A ...
. One traditional remedy is to spread the grain in thin layers on a floor, where it is turned to aerate it thoroughly. Once the grain is sufficiently dry it can be transferred to a granary for storage. Today, this can be done by means of a mechanical grain auger to move grain from one granary to another. In modern silos, grain is typically force-aerated ''in situ'' or circulated through external
grain drying Grain drying is process of drying grain A grain is a small, hard, dry seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Wa ...
equipment.


See also

* *
Raccard Raccards are traditional granaries that can be found in parts of the Minho Province, Minho, north of Portugal (called Espigueiro), in Galicia (Spain), Galicia and Asturias, north-west of Spain, Swiss Alps (usually in Valais) and in the Italian ...

Raccard
*
Storage silo A silo (from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 ...
*
Corn crib 200px, Corn crib with slanted sides A corn crib or corncrib is a type of granary used to dry and store maize, corn. It may also be known as a cornhouse or corn house. Overview After the harvest and while still on the corn cob, cob, corn is plac ...
*
Groote Schuur Groote Schuur (, Dutch for "big shed") is an estate in Cape Town Cape Town (Afrikaans File:WIKITONGUES- Alaric speaking Afrikaans.webm, Alaric speaking Afrikaans. Afrikaans (, ) is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language spok ...
, the stately South African home was originally a granary. *
Rice barn A rice barn is a type of barn used worldwide for the storage and drying of harvested rice Rice is the seed A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reprodu ...
* Treppenspeicher *
Ghorfa Multi-level ghorfas, as seen at Ksar Ouled Soltane in southern Tunisia A ghorfa ( ar, غرفة ''room'') is a vaulted room used by Berbers Berbers or ''Imazighen'' ( ber, translit=Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ, ⵎⵣⵗⵏ; singular: , ) ...
* Parish granary


References

{{Authority control 10th-millennium BC establishments Containers Grain production Rooms Vernacular architecture