The Fallopian tubes, also known as uterine tubes, salpinges (singular salpinx), or oviducts, are tubes that stretch from the uterus
to the ovaries
, and are part of the female reproductive system
A fertilized egg passes through the Fallopian tubes from the ovaries of female mammal
s to the uterus. The Fallopian tubes is simple columnar epithelium
with hair-like extensions called cilia
which carry the fertilized egg. In other animals, the equivalent of a Fallopian tube is an oviduct
The name comes from the Catholic priest
and anatomist Gabriele Falloppio
, for whom other anatomical structures are also named.
The Fallopian tube is composed of four parts. These are, described from near the ovaries
to inwards near the uterus
, the ''infundibulum'' with its associated ''fimbriae'' near the ovary, the ''ampulla'' that represents the major portion of the lateral tube, the ''isthmus'', which is the narrower part of the tube that links to the uterus, and the interstitial (or intramural) part, the narrowest part of the uterine tube, that crosses the muscles of the uterine. The average length of a fallopian tube is 11-12 cm.
The uterus opens into the Fallopian tube at the proximal tubal opening (also called the proximal ostium or os), after the uterotubal junction
, and accessible via hysteroscopy. Occlusion at this opening is referred to as proximal tubal occlusion
. From there there are three named parts of the Fallopian tube; the ''isthmus'', the ''ampulla'', and the ''infundibulum''. The ''isthmus'' sits next to the opening of the Fallopian tube into the uterus. It connects to the ampulla (), which curves over the ovary and is the most common site of human fertilization
The ampulla connects with the infundibulum, which rests above the ovaries, and ends at the distal tubal opening (or abdominal ostium) into the abdominal cavity
where, in ovulation
, the oocyte
enters the Fallopian tube. The opening is surrounded by fimbriae, which help in the collection of the oocyte. Occlusion of this opening is referred to as distal tubal occlusion. The fimbriae (singular fimbria) is a fringe of tissue around the ostium of the Fallopian tube, in the direction of the ovary. Of all fimbriae, one fimbria is long enough to reach the ovary. It is called ''fimbria ovarica''.
An ovary is not directly connected to its adjacent Fallopian tube. When ovulation is about to occur, the sex hormones
activate the fimbriae, causing them to swell with blood and hit the ovary in a gentle, sweeping motion. An oocyte is released from the ovary into the peritoneal cavity and the cilia of the fimbriae sweep the ovum into the Fallopian tube.
When viewed under the microscope, the Fallopian tube has four to five layers (depending on the classification system used). From outer to inner these are the serosa
and innermost mucosa
with lamina propria
and epithelium. The serosa is derived from the visceral peritoneum
. The subserosa is composed of loose adventitious tissue, blood vessels, lymphatics. The muscularis consist of outer longitudinal and inner circular smooth muscle
coats. This layer is responsible for the rhythmic contraction, called peristalsis
, of the Fallopian tubes.
The histological features of tube vary along its length. The mucosa of the ampulla contains an extensive array of complex folds, whereas the relatively narrow isthmus has a thick muscular coat and simple mucosal folds.
The innermost layer of the tube is an epithelium
composed of a single layer of column-shaped cells
. The columnar cells have microscopic hair-like filaments called cilia
throughout the tube, most numerous in the infundibulum and ampulla. Estrogen
increases the formation of cilia on these cells. Between the ciliated cells are peg cells
, which contain apical granules and produce tubular fluid. This fluid contains nutrients for spermatozoa
, and zygotes
. The secretions also promote capacitation
of the sperm by removing glycoprotein
s and other molecules from the plasma membrane of the sperm. Progesterone
increases the number of peg cells, while estrogen increases their height and secretory activity. Fluid flows through the tubes towards the ovaries, the opposite direction to the action of the cilia.
s develop a urogenital ridge
that forms at their tail end and eventually forms the basis for the urinary system
and reproductive tract
s. Either side and to the front of this tract, around the sixth week develops a duct called the paramesonephric duct
, also called the Müllerian duct. A second duct, the mesonephric duct
, develops adjacent to this. Both ducts become longer over the next two weeks, and the paramesonephric ducts around the eighth week cross to meet in the midline and fuse. One duct then regresses, with this depending on whether the embryo is genetically female
. In females, the paramesonephric duct remains, and eventually forms the female reproductive tract. The portions of the paramesonephric duct which are more cranial
- that is, further from the tail-end, end up forming the fallopian tubes. In males, because of the presence of the Y sex chromosome
, anti-mullerian hormone
is produced. This leads to the degeneration of the paramesonephric duct.
As the uterus develops, the part of the fallopian tubes closer to the uterus, the ampulla, becomes larger. Extensions from the fallopian tubes, the fimbriae, develop over time.
Apart from the presence of sex chromosomes, specific genes associated with the development of the fallopian tubes include the Wnt
groups of genes, Lim1
, and Emx2
s have two pairs of ducts to let gamete
s out of the body; one pair (the Müllerian duct
s) develops in females into the fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina
, while the other pair (the Wolffian duct
s) develops in males into the epididymis
and vas deferens.
The homologous organ in the male is the rudimentary appendix testis
The fallopian tube allows the passage of an egg from the ovary to the uterus. When an oocyte
is developing in an ovary, it is surrounded by a spherical collection of cells known as an ovarian follicle
. Just before ovulation, the primary oocyte completes meiosis I
to form the first polar body
and a secondary oocyte which is arrested in metaphase
of meiosis II
At the time of ovulation
in the menstrual cycle
, the secondary oocyte is released from the ovary. The follicle and the ovary's wall rupture, allowing the secondary oocyte to escape. The secondary oocyte is caught by the fimbriated end of the fallopian tube and travels to the ampulla. Here, the egg is able to become fertilized with sperm. The ampulla is typically where the sperm are met and fertilization
occurs; meiosis II is promptly completed. After fertilization, the ovum is now called a zygote
and travels towards the uterus with the aid of the hair-like cilia
and the activity of the muscle of the fallopian tube. The early embryo requires critical development in the fallopian tube. After about five days the new embryo
enters the uterine cavity
and on about the sixth day implants
on the wall of the uterus.
The release of an oocyte does not alternate between the two ovaries and seems to be random. After removal of an ovary, the remaining one produces an egg every month.
is inflammation of the fallopian tubes and may be found alone, or as part of pelvic inflammatory disease
(PID). A thickening of the fallopian tube at its narrow portion, due to inflammation, is known as salpingitis isthmica nodosa
. Like PID and endometriosis
, it may lead to fallopian tube obstruction
. Fallopian tube obstruction may be a cause of infertility
or ectopic pregnancy
Fallopian tube cancer
, which typically arises from the epithelial
lining of the fallopian tube, has historically been considered to be a very rare malignancy. Recent evidence suggests it probably represents a significant portion of what has been classified as ovarian cancer
in the past. While tubal cancers may be misdiagnosed as ovarian cancer, it is of little consequence as the treatment of both ovarian and fallopian tube cancer is similar.
Occasionally the embryo implants into the fallopian tube instead of the uterus
, creating an ectopic pregnancy
, commonly known as a "tubal pregnancy".
Blockage or narrowing
While full testing of tubal functions in patients with infertility
is not possible, testing of whether the tubes are open, called patency, is important as tubal obstruction
is a major cause of infertility. A hysterosalpingogram
and dye, or hysterocontrast sonography
will demonstrate whether the tubes are open. Tubal insufflation
is a standard procedure for testing patency. During surgery, the condition of the tubes may be inspected and a dye such as methylene blue
can be injected into the uterus and shown to pass through the tubes when the cervix
is occluded. As tubal disease is often related to ''Chlamydia infection
'', testing for Chlamydia antibodies
has become a cost-effective screening device for tubal pathology.
The surgical removal of a fallopian tube is called a salpingectomy
. To remove both tubes is a bilateral salpingectomy. An operation that combines the removal of a fallopian tube with the removal of at least one ovary is a salpingo-oophorectomy
. An operation to remove a fallopian tube obstruction is called a tuboplasty
The fallopian tube can prolapse
into the vagina and can be mistaken for a tumour. When this happens, it is usually after a hysterectomy.
The Fallopian tubes are named after the 16th-century Italian
anatomist Gabriele Falloppio
, the first person to provide a detailed description of the tubes. He thought they resembled tuba
s, the plural of ' in Italian being ' which was misunderstood and became the English "tube".
Though the name ''Fallopian tube'' is eponymous
, it is often spelt with a lower case ''f'' from the assumption that the adjective ''fallopian'' has been absorbed into modern English as the ' name for the structure.
14._[[Uterus.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Vagina.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Vulva
14. [[Uterus">Vagina.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Vulva
24. [[Fallopian tube:
26. [[Ampulla of Fallopian tube|Ampulla;
27. [[Infundibulum of uterine tube|Infundibulum;
28. [[Fimbriae of uterine tube|Fimbria (with
29. Fimbria ovarica)
31. Visceral pelvic peritoneum
32. Broad ligament
38. Suspensory of ovary
39. Ovarian artery
40. Uterine artery
48. Abdominal cavity
File:Gray1161.png|Image showing the right Fallopian tube (here labeled the uterine tube) seen from behind. The uterus, ovaries and right broad ligament are labeled.
File: Fallopian tube.jpg|Unlabelled image showing the right Fallopian tube
File:Uterus.jpg|Isthmus of the Fallopian tube seen arising from the uterus in a Cadaver|cadaveric specimen
* Menstrual cycle
Histology image: 18501loa
– Histology Learning System at Boston University
Category:Human female reproductive system