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Fricatives are
consonant In articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics that studies articulation and ways that humans produce speech. Articulatory phoneticians explain how humans produce speech sounds via the interaction of d ...
s
produced
produced
by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. These may be the lower lip against the upper teeth, in the case of ; the back of the tongue against the
soft palate The soft palate (also known as the velum, palatal velum, or muscular palate) is, in mammal Mammals (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was origin ...
, in the case of
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
(the final consonant of ''
Bach Johann Sebastian Bach (28 July 1750) was a German composer and musician of the late Baroque period The Baroque (, ; ) is a style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that ...

Bach
''); or the side of the tongue against the molars, in the case of
Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, indigenous to the British Isles, spoken in Wales ** Patagonian Welsh, a dialect of Wels ...
(appearing twice in the name ''
Llanelli Llanelli (" St Elli's Parish A parish is a territorial entity in many Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, ...
''). This turbulent airflow is called frication. A particular subset of fricatives are the
sibilant In phonetics Phonetics is a branch of that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of s, the equivalent aspects of sign. Phoneticians—linguists who specialize in phonetics—study the physical properties of speech. Th ...
s. When forming a sibilant, one still is forcing air through a narrow channel, but in addition, the tongue is curled lengthwise to direct the air over the edge of the teeth. English , , , and are examples of sibilants. The usage of two other terms is less standardized: "Spirant" is an older term for fricatives used by some American and European phoneticians and phonologists. "Strident" could mean just "sibilant", but some authors include also and
uvular Uvulars are consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with the front of the tongue; , pronounc ...
fricatives in the class.


Types

The airflow is not completely stopped in the production of fricative consonants. In other words, the airflow experiences
friction Friction is the force In physics, a force is an influence that can change the motion (physics), motion of an Physical object, object. A force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (e.g. moving from a Newton's first law, st ...

friction
.


Sibilants

* , as in English ''s''ip * , as in English ''z''ip **
voiceless dental sibilant A voiceless alveolar fricative is a type of fricative consonant pronounced with the tongue tip, tip or tongue blade, blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth. This refers to a class of sounds, not a single sou ...
**
voiced dental sibilant The voiced alveolar fricatives are consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with the front of ...
** voiceless apical sibilant ** voiced apical sibilant ** voiceless predorsal sibilant ( laminal, with tongue tip at lower teeth) ** voiced predorsal sibilant (laminal) ** voiceless postalveolar sibilant (laminal) ** voiced postalveolar sibilant (laminal) *
voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant A voiceless postalveolar fricative is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with ...
( domed, partially palatalized), as in English ''sh''ip *
voiced palato-alveolar sibilantA voiced postalveolar fricative is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with the ...
(domed, partially palatalized), as the ''si'' in English vi''si''on *
voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some oral languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ("c", plus the curl also found in its voiced counterpart ...

voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant
(laminal, palatalized) *
voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant The voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant fricative is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pro ...

voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant
(laminal, palatalized) * (
apical Apical means "pertaining to an Apex (disambiguation), apex". It may refer to: *Apical ancestor, refers to the last common ancestor of an entire group, such as a species (biology) or a clan (anthropology) *Apical (anatomy), an anatomical term of loc ...
or subapical) *
voiced retroflex sibilant The voiced retroflex sibilant fricative is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds ...

voiced retroflex sibilant
(apical or subapical) All
sibilants In phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of sign languages, the equivalent aspects of sign. Phoneticians—linguists who specialize in phonetics—study the physical pr ...
are
coronal Coronal may refer to: * a nuptial crown * anything relating to a Corona (disambiguation), corona * Coronal plane, an anatomical term of location * The Commonly used terms of relationship and comparison in dentistry, coronal direction on a tooth * Co ...
, but may be
dental Dental may refer to: * Having to do with teeth * Dentistry, a medical profession dealing with teeth * Dental consonant, in linguistics * Dental Records, an independent UK record label * Dental_hygienist, Dental Hygienist, a person who cleans teeth ...

dental
,
alveolar Alveolus (pl. alveoli, adj. alveolar) is a general anatomical term for a concave cavity or pit. Alveolus may refer to: In anatomy and zoology in general * Pulmonary alveolus A pulmonary alveolus (plural: alveoli, from Latin ''alveolus'', "littl ...

alveolar
,
postalveolar Postalveolar or post-alveolar consonants are consonant In articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics that studies articulation and ways that humans produce speech. Articulatory phoneticians explain ...

postalveolar
, or
palatal The palate is the roof of the mouth in humans and other mammal Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class (biology), class Mammalia (), and characterized by the presence of ma ...

palatal
(
retroflex A retroflex, apico-domal, or cacuminal () consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate. They are sometimes referred to as cerebral c ...
) within that range. However, at the postalveolar place of articulation, the tongue may take several shapes: domed, laminal, or
apical Apical means "pertaining to an Apex (disambiguation), apex". It may refer to: *Apical ancestor, refers to the last common ancestor of an entire group, such as a species (biology) or a clan (anthropology) *Apical (anatomy), an anatomical term of loc ...
, and each of these is given a separate symbol and a separate name. Prototypical retroflexes are subapical and palatal, but they are usually written with the same symbol as the apical postalveolars. The alveolars and dentals may also be either apical or laminal, but this difference is indicated with diacritics rather than with separate symbols.


Central non-sibilant fricatives

*
voiceless bilabial fricative In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ...

voiceless bilabial fricative
*
voiced bilabial fricative The voiced bilabial fricative is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in ...

voiced bilabial fricative
*
voiceless labiodental fricative The voiceless labiodental fricative is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced w ...

voiceless labiodental fricative
, as in English ''f''ine *
voiced labiodental fricative The voiced labiodental fricative is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with ...

voiced labiodental fricative
, as in English ''v''ine * voiceless linguolabial fricative * voiced linguolabial fricative *
voiceless dental non-sibilant fricative The voiceless dental non-sibilant fricative is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronou ...
, as in English ''th''ing * voiced dental non-sibilant fricative, as in English ''th''at *
voiceless alveolar non-sibilant fricative A voiceless alveolar fricative is a type of fricative consonant Fricatives are consonants manner of articulation, produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two Place of articulation, articulators close together. These may be ...

voiceless alveolar non-sibilant fricative
*
voiced alveolar non-sibilant fricative The voiced alveolar fricatives are consonantal sounds. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents these sounds depends on whether a sibilant or non-sibilant fricative is being described. * The symbol for the alveolar sibilant ...

voiced alveolar non-sibilant fricative
* voiceless trilled fricative * voiced trilled fricative *
voiceless palatal fricative The voiceless palatal fricative is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with t ...

voiceless palatal fricative
*
voiced palatal fricative The voiced palatal fricative is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in th ...

voiced palatal fricative
*
voiceless velar fricative The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics that studies articulation and ways that humans produce speech. Articulatory phoneticians explain ho ...

voiceless velar fricative
*
voiced velar fricative The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound that is used in various spoken Spoken is the past participle form of "to speak". Spoken may also refer to: *Spoken (band), a Christian rock group from Arkansas *''Spoken (album)'', an a ...

voiced velar fricative
* voiceless palatal-velar fricative (articulation disputed) *
voiceless uvular fricative The voiceless uvular fricative is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with th ...

voiceless uvular fricative
*
voiceless pharyngeal fricative The voiceless pharyngeal fricative is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced wi ...

voiceless pharyngeal fricative
The IPA also has letters for epiglottal fricatives, * voiceless epiglottal fricative *
voiced epiglottal fricative The voiced epiglottal or pharyngeal trill, or voiced epiglottal fricative,John Esling (2010) "Phonetic Notation", in Hardcastle, Laver & Gibbon (eds) ''The Handbook of Phonetic Sciences'', 2nd ed., p 695. is a type of consonant In articulatory ph ...
with allophonic trilling, but these might be better analyzed as pharyngeal trills. * voiceless velopharyngeal fricative (often occurs with a
cleft palate A cleft lip contains an opening in the upper lip Lips are a visible body part at the mouth of many animals, including humans. Lips are soft, movable, and serve as the opening for food intake and in the articulation of sound and speech. Hu ...

cleft palate
) * voiced velopharyngeal fricative


Lateral fricatives

* voiceless dental lateral fricative * voiced dental lateral fricative *
voiceless alveolar lateral fricative The voiceless In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguisti ...

voiceless alveolar lateral fricative
*
voiced alveolar lateral fricative The voiced alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some Speech, spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents voiced dental consonant, dental, alveolar consonant, alveolar, and Posta ...

voiced alveolar lateral fricative
* voiceless postalveolar lateral fricative ( Mehri) * or extIPA
voiceless retroflex lateral fricative The voiceless retroflex lateral fricative is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronoun ...
* or extIPA
Voiced retroflex lateral fricative The voiced retroflex lateral fricative is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics that studies articulation and ways that humans produce speech. Articulatory phoneticians e ...
(in Ao) * or or extIPA
voiceless palatal lateral fricative The voiceless palatal lateral fricative is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounc ...
(PUA ) * or extIPA voiced palatal lateral fricative (allophonic in Jebero) * or extIPA
voiceless velar lateral fricative The voiceless velar lateral fricative is a rare speech Speech is human vocal communication using language. Each language uses Phonetics, phonetic combinations of vowel and consonant sounds that form the sound of its words (that is, all Englis ...

voiceless velar lateral fricative
(PUA ) * or extIPA voiced velar lateral fricative The lateral fricative occurs as the ''ll'' of
Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, indigenous to the British Isles, spoken in Wales ** Patagonian Welsh, a dialect of Wels ...
, as in ''
Lloyd Lloyd, Lloyd's, or Lloyds may refer to: People * Lloyd (name), a variation of the Welsh word ' or ', which means "grey" or "brown" ** List of people with given name Lloyd ** List of people with surname Lloyd * Lloyd (singer) (born 1986), American ...
'', '' Llewelyn'', and ''
Machynlleth Machynlleth () is a market town, community (Wales), community and electoral ward in Powys, Wales and within the historic boundaries of Montgomeryshire ( cy, Sir Drefaldwyn). It is in the River Dyfi, Dyfi Valley at the intersection of the A487 road, ...
'' (, a town), as the unvoiced 'hl' and voiced 'dl' or 'dhl' in the several languages of Southern Africa (such as
Xhosa Xhosa may refer to: * Xhosa people, a nation, and ethnic group, who live in south-central and southeasterly region of South Africa * Xhosa language, one of the 11 official languages of South Africa, principally spoken by the Xhosa people See also ...
and
Zulu Zulu may refer to: Zulu people * Zulu Kingdom or Zulu Empire, a former monarchy in what is now South Africa * Zulu language, a Bantu language spoken in southern Africa * Zulu people, an ethnic group of southern Africa Arts, entertainment, and med ...
), and in Mongolian. * or and
voiceless grooved lateral alveolar fricative A lateral is a consonant in which the airstream mechanism, airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth. An example of a lateral consonant is the English language, Engli ...
(a laterally lisped or ) (Modern South Arabian) * or and
voiced grooved lateral alveolar fricative A lateral is a consonant in which the airstream mechanism, airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth. An example of a lateral consonant is the English language, Engli ...
(a laterally lisped or ) (Modern South Arabian)


IPA letters used for both fricatives and approximants

*
voiced uvular fricative The voiced uvular fricative is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics that studies articulation and ways that humans produce speech. Articulatory phoneticians explain how ...

voiced uvular fricative
*
voiced pharyngeal fricative The voiced pharyngeal approximant or fricative is a type of consonant In articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics that studies articulation and ways that humans produce speech. Articulatory pho ...

voiced pharyngeal fricative
No language distinguishes voiced fricatives from
approximants Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow. Therefore, approximants fall between fricatives Fricatives are conso ...
at these places, so the same symbol is used for both. For the pharyngeal, approximants are more numerous than fricatives. A fricative realization may be specified by adding the uptack to the letters, . Likewise, the downtack may be added to specify an approximant realization, . (The bilabial approximant and dental approximant do not have dedicated symbols either and are transcribed in a similar fashion: . However, the base letters are understood to specifically refer to the fricatives.)


Pseudo-fricatives

* , as in English ''hat'' * In many languages, such as English, the glottal "fricatives" are unaccompanied
phonation The term phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics Phonetics is a branch of that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of s, the equivalent aspects of sign. Phoneticians—lingu ...
states of the glottis, without any accompanying , fricative or otherwise. However, in languages such as Arabic, they are true fricatives. In addition, is usually called a "", but it is actually an approximant. True doubly articulated fricatives may not occur in any language; but see voiceless palatal-velar fricative for a putative (and rather controversial) example.


Aspirated fricatives

Fricatives are very commonly voiced, though cross-linguistically voiced fricatives are not nearly as common as tenuis ("plain") fricatives. Other
phonation The term phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics Phonetics is a branch of that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of s, the equivalent aspects of sign. Phoneticians—lingu ...
s are common in languages that have those phonations in their stop consonants. However, phonemically aspirated fricatives are rare. contrasts with in
Korean Korean may refer to: People and culture * Koreans Koreans ( South Korean: , , North Korean: , , ; see names of Korea There are various names of Korea in use today, all derived from ancient kingdoms and dynasties. The modern English name " ...
; aspirated fricatives are also found in a few
Sino-Tibetan languages Sino-Tibetan, also known as Trans-Himalayan in a few sources, is a family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maint ...

Sino-Tibetan languages
, in some
Oto-Manguean languages The Oto-Manguean or Otomanguean languages are a large family comprising several subfamilies of indigenous languages of the Americas. All of the Oto-Manguean languages that are now spoken are indigenous to Mexico, but the Manguean languages, Mang ...
, in the Siouan language Ofo ( and ), and in the (central?) Chumash languages ( and ). The record may be Cone Tibetan, which has four contrastive aspirated fricatives: , , and .


Nasalized fricatives

Phonemically nasalized fricatives are rare.
Umbundu Umbundu, or South Mbundu (autonym umb, úmbúndú), one of many Bantu languages The Bantu languages (English: , Proto-Bantu: *bantʊ̀) are a large family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout sub-Saharan Africa. The total numb ...
has and Kwangali and Souletin Basque have . In Coatzospan Mixtec, appear allophonically before a nasal vowel, and in Igbo nasality is a feature of the syllable; when occur in nasal syllables they are themselves nasalized. ----


Occurrence

Until its extinction, Ubykh may have been the language with the most fricatives (29 not including ), some of which did not have dedicated symbols or diacritics in the
IPA IPA commonly refers to: * India pale ale, a style of beer * International Phonetic Alphabet The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin script Latin script, also ...
. This number actually outstrips the number of all consonants in English (which has 24 consonants). By contrast, approximately 8.7% of the world's languages have no phonemic fricatives at all. This is a typical feature of
Australian Aboriginal languages The Australian Aboriginal languages consist of around 290–363 languages belonging to an estimated 28 language families A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Si ...
, where the few fricatives that exist result from changes to
plosive In phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of ev ...
s or
approximant Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow. Therefore, approximants fall between fricatives Fricatives are cons ...
s, but also occurs in some indigenous languages of
New Guinea New Guinea (; Hiri Motu Hiri Motu, also known as Police Motu, Pidgin Motu, or just Hiri, is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign ...
and South America that have especially small numbers of consonants. However, whereas is ''entirely'' unknown in indigenous Australian languages, most of the other languages without true fricatives do have in their consonant inventory. Voicing contrasts in fricatives are largely confined to Europe, Africa, and Western Asia. Languages of South and East Asia, such as
Mandarin Chinese Mandarin (; ) is a group of Sinitic (Chinese) languages natively spoken across most of northern and southwestern China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more ...
,
Korean Korean may refer to: People and culture * Koreans Koreans ( South Korean: , , North Korean: , , ; see names of Korea There are various names of Korea in use today, all derived from ancient kingdoms and dynasties. The modern English name " ...
, the
Dravidian Dravidian, Dravidan, or Dravida may refer to: Language and culture *Dravidian languages, a family of languages spoken mainly in South India and northeastern Sri Lanka *Proto-Dravidian language, a model of the common ancestor of the Dravidian langu ...
and
Austronesian languages The Austronesian languages (, , , ) are a language family A language family is a group of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, based on speech and gesture (spoken language), Signed language, sign ...
, typically do not have such voiced fricatives as and , which are familiar to many European speakers. These voiced fricatives are also relatively rare in indigenous languages of the Americas. Overall, voicing contrasts in fricatives are much rarer than in plosives, being found only in about a third of the world's languages as compared to 60 percent for plosive voicing contrasts. About 15 percent of the world's languages, however, have ''unpaired voiced fricatives'', i.e. a voiced fricative without a voiceless counterpart. Two-thirds of these, or 10 percent of all languages, have unpaired voiced fricatives but no voicing contrast between any fricative pair. This phenomenon occurs because voiced fricatives have developed from
lenition In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langua ...
of plosives or
fortition Fortition, also known as strengthening, is a consonantal change that increases the degree of stricture. It is the opposite of the more common lenition In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasse ...
of approximants. This phenomenon of unpaired voiced fricatives is scattered throughout the world, but is confined to nonsibilant fricatives with the exception of a couple of languages that have but lack . (Relatedly, several languages have the voiced affricate but lack , and vice versa.) The fricatives that occur most often without a voiceless counterpart are – in order of ratio of unpaired occurrences to total occurrences – , , , and .


Acoustics

Fricatives appear in
waveforms In electronics The field of electronics is a branch of physics and electrical engineering that deals with the emission, behaviour and effects of electrons The electron is a subatomic particle In physical sciences, subatomic part ...

waveforms
as random noise caused by the turbulent airflow, upon which a periodic pattern is overlaid if voiced. Fricatives produced in the front of the mouth tend to have energy concentration at higher frequencies than ones produced in the back. The centre of gravity, the average frequency in a spectrum weighted by the amplitude, may be used to determine the place of articulation of a fricative relative to that of another.


See also

*
Apical consonant An apical consonant is a phone A telephone is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly. A telephone converts sound, typically and most efficiently th ...
* Hush consonant *
Laminal consonant A laminal consonant is a phone A telephone is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly. A telephone converts sound, typically and most efficient ...
*
List of phonetics topics A * Acoustic phonetics Acoustic phonetics is a subfield of phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of sign languages, the equivalent aspects of sign. Phoneticians ...


Notes


References


External links


Fricatives in English
{{DEFAULTSORT:Fricative Consonant Manner of articulation