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Glebe (also known as church furlong, rectory manor or parson's close(s))McGurk 1970, p. 17 is an area of land within an
ecclesiastical parish A parish is a territorial entity in many Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ ( ...
used to support a parish priest. The land may be owned by the church, or its profits may be reserved to the church.


Medieval origins

In the
Roman Catholic Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...

Roman Catholic
,
Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called ''Anglicans''; t ...

Anglican
and
Presbyterian Presbyterianism is a part of the Reformed tradition Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of ...
traditions, a glebe is land belonging to a
benefice A benefice () or living is a reward received in exchange for services rendered and as a retainer for future services. The used the term as a benefit to an individual from the Empire for services rendered. Its use was adopted by the in the as a ...
and so by default to its
incumbent The incumbent is the current holder of an office An office is a space where an Organization, organization's employees perform Business administration, administrative Work (human activity), work in order to support and realize objects an ...
. In other words, "glebe is land (in addition to or including the parsonage house/rectory and grounds) which was assigned to support the priest".Coredon 2007, p. 140 The word ''glebe'' itself is from Middle English, from the French "glèbe" (originally from Latin ''gleba'' or ''glaeba'' "clod, land, soil"). Glebe can include strips in the
open field system The open-field system was the prevalent agricultural system in much of Europe during the Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and prese ...
or grouped together into a compact plot of land.
Tithes A tithe (; from Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early m ...
were in early times the main means of support for the parish clergy but glebe land was either granted by any
lord of the manor Lord of the manor is a title that, in Anglo-Saxon England Anglo-Saxon England or Early Medieval England, existing from the 5th to the 11th centuries from the end of until the in 1066, consisted of various kingdoms until 927, when it was ...
of the church's parish (sometimes the manor would have boundaries coterminous with the parish but in most instances it would be smaller), or accumulated from other donations of particular pieces of land. Occasionally all or part of the glebe was appropriated, ''devoted'' or ''assigned'' to a
priory A priory is a monastery of men or women under religious vows that is headed by a prior or prioress. Priories may be houses of mendicant friars or nuns (such as the Dominican Order, Dominicans, Augustinian Hermits, Augustinians, Franciscans, an ...

priory
or
college A college (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in rel ...

college
. In the case where the whole glebe was given to impropriators they would become the lay rector(s) (plural where the land is now subdivided), in which case the general law of
tithe A tithe (; from : ''teogoþa'' "tenth") is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a contribution to a religious organization or compulsory to government. Today, tithes are normally voluntary and paid in or s, whereas historically tithes were ...
s would resume on that land, and in England and Wales
chancel repair liability Chancel repair liability is a legal obligation on some property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing. In the contex ...
would now apply to the lay rectors just as it had to the
rector Rector (Latin for the member of a vessel's crew who steers) may refer to: Style or title *Rector (ecclesiastical), a cleric who functions as an administrative leader in some Christian denominations *Rector (academia), a senior official in an educ ...
. The amount of such land varied from parish to parish, occasionally forming a complete glebe farm. From 1571 onwards, information about the glebe would be recorded at ecclesiastical visitations in a "
glebe terrier A glebe terrier is a term specific to the Church of England. It is a document, usually a written survey or inventory, which gives details of glebe, lands and property in the parish owned by the Church of England and held by a clergyman as part of th ...
" (Latin ''terra'', land) by the incumbent of the benefice. It could also entail complete farms, individual fields, houses (messuages), mills or works. A holder of a benefice could retain the glebe for his own use, usually for agricultural exploitation, or he could "
farm A farm (also called an agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases i ...
" it (i.e., lease it, a term also used) to others and retain a rent as income.


Britain


Church of England

Glebe associated with the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
ceased to belong to individual incumbents as from 1 April 1978, by virtue of the Endowments and Glebe Measure 1976. It became vested on that date, "without any conveyance or other assurance", in the Diocesan Board of Finance of the
diocese In Ecclesiastical polity, church governance, a diocese or bishopric is the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. History In the later organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided Roman province, prov ...
to which the benefice owning the glebe belonged, even if the glebe was in another diocese. But see 'Parsonages & Glebe Diocesan Manual 2012' for current legislation.


Scotland

Glebe land in Scotland was subject to an Act of Parliament in 1925 which meant that it would be transferred little by little to the General Trustees of the
Church of Scotland The Church of Scotland (CoS; sco, The Scots Kirk; gd, Eaglais na h-Alba), also known by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national National may refer to: Common uses * Nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis ...

Church of Scotland
.


Anglo-America

In
Bermuda ) , anthem = "God Save the Queen "God Save the Queen", alternatively "God Save the King" (dependent on the gender of the reigning monarch), is the or in most s, their territories, and the British . The author of the tune is unknown, ...

Bermuda
and the
Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of Kingdom of Great Britain, British colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America. Founded in the 17th and 18th centuries, th ...
of Great Britain where the Church of England was the established church, glebe land was distributed by the colonial government and was often farmed or rented out by the church
rector Rector (Latin for the member of a vessel's crew who steers) may refer to: Style or title *Rector (ecclesiastical), a cleric who functions as an administrative leader in some Christian denominations *Rector (academia), a senior official in an educ ...
to cover living expenses. The
Dutch Reformed Church The Dutch Reformed Church (, abbreviated NHK) was the largest Christian denomination in the Netherlands from the onset of the Protestant Reformation until 1930. It was the foremost Protestant denomination, and—since 1892—one of the two maj ...
also provided glebes for the benefit of the pastor; it continued this practice through at least the 1850s. In some cases associations with former glebe properties is retained in the local names, for example: Glebe Road in
Arlington County, Virginia Arlington County is a county A county is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interact ...
, the community of
Glebe Glebe (also known as church furlong, rectory manor or parson's close(s))McGurk 1970, p. 17 is an area of land within an ecclesiastical parish A parish is a territorial entity in many Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere ...
in
Hampshire County, West Virginia Hampshire County is a County (United States), county in the U.S. state of West Virginia. As of the 2010 United States Census, 2010 census, the population was 23,964. Its county seat is Romney, West Virginia, Romney, West Virginia's oldest town ( ...
, Glebe Mountain in Londonderry, Windham County, Vermont, Glebe Hill, near Tucker's Town, Bermuda, another Glebe Hill in Southampton Parish, Bermuda, and The Glebe Road in Pembroke Parish, Bermuda. Ottawa neighbourhood
The Glebe The Glebe is a neighbourhood in Ottawa Ottawa (, ; Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many ( ...
was originally land dedicated to support St Andrew's Presbyterian Church. The Baptist, Presbyterian and other churches that were not established in Virginia succeeded in 1802 and passage in the legislature of the Glebe Act, whereby whether glebes were sold by the overseers of the poor for the benefit of the indigent in the parish. The Episcopal Church was weakened by the new law, but in the Carolinas the glebes remained in the hands of the church and either were worked by the minister or rented out by them.


See also

*
Chancel repair liability Chancel repair liability is a legal obligation on some property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing. In the contex ...
*
Manse A manse () is a inhabited by, or formerly inhabited by, a , usually used in the context of , , and other Christian traditions. Ultimately derived from the ''mansus'', "dwelling", from ''manere'', "to remain", by the 16th century the term mea ...

Manse
—a dwelling and, historically in ecclesiastical contexts, the amount of land needed to support a single family


Notes


References

* * * * * * * * *


Further reading

* * {{short description, Area of land within an ecclesiastical parish used to support a parish priest Christianity in the Middle Ages Church of England