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A fiddle is a bowed
string String or strings may refer to: *String (structure), a long flexible structure made from threads twisted together, which is used to tie, bind, or hang other objects Arts, entertainment, and media Films * Strings (1991 film), ''Strings'' (1991 fil ...

string
musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the object becomes a musical instrument. A person w ...
, most often a
violin The violin, sometimes known as a ''fiddle A fiddle is a Bow (music), bowed String instrument, string musical instrument, most often a violin. It is a colloquial term for the violin, used by players in all genres, including European cla ...

violin
. It is a colloquial term for the violin, used by players in all genres, including
classical music Classical music generally refers to the formal musical tradition of the Western world The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various regions, nations and state (polity), states, depending on the context, most often consis ...
. Although in many cases violins and fiddles are essentially synonymous, the style of the music played may determine specific construction differences between fiddles and classical violins. For example, fiddles may optionally be set up with a
bridge A bridge is a structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to ...

bridge
with a flatter arch to reduce the range of bow-arm motion needed for techniques such as the double shuffle, a form of
bariolageThe bowed string instrument musical technique ''bariolage'' ( or, since the word is a noun rather than an adjective, "odd mixture of colours", from the verb ''barioler'', "to streak with several colors") involves "the alternation of notes on adjacent ...

bariolage
involving rapid alternation between pairs of adjacent strings. To produce a "brighter" tone, compared to the deeper tones of gut or synthetic core strings, fiddlers often use steel strings. The fiddle is part of many traditional (
folk Folk or Folks may refer to: Sociology *Nation *People * Folklore ** Folk art ** Folk dance ** Folk hero ** Folk music *** Folk metal *** Folk punk *** Folk rock *** British folk rock ** Folk religion * Folk taxonomy Arts, entertainment, and media ...

folk
) styles, which are typically aural traditions—taught " by ear" rather than via written music. Fiddling is the act of playing the fiddle, and fiddlers are musicians that play it. Among musical styles, fiddling tends to produce rhythms that focus on dancing, with associated quick note changes, whereas classical music tends to contain more
vibrato Vibrato (Italian language, Italian, from past participle of "wikt:vibrare, vibrare", to vibrate) is a musical effect consisting of a regular, pulsating change of pitch (music), pitch. It is used to add expression to vocal and instrumental music. V ...

vibrato
and sustained notes. Fiddling is also open to improvisation and embellishment with
ornamentation An ornament is something used for decoration. Ornament may also refer to: Decoration *Ornament (art), any purely decorative element in architecture and the decorative arts *Biological ornament, a characteristic of animals that appear to serve onl ...
at the player's discretion, in contrast to orchestral performances, which adhere to the composer's notes to reproduce a work faithfully. It is less common for a classically trained violinist to play folk music, but today, many fiddlers (e.g.,
Alasdair Fraser Alasdair Fraser (born 14 May 1955, Clackmannan Clackmannan ( ; gd, Clach Mhanainn, perhaps meaning "Stone of Manau"), is a small town and civil parish set in the Central Lowlands The Central Lowlands, sometimes called the Midland Valley o ...
,
Brittany Haas Brittany Haas is an American fiddle player, who also sings and plays the banjo. She is a member of the Boston, Massachusetts, Boston-based progressive bluegrass, alternative bluegrass band Crooked Still, which is currently on hiatus. She is a regul ...
,
Alison Krauss Alison Maria Krauss (born July 23, 1971) is an American bluegrass-country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship. A ...
) have classical training.


History

The medieval fiddle emerged in 10th-century Europe, deriving from the
Byzantine lira ) * Gusle The gusle ( sr-cyrl, гусле; bg, гусла) or lahuta ( sq, lahutë) is a single- stringed musical instrument (and musical style) traditionally used in the Dinarides region of Southeastern Europe (in the Balkans The Ba ...
(Greek: ''λύρα'', Latin: ''lira'', English: ''lyre''), a bowed string instrument of the
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages ...

Byzantine Empire
and ancestor of most European bowed instruments."fiddle." ''
Encyclopædia Britannica The (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it be ...
''. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 6 March 2009.
The first recorded reference to the bowed
lira Lira is the name of several currency A currency, "in circulation", from la, currens, -entis, literally meaning "running" or "traversing" in the most specific sense is money Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gillray c ...
was in the 9th century by the
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...

Persian
geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih (d. 911); in his lexicographical discussion of instruments he cited the lira (lūrā) as a typical instrument of the Byzantines and equivalent to the rabāb played in the Islamic Empires. Lira spread widely westward to Europe; in the 11th and 12th centuries European writers use the terms ''fiddle'' and ''lira'' interchangeably when referring to bowed instruments. West African fiddlers have accompanied singing and dancing with one-string gourd fiddles since the twelfth century, and many black musicians in America learned on similar homemade fiddles before switching over to the European violin. As early as the mid-1600s, black fiddlers ("exquisite performers on three-stringed fiddles") were playing for both black and white dancers at street celebrations in the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam (New York City), and by 1690 slave fiddlers were routinely providing the music at plantation balls in Virginia. Over the centuries, Europe continued to have two distinct types of fiddles: one, relatively square-shaped, held in the arms, became known as the
viola da braccio Viola da braccio (from Italian "arm viola", plural ''viole da braccio'') is a musical terms, term variously applied during the Baroque music, baroque period to instruments of the violin family, in distinction to the viola da gamba ("leg viola") and ...
(''arm viol'') family and evolved into the violin; the other, with sloping shoulders and held between the knees, was the
viola da gamba The viol (), viola da gamba (), or informally gamba, is any one of a family of bowed, fret (in the background, coloured white) and first four frets A fret is a space between two fretbars on the neck (music), neck of a stringed instrument. ...

viola da gamba
(''leg viol'') group. During the
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in m ...

Renaissance
the gambas were important and elegant instruments; they eventually lost ground to the louder (and originally less aristocratic) ''viola da braccio'' family.


Etymology

The
etymology Etymology ()The New Oxford Dictionary of English ''The'' () is a grammatical article Article often refers to: * Article (grammar) An article is any member of a class of dedicated words that are used with noun phrases to mark the identif ...
of ''fiddle'' is uncertain: it probably derives from the Latin ''fidula'', which is the early word for ''violin'', or it may be natively Germanic. The name appears to be related to Icelandic and also
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventu ...
''fiðele''. A native Germanic ancestor of ''fiddle'' might even be the ancestor of the early Romance form of ''violin''. In medieval times, ''fiddle'' also referred to a predecessor of today's violin. Like the violin, it tended to have four strings, but came in a variety of shapes and sizes. Another family of instruments that contributed to the development of the modern fiddle are the
viol The viol (), viola da gamba (), or informally gamba, is any one of a family of , ted and s with hollow wooden bodies and where the tension on the strings can be increased or decreased to adjust the pitch of each of the strings. Frets on the v ...
s, which are held between the legs and played vertically, and have fretted fingerboards.


Ensembles

In performance, a solo fiddler, or one or two with a group of other instrumentalists, is the norm, though twin fiddling is represented in some North American, Scandinavian, Scottish and Irish styles. Following the folk revivals of the second half of the 20th century, however, it has become common for less formal situations to find large groups of fiddlers playing together—see for example the Calgary Fiddlers,
Swedish Swedish or ' may refer to: * Anything from or related to Sweden, a country in Northern Europe * Swedish language, a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Sweden and Finland * Swedish alphabet, the official alphabet used by the Swedish langua ...
Spelmanslag The spelmanslag () is an amateur organization of spelman (music), Swedish folk musicians, usually dominated by fiddles, who play Tune (folk music), tunes together. Often these groups play Tune (folk music), tunes from the specific area of Sweden wi ...
folk-musician clubs, and the worldwide phenomenon of Irish sessions. Orchestral violins, on the other hand, are commonly grouped in sections, or . These contrasting traditions may be vestiges of historical performance settings: large concert halls where violins were played required more instruments, before electronic amplification, than did more intimate dance halls and houses that fiddlers played in. The difference was likely compounded by the different sounds expected of violin music and fiddle music. Historically, the majority of fiddle music was dance music, while violin music had either grown out of dance music or was something else entirely. Violin music came to value a smoothness that fiddling, with its dance-driven clear beat, did not always follow. In situations that required greater volume, a fiddler (as long as they kept the beat) could push their instrument harder than could a violinist. Various fiddle traditions have differing values.


Scottish fiddle with cello

In the very late 20th century, a few artists have successfully attempted a reconstruction of the Scottish tradition of violin and "big fiddle," or cello. Notable recorded examples include Iain Fraser and Christine Hanson, Amelia Kaminski and Christine Hanson's Bonnie Lasses,
Alasdair Fraser Alasdair Fraser (born 14 May 1955, Clackmannan Clackmannan ( ; gd, Clach Mhanainn, perhaps meaning "Stone of Manau"), is a small town and civil parish set in the Central Lowlands The Central Lowlands, sometimes called the Midland Valley o ...
and
Natalie Haas Natalie Haas is an American cello, cellist, originally from Menlo Park, California, Menlo Park, California. A graduate of the Juilliard School, she has toured and recorded extensively with Scottish fiddler Alasdair Fraser. Also, she has toured an ...
' Fire and Grace., and Tim Macdonald and Jeremy Ward's ''The Wilds''.


Balkan fiddle with ''kontra''

Hungarian, Slovenian, and Romanian fiddle players are often accompanied by a three-stringed variant of the
viola ; german: Bratsche , alt=Viola shown from the front and the side , image=Bratsche.jpg , caption= , background=string , hornbostel_sachs=321.322-71 , hornbostel_sachs_desc=Composite chordophone A chordophone is a musical instrument that makes s ...

viola
—known as the ''
kontra , et, Kolmekeelne vioola , image= Haromhuros bracsa.png , image_capt=A ''kontra'' shown from the front and the side , background=string , hornbostel_sachs= , hornbostel_sachs_desc=Composite chordophone A chordophone is a musical instrument tha ...

kontra
''—and by
double bass The double bass, also known simply as the bass (or by other names), is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed (or plucked) string instrument String instruments, stringed instruments, or chordophones are musical instruments that produce so ...

double bass
, with
cimbalom The cimbalom (; ) or concert cimbalom is a type of composed of a large, trapezoidal box on legs with metal strings stretched across its top and a dampening pedal underneath. It was designed and created by in 1874 in , based on his modification ...

cimbalom
and
clarinet The clarinet is a family of woodwind instrument Woodwind instruments are a family of musical instruments A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be cons ...

clarinet
being less standard yet still common additions to a band. In Hungary, a three-stringed viola variant with a flat bridge, called the ''
kontra , et, Kolmekeelne vioola , image= Haromhuros bracsa.png , image_capt=A ''kontra'' shown from the front and the side , background=string , hornbostel_sachs= , hornbostel_sachs_desc=Composite chordophone A chordophone is a musical instrument tha ...

kontra
'' or ''háromhúros brácsa'' makes up part of a traditional rhythm section in Hungarian folk music. The flat bridge lets the musician play three-string chords. A three-stringed double bass variant is also used.


Styles

To a greater extent than classical violin playing, fiddle playing is characterized by a huge variety of ethnic or
folk music Folk music is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from ''musical form'' and musical style, althoug ...

folk music
traditions, each of which has its own distinctive sound.


Europe


Great Britain

*
English folk music The folk music of England is a tradition-based music, which has existed since the later medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentati ...
fiddling, including ** Northumbrian fiddle style, which features "seconding", an improvised harmony part played by a second fiddler. ** or
Cumbria Cumbria ( ) is a ceremonial A ceremony (, ) is a unified ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, performed according to a set sequence. Rituals may be prescribed by the traditions of a ...

Cumbria
n fiddling has a repertoire largely based upon
hornpipe The hornpipe is any of several dance forms played and danced in Britain and Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain t ...
s but also incorporates reels and jigs. *
Scottish fiddling Scottish fiddling may be distinguished from other folk fiddling styles by its particular precision of execution and energy in the delivery, for example, the rendering of the dotted-quaver/semi-quaver rhythmic patterns, commonly used in the Straths ...
, including: **
Shetland Shetland ( on, Hjaltland; sco, Shetland; nrn, Hjetland), also called the Shetland Islands and formerly Zetland, is a subarctic archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or co ...

Shetland
fiddling, which includes trowie tunes said to come from peerie folk. The style is characterized by "ringing strings" and syncopated rhythms. **A North East (particularly
Aberdeenshire Aberdeenshire ( sco, Aiberdeenshire; gd, Siorrachd Obar Dheathain) is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland For local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration Public administr ...

Aberdeenshire
and
Moray Moray ( ; sco, Moray; gd, Moireibh or ') is one of the 32 local government council areas of Scotland. It lies in the north-east of the country, with a coastline on the Moray Firth, and borders the council areas of Aberdeenshire and Highland ( ...

Moray
) tradition strongly influenced by baroque violin technique with staccato and Scotch snap bowing techniques in addition to the use of double stops. **A
Scottish Borders The Scottish Borders ( sco, the Mairches, 'the Marches'; gd, Crìochan na h-Alba) is one of 32 council areas of Scotland. It borders the City of Edinburgh, Dumfries and Galloway, East Lothian, Midlothian, South Lanarkshire, West Lothian an ...
tradition with a repertoire heavy in
hornpipe The hornpipe is any of several dance forms played and danced in Britain and Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain t ...
s and with heavy use of double stops. **A
Highland Highlands or uplands are any mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit area, and is large ...

Highland
tradition, highly influenced by the ornamentation and
mixolydian Mixolydian mode may refer to one of three things: the name applied to one of the ancient Greek ''harmoniai'' or ''tonoi'', based on a particular octave species or scale; one of the medieval church modes; a modern musical mode or diatonic scale ...
scale of the
Great Highland Bagpipe #REDIRECT Great Highland bagpipe The Great Highland bagpipe ( gd, a' phìob mhòr "the great pipe") is a type of bagpipe native to Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part ...
, as well as smoother bowing than other Scottish fiddle styles and a swinging of the 6/8
jig The jig ( ga, port, gd, port-cruinn) is a form of lively folk dance in Metre (music)#Compound metre, compound metre, as well as the accompanying dance tune (folk music), tune. It is most associated with Irish music and dance. It first gained ...
rhythm. **An
Orkney Orkney (; sco, Orkney; on, Orkneyjar; nrn, Orknøjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island A ...

Orkney
tradition with simpler bowing and ornamentation but with tunes featuring accidentals. * Welsh fiddling (Welsh ''Ffidil''; see
Ar Log Ar Log (Welsh for "for hire") are a folk band Folk music includes traditional folk music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th-century folk revival A roots revival (folk revival) is a trend which includes young performers po ...
), a recently revived tradition.


Ireland

*
Irish folk music Irish traditional music (also known as Irish trad, Irish folk music, and other variants) is a genre of folk music that developed in Ireland. In ''A History of Irish Music'' (1905), W. H. Grattan Flood wrote that, in Gaelic Ireland, there were ...
fiddling including: **
DonegalDonegal may refer to: County Donegal, Ireland * County Donegal, a county in the Republic of Ireland, part of the province of Ulster * Donegal Bay, an inlet in the northwest of Ireland bordering counties Donegal, Leitrim and Sligo * Donegal (town), ...
fiddling from the northwest in
Ulster Ulster (; ga, Ulaidh or ''Cúige Uladh'' ; sco, label=Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster Scots, Ulstèr or ''Ulster'') is one of the four traditional Irish provinces of Ireland, provinces, in the north of Ireland. It is made up of nine Counties ...

Ulster
, which features
mazurka The mazurka (Polish Polish may refer to: * Anything from or related to Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided ...
s and a Scottish-influenced repertoire including Strathspey and Highland Fling dances. Fiddlers tend to play fast and make heavy use of
staccato Staccato (; Italian for "detached") is a form of musical articulation. In modern notation, it signifies a note of shortened duration, separated from the note that may follow by silence. It has been described by theorists and has appeared in music ...

staccato
bowing and may from time to time "play the bass," meaning a second fiddler may play a melody an octave below where a first fiddler is playing it. **
Sligo Sligo ( ; ga, Sligeach , meaning 'abounding in shells') is a coastal seaport and the county town of County Sligo, Republic of Ireland, Ireland, within the western province of Connacht. With a population of approximately 20,000 in 2016, it is th ...

Sligo
fiddling from northern
Connacht Connacht ( ; ga, Connachta or ), or Connaught, is one of the provinces of Ireland Since pre-historic times, there have been four Provinces of Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, ...

Connacht
, which like Donegal fiddling tends to be fast, but with a bouncier feel to the bowing. **
Galway Galway ( ; ga, Gaillimh, ) is a in the , in the of . It is the of , which is named after it. It lies on the between and , and is the on the island of Ireland and the , with a population at the 2016 Census of 79,934. Located near an ...

Galway
fiddling southern
Connacht Connacht ( ; ga, Connachta or ), or Connaught, is one of the provinces of Ireland Since pre-historic times, there have been four Provinces of Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, ...

Connacht
, which is slower than Sligo or Donegal traditions, with a heavier emphasis on ornamentation. Additionally, tunes are occasionally played in Eb or Bb to match the tonality of flat pipes. **
ClareClare may refer to: Places Antarctica * Clare Range, a mountain range in Victoria Land Australia * Clare, South Australia, a town in the Clare Valley * Clare Valley, South Australia Canada * Clare (electoral district), an electoral district * Cla ...
fiddling from northern
Munster Munster ( gle, an Mhumhain or ) is one of the provinces of Ireland Since pre-historic times, there have been four Provinces of Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.ht ...

Munster
, which tends to be played near the slower Galway tempo yet with a greater emphasis on the melody itself rather than ornamentation. **
Sliabh Luachra Sliabh Luachra (), sometimes anglicised 'Slieve Logher', is an upland region in Munster, Ireland. It is on the borders of counties County Cork, Cork, County Kerry, Kerry and County Limerick, Limerick, and bounded to the south by the Munster Blackwa ...
fiddling from the southwest in
Munster Munster ( gle, an Mhumhain or ) is one of the provinces of Ireland Since pre-historic times, there have been four Provinces of Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.ht ...

Munster
, characterized by a unique repertoire of
polka The polka is originally a Czech people, Czech dance and musical genre, genre of dance music familiar throughout all of Europe and the Americas. It originated in the middle of the nineteenth century in Bohemia, now part of the Czech Republic. The ...

polka
s and slides, the use of
double stop In music, a double stop is the technique of playing two notes simultaneously on a stringed instrument String instruments, stringed instruments, or chordophones are musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to ma ...
s and drones, as well as playing the melody in two octaves as in Donegal.


Nordic countries

* Norwegian fiddling (including
Hardanger Hardanger is a traditional district in the western part of Norway Norway ( nb, ; nn, ; se, Norga; smj, Vuodna; sma, Nöörje), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe whose mainl ...
fiddling; see also
BygdedansBygdedans (or village dance) is the regional, traditional dance of Norway. Bygdedans are the oldest and most distinctive among Norwegian folk dances.Gammaldans Gammaldans (Swedish) or Gammeldans (Danish and Norwegian) (literally "old dance") is a small set of Nordic dances that became broadly popular in the late 19th century. These were also the dances of the Nordic immigrant communities in the United S ...
), including traditions from: **
Røros ( sma, Plassje) is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it ...

Røros
and
Nord-Noreg Northern Norway ( nb, Nord-Norge, , nn, Nord-Noreg; se, Davvi-Norga) is a geographical Regions of Norway, region of Norway, consisting of the two northernmost counties Nordland and Troms og Finnmark, in total about 35% of the Norwegian mainland ...
styles, both using the standard fiddle. **
Finnskogen 310px, Grue in Innlandet county, Eastern Norway is the center of the revived ''Skogfinn'' minority culture.">Eastern_Norway.html" ;"title="Innlandet county, Eastern Norway">Innlandet county, Eastern Norway is the center of the revived ''Skogfinn'' ...
, using the standard fiddle, but featuring some flatted notes influenced by Finnish folk music. **
Voss Voss () is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordi ...

Voss
and
Telemark Telemark is a traditional region, a former Counties of Norway, county and a current electoral district in southern Norway. In 2020, Telemark merged with the former county of Vestfold to form the county of Vestfold og Telemark. Telemark border ...

Telemark
styles, both using the
Hardanger fiddle A Hardanger fiddle ( no, hardingfele) is a traditional stringed instrument String instruments, stringed instruments, or chordophones are musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. I ...
. **
Setesdal Setesdal (; older name: Sætersdal) is a valley A valley is an elongated low area often running between hills or mountains, which will typically contain a river or stream running from one end to the other. Most valleys are formed by ero ...

Setesdal
, which uses both standard and Hardanger fiddles. * Swedish fiddling (including Låtfiol playing; see also
Spelmanslag The spelmanslag () is an amateur organization of spelman (music), Swedish folk musicians, usually dominated by fiddles, who play Tune (folk music), tunes together. Often these groups play Tune (folk music), tunes from the specific area of Sweden wi ...
and
Gammaldans Gammaldans (Swedish) or Gammeldans (Danish and Norwegian) (literally "old dance") is a small set of Nordic dances that became broadly popular in the late 19th century. These were also the dances of the Nordic immigrant communities in the United S ...
), including traditions from: **
Jämtland Jämtland (; no, Jemtland or , ; Jamtish: ''Jamtlann''; la, Iemptia) is a historical province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, ad ...
**
Dalarna Dalarna () is a ''landskap'' (historical province) in central Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are ...

Dalarna
* Finnish fiddling, including the regional styles of: **
Kaustinen Kaustinen ( sv, Kaustby) is a municipalities of Finland, municipality of Finland. It is part of the Central Ostrobothnia regions of Finland, region. The municipality has a population abou 4300 and covers an area of of which is water. The populati ...
** Ostrobothnia, heavily influenced by Swedish fiddling.


Continental Europe

* Austrian fiddling * French fiddling, including an old tradition from
Corrèze Corrèze (; oc, Corresa) is a Departments of France, department in Southwestern France, named after the river Corrèze (river), Corrèze which runs through it. Its capital is Tulle, and its most populated town is Brive-la-Gaillarde. The inhabi ...

Corrèze
and a revived one from
Brittany Brittany (; french: link=no, Bretagne ; br, Breizh, or ; Gallo: ''Bertaèyn'' ) is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to ...
*
Hungarian folk music Hungarian folk music ( hu, magyar népzene) includes a broad array of Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central Europe includes contiguous territories that are sometimes also considered parts of Western Europe, Souther ...
traditions * Italian fiddling *
Klezmer Klezmer ( yi, קלעזמער) is an instrumental musical tradition of the Ashkenazi Jews of Central Europe, Central and Eastern Europe. The essential elements of the tradition include dance tunes, ritual melodies, and virtuosic improvisations ...
fiddling *
Polish fiddling The Music of Poland covers diverse aspects of music and musical traditions which have originated, and are practiced in Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country ...
* Mainland Portuguese and fiddling * Romanian fiddling


Americas


United States

American fiddling, a broad category including traditional and modern styles


=Traditional

= *Blues fiddling *Cajun music, Cajun and Zydeco fiddling *Native Americans in the United States, Native American fiddling, including: **Cherokee **Muscogee, Creek **Tohono O'odham Chicken scratch, waila music, a style heavily influenced by Mexican fiddling and featuring irregular counts and harmonies in thirds, fourths, and sixths. *Old time fiddle, Old time fiddling, including: **Fiddling from Appalachia, the most well-known style today, featuring heavy use of droning and double-stops as well as syncopated bowing patterns. **Athabaskan fiddling of the Interior Alaska. **Midwestern fiddling, highly influenced by Scandinavian music. **Ozarks fiddling, faster and crisper bowing than Appalachia. **Texas fiddling, with influences from Music of Mexico, Mexican fiddling and an emphasis on competitive playing. **New England fiddling, with strong influences from Quebec, Québécois/French Canadian and British repertoires. **Pacific Northwest, Northwest fiddling, with influences from both Ozark and Midwestern fiddle styles, though with a strong emphasis on competitive playing like Texas fiddling.


=Modern

= *Bluegrass fiddle, Bluegrass fiddling *Country music, Country fiddling *Western swing style fiddling


Canada

Fiddling remains popular in Canada, and the various homegrown styles of Canadian fiddling are seen as an important part of the country's cultural identity, as celebrated during the opening ceremony of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics. *Cape Breton fiddling, with a distinct Scottish influence *French Canadian fiddling including "crooked tunes," that is, tunes with irregular beat patterns. *Métis fiddle, Métis fiddling, of central and western Canada featuring strong French Canadian influence, but with even more "crooked" tunes. *Newfoundland fiddling *Maritimes, Acadian or Downeast style of fiddling, which has many similarities to Cape Breton fiddling *English Canadian fiddling or Anglo-Canadian fiddling


Mexico

Music of Mexico, Mexican fiddling includes *Danza indígena *Mariachi *Son arribeño *Son calentano *Son huasteco *Son planeco *Violín-tambora *Violín tuxtleco *Violín mixteco


South America

* Forró, a type of music from Brazil, including the ''rabeca'' fiddle tradition * Music of Peru, Peruvian violin


Other areas

*African fiddle *Australian folk music traditions *Huqin Chinese fiddles *Morna (music), Morna fiddling from Cape Verde *Indian fiddle *Indian classical music


Related instruments


Variants

*
Hardanger fiddle A Hardanger fiddle ( no, hardingfele) is a traditional stringed instrument String instruments, stringed instruments, or chordophones are musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. I ...
*Stroh violin or phonofiddle, known in Romanian as ''Vioara cu goarnă''.


Near relations

*Cello *Double bass *Kontra * '' Låtfiol'' *Rebec *''Rabeca'' *Viola


Distant relations

*Apache fiddle *Byzantine lyra, the medieval bowed instrument of the Byzantine Empire *Lyra (Cretan), Cretan Lyra *Crwth *Gadulka *Gudok *Gusle *Hurdy-gurdy also known as the wheel fiddle *Kamancheh *Lijerica *Nyckelharpa *Rebab


See also

* Fleadh Cheoil * List of All-Ireland Champions * List of fiddlers * Jazz violin


References

Sources: * ''The Fiddle Book'', by Marion Thede, (1970), Oak Publications. . * ''The Fiddler's Fakebook'', by David Brody, (1983), Oak Publications. US ; UK . * ''Oldtime Fiddling Across America'', by David Reiner and Peter Anick (1989), Mel Bay Publications. . Has transcriptions (standard notation) and analysis of tunes from multiple regional and ethnic styles. * ''The Portland Collection'', by Susan Songer, (1997), (Vol. 2 ) *''North American Fiddle Music: a research and information guide'' by Drew Beisswenger (2011) Routledge.


External links


Faroese
fiddling

with clips of many North American styles

an encyclopedia of historical notes on tunes from British, Celtic, and American traditions

of regions in Ireland and traditional Irish fiddle players
Differences
between fiddle and violin
Polish Fiddles

mazankizłóbcoki

Złóbcoki (fiddles) - “Instruments with Soul” documentary

Violoneux.fr
background information on fiddlers of different French regions in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. In French. {{Authority control Cajun musical instruments Celtic musical instruments Czech musical instruments English musical instruments Faroese musical instruments Fiddles Irish musical instruments Scottish musical instruments Welsh musical instruments