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Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and
interest In finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. It is concerned with the creation and management of money and investments. Savers and investors have money availa ...

interest
of an
audience An audience is a group of people who participate in a show or encounter a work of art A work of art, artwork, art piece, piece of art or art object is an artistic creation of aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philoso ...

audience
or gives pleasure and delight. It can be an idea or a task, but is more likely to be one of the activities or events that have developed over thousands of years specifically for the purpose of keeping an audience's attention. Although people's attention is held by different things because individuals have different preferences, most forms of entertainment are recognisable and familiar.
Storytelling Storytelling describes the social and cultural activity of sharing narrative, stories, sometimes with improvisation, theatre, theatrics or embellishment. Every culture has its own stories or narratives, which are shared as a means of entertainmen ...

Storytelling
,
music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elements such as (which governs and ), (and its associated concepts , , and ...

music
,
drama Drama is the specific Mode (literature), mode of fiction Mimesis, represented in performance: a Play (theatre), play, opera, mime, ballet, etc., performed in a theatre, or on Radio drama, radio or television.Elam (1980, 98). Considered as a ...

drama
,
dance Dance is a performing art art form, form consisting of sequences of movement, either improvised or purposefully selected. This movement has aesthetic and often symbolism (arts), symbolic value. Dance can be categorized and described by its ...

dance
, and different kinds of
performance A performance is an act of staging or presenting a play, concert, or other form of entertainment. It is also defined as the action or process of carrying out or accomplishing an action, task, or function. Management science In the work place ...

performance
exist in all cultures, were supported in royal courts, developed into sophisticated forms and over time became available to all citizens. The process has been accelerated in modern times by an
entertainment industry Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest In and , interest is payment from a or deposit-taking financial institution to a or depositor of an amount above repayment of the (that is, the amount borrowed ...
that records and sells entertainment products. Entertainment evolves and can be adapted to suit any scale, ranging from an individual who chooses a private entertainment from a now enormous array of pre-recorded products; to a
banquet A banquet (; ) is a formal large meal or feast, where a number of people consume food together. Banquets are traditionally held to enhance the prestige of a host, or reinforce social bonds among joint contributors. Modern examples of these pur ...

banquet
adapted for two; to any size or type of
party A party is a gathering of people who have been invited by a host A host is a person responsible for guests at an event or for providing hospitality during it. Host may also refer to: Places *Host, Pennsylvania, a village in Berks Cou ...

party
, with appropriate music and dance; to performances intended for thousands; and even for a global audience. The experience of being entertained has come to be strongly associated with
amusement 300px, ''Amusement'', by Viktor Vasnetsov Amusement, from the old French ''à muser'' – to put into a stupid stare, is the state of experiencing humorous Humour (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English) or humor (A ...

amusement
, so that one common understanding of the idea is
fun Fun is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal historical dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press (OUP). It traces the historical development o ...

fun
and laughter, although many entertainments have a serious purpose. This may be the case in the various forms of
ceremony A ceremony (, ) is a unified ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, performed according to a set sequence. Rituals may be prescribed by the traditions of a community, including a religious ...

ceremony
, celebration,
religious festival A religious festival is a time of special importance marked by adherents to that religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether the ...
, or
satire Satire is a of the , , and s, usually in the form of and less frequently , in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, often with the intent of shaming or exposing the perceived flaws of individuals, corpora ...
for example. Hence, there is the possibility that what appears as entertainment may also be a means of achieving
insight The Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport (''InSight'') mission is a robotic Robotics is an interdisciplinarity, interdisciplinary field that integrates computer science and engineering. Robotics inv ...

insight
or intellectual growth. An important aspect of entertainment is the audience, which turns a private
recreation Recreation is an activity of leisure Leisure has often been defined as a quality of experience or as free time. Free time is spent away from , , , , and , as well as necessary activities such as and ing. Leisure as an experience usuall ...

recreation
or
leisure Leisure has often been defined as a quality of experience or as free time. Free time is time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible s ...

leisure
activity into entertainment. The audience may have a passive role, as in the case of persons watching a
play Play most commonly refers to: * Play (activity), an activity done for enjoyment * Play (theatre), a work of drama Play may refer also to: Computers and technology * Google Play, a digital content service * Play Framework, a Java framework * Play ...
,
opera Opera is a form of theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actor, actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a s ...

opera
,
television show A television show – or simply TV show – is any content produced for viewing on a television set A television set or television receiver, more commonly called the television, TV, TV set, tube, telly, or tele, is a device that combines a ...
, or
film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, ...

film
; or the audience role may be active, as in the case of
game A game is a structured form of play Play most commonly refers to: * Play (activity), an activity done for enjoyment * Play (theatre), a work of drama Play may refer also to: Computers and technology * Google Play, a digital content serv ...

game
s, where the participant/audience roles may be routinely reversed. Entertainment can be public or private, involving formal, scripted performance, as in the case of
theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actor, actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage. The p ...

theatre
or
concert A concert is a live music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the universal cultural Culture () is an umbrella term wh ...

concert
s; or unscripted and spontaneous, as in the case of
children's games This is a list of games that used to be played by children, some of which are still being played today. Traditional children's games do not include commercial products such as board games but do include games which require props such as hopscotch or ...
. Most forms of entertainment have persisted over many centuries, evolving due to changes in culture, technology, and fashion for example with
stage magic Magic, which encompasses the subgenres of illusion, stage magic, and close up magic, among others, is a performing art in which audiences are entertainment, entertained by tricks, effects, or illusions of seemingly impossible feats, using natur ...
. Films and
video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, game controller, controller, computer keyboard, keyboard, or motion sensing device to generate visual f ...
s, for example, although they use newer media, continue to
tell stories
tell stories
, present drama, and play music.
Festival A festival is an event ordinarily celebrated by a community and centering on some characteristic aspect of that community and its religion or cultures. It is often marked as a local or national holiday, mela, or Muslim holidays, eid. A festiva ...

Festival
s devoted to
music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elements such as (which governs and ), (and its associated concepts , , and ...

music
,
film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, ...

film
, or
dance Dance is a performing art art form, form consisting of sequences of movement, either improvised or purposefully selected. This movement has aesthetic and often symbolism (arts), symbolic value. Dance can be categorized and described by its ...
allow audiences to be entertained over a number of consecutive days. Some entertainment, such as public executions, are now illegal in most countries. Activities such as
fencing Fencing is a group of three related combat sports. The three disciplines in modern fencing are the foil (fencing), foil, the épée, and the sabre (fencing), sabre (also ''saber''); winning points are made through the weapon's contact with an ...

fencing
or
archery Archery is the art, sport, practice, or skill of using a bow Bow often refers to: * Bow and arrow, a weapon * Bowing, bending the upper body as a social gesture * An ornamental knot made of ribbon Bow may also refer to: Boats * Bow (sh ...

archery
, once used in
hunting Hunting is the practice of seeking, pursuing and capturing or killing wildlife or feral animals. The most common reasons for humans to hunt are to harvest useful animal products (meat, fur/hide (skin), hide, bone/tusks, horn (anatomy), horn/an ...

hunting
or
war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (new ...

war
, have become
spectator sport A spectator sport is a sport Sport pertains to any form of competitive Competition is a rivalry A rivalry is the state of two people or groups engaging in a lasting competitive relationship. Rivalry is the "against each other" spi ...
s. In the same way, other activities, such as
cooking Cooking, cookery, or culinary arts is the art, science, and craft of using heat In thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with heat, Work (thermodynamics), work, and temperature, and their relation to energy ...

cooking
, have developed into performances among professionals, staged as global competitions and then broadcast for entertainment. What is entertainment for one group or individual may be regarded as work or an act of cruelty by another. The familiar forms of entertainment have the capacity to cross over different media and have demonstrated a seemingly unlimited potential for creative
remix A remix is a piece of media which has been altered or contorted from its original state by adding, removing, and/or changing pieces of the item. A song, piece of artwork, book, video, poem, or photograph can all be remixes. The only characteristic ...

remix
. This has ensured the continuity and longevity of many themes, images, and structures.


Etymology

The
Oxford English Dictionary The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal historical dictionary A historical dictionary or dictionary on historical principles is a dictionary which deals not only with the latterday meanings of words but also the historica ...
gives Latin and French origins for the word "entertain", including ''inter'' (among) + ''tenir'' (to hold) as derivations, giving translations of "to hold mutually" or "to hold intertwined" and "to engage, keep occupied, the
attention Attention is the behavioral and cognitive process Cognition () refers to "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses". It encompasses many aspects of intellectual funct ...

attention
thoughts or time (of a person)". It also provides words like "merry-making", "pleasure", "delight", as well as "to receive as a guest and show hospitality to". It cites a 1490 usage by
William Caxton William Caxton ( 1422 – 1491) was an English merchant A merchant is a person who trades in commodities produced by other people, especially one who trades with foreign countries. Historically, a merchant is anyone who is involved in busine ...
.


Psychology and philosophy

Entertainment can be distinguished from other activities such as
education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion ...

education
and
marketing Marketing is the process of intentionally stimulating demand for and purchases of goods and services; potentially including selection of a target audience; selection of certain attributes or themes to emphasize in advertising; operation of adv ...

marketing
even though they have learned how to use the appeal of entertainment to achieve their different goals. Sometimes entertainment can be a mixture for both. The importance and impact of entertainment is recognised by scholars p. 22. and its increasing sophistication has influenced practices in other fields such as
museology Museology or museum studies is the study of museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is a building or institution that Preservation (library and archival science), cares for and displays a collection (artwork), collection of ...
. Psychologists say the function of media entertainment is "the attainment of
gratification Image:Kevin Durant gold medal 2010.jpg, American Basketball player Kevin Durant, after receiving the gold medal at the 2010 FIBA World Championship Gratification is the pleasurable Emotion, emotional reaction of happiness in response to a fulfill ...
". No other results or measurable benefit are usually expected from it (except perhaps the final score in a sporting entertainment). This is in contrast to education (which is designed with the purpose of developing understanding or helping people to learn) and marketing (which aims to encourage people to purchase
commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Television advertisement * (adjective for:) commerce, a system of voluntary exchange of products and se ...

commercial
products). However, the distinctions become blurred when education seeks to be more "entertaining" and entertainment or marketing seek to be more "educational". Such mixtures are often known by the
neologism A neologism (; from Greek νέο- ''néo-'', "new" and λόγος ''lógos'', "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted ...
s "
edutainment Educational entertainment (also referred to by the portmanteau edutainment) is media designed to education, educate through entertainment and a term used as early as 1954 by Walt Disney. Most often it includes content intended to teach but has in ...

edutainment
" or "
infotainment Infotainment (a portmanteau of ''information'' and ''entertainment''), also called soft news as a way to distinguish it from serious journalism or hard news, is a type of Electronic media, media, usually television or online, that provides a com ...
". The psychology of entertainment as well as of learning has been applied to all these fields. Some education-entertainment is a serious attempt to combine the best features of the two. Some people are entertained by others' pain or the idea of their unhappiness (
schadenfreude ''Schadenfreude'' (; ; 'harm-joy') is the experience of pleasure, joy, or self-satisfaction that comes from learning of or witnessing the troubles, failures, or humiliation of another. Schadenfreude is a complex emotion Emotions are biolo ...
). An entertainment might go beyond gratification and produce some insight in its audience. Entertainment may skilfully consider universal philosophical questions such as: "What does it mean to be human?"; "What is the right thing to do?"; or "How do I know what I know?". "The
meaning of life The meaning of life, or the answer to the question: "What is the meaning of life?", pertains to the significance of living Living or The Living may refer to: Common meanings *Life, a condition that distinguishes organisms from inorganic obj ...

meaning of life
", for example, is the subject in a wide range of entertainment forms, including film, music and literature. Questions such as these drive many narratives and dramas, whether they are presented in the form of a story, film, play, poem, book, dance, comic, or game. Dramatic examples include
Shakespeare William Shakespeare (bapt. 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616) was an English playwright, poet and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's greatest dramatist. He is often called England's national p ...

Shakespeare
's influential play ''
Hamlet ''The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark'', often shortened to ''Hamlet'' (), is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare William Shakespeare (baptism, bapt. 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616) was an English playwright, poet and acto ...

Hamlet
'', whose hero articulates these concerns in
poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its popula ...

poetry
; and films, such as ''
The Matrix ''The Matrix'' is a 1999 science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a of which typically deals with and futuristic concepts such as advanced and , , , , and . It has been called the " of ", and it often e ...
'', which explores the nature of knowledge and was released worldwide.
Novel A novel is a relatively long work of narrative A narrative, story or tale is any account of a series of related events or experiences, whether nonfiction Nonfiction (also spelled non-fiction) is any document A document is a written ...

Novel
s give great scope for investigating these themes while they entertain their readers. An example of a creative work that considers philosophical questions so entertainingly that it has been presented in a very wide range of forms is ''
The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy ''The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy'' (sometimes referred to as ''HG2G'', ''HHGTTG'', ''H2G2'', or ''tHGttG'') is a comedy science fiction franchise created by Douglas Adams. Originally a 1978 radio comedy broadcast on BBC Radio 4 ...

The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy
''. Originally a
radio comedyRadio comedy, or comedy, comedic radio programming, is a radio broadcast that may involve variety show, sitcom elements, sketch comedy, sketches, and various types of comedy found in other media. It may also include more surreal or fantastic elements ...
, this story became so popular that it has also appeared as a novel, film, television series, stage show, comic,
audiobook An audiobook (or a talking book) is a recording of a book or other work being read out loud. A reading of the complete text is described as "unabridged", while readings of a shorter version are an abridgement. Spoken audio has been available in s ...
,
LP record The LP (from "long playing" or "long play") is an analog sound storage medium, a phonograph record format characterized by: a speed of  revolutions per minute, rpm; a 12- or 10-inch (30- or 25-cm) diameter; use of the "microgroove" gro ...
,
adventure game An adventure game is a video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, game controller, controller, computer keyboard, keyboard, or motio ...
and
online game An online game is a video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, game controller, controller, computer keyboard, keyboard, or motion s ...
, its ideas became popular references (see
Phrases from The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy ''The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy'' is a comic science fiction series created by Douglas Adams that has become popular among fans of the genre and members of the scientific community. Phrases from it are widely recognised and often used ...
) and has been translated into many languages. Its themes encompass the
meaning of life The meaning of life, or the answer to the question: "What is the meaning of life?", pertains to the significance of living Living or The Living may refer to: Common meanings *Life, a condition that distinguishes organisms from inorganic obj ...

meaning of life
, as well as "the
ethics Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong action (philosophy), behavior".''Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy'"Ethics"/ref> The field of ethics, al ...

ethics
of entertainment,
artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concept Concepts are defined as abstra ...

artificial intelligence
, multiple worlds, God, and
philosophical method Philosophical method (or philosophical methodology) is the study of how to do philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge ...
".


History

The "ancient craft of communicating events and experiences, using words, images, sounds and gestures" by telling a story is not only the means by which people passed on their cultural values and traditions and history from one generation to another, it has been an important part of most forms of entertainment ever since the earliest times. Stories are still told in the early forms, for example, around a fire while
camping Camping is an outdoor activity Outdoor recreation or outdoor activity refers to recreation Recreation is an activity of leisure Leisure has often been defined as a quality of experience or as free time. Free time is time spent away f ...

camping
, or when listening to the stories of another culture as a
tourist at the archaeological site of Chichén Itza. in Vienna. Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring (disambiguation), touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and th ...

tourist
. "The earliest storytelling sequences we possess, now of course, committed to writing, were undoubtedly originally a speaking from mouth to ear and their force as entertainment derived from the very same elements we today enjoy in films and novels." Storytelling is an activity that has evolved and developed "toward variety". Many entertainments, including storytelling but especially music and drama, remain familiar but have developed into a wide variety of form to suit a very wide range of personal preferences and cultural expression. Many types are blended or supported by other forms. For example, drama, stories and banqueting (or dining) are commonly enhanced by music; sport and
game A game is a structured form of play Play most commonly refers to: * Play (activity), an activity done for enjoyment * Play (theatre), a work of drama Play may refer also to: Computers and technology * Google Play, a digital content serv ...

game
s are incorporated into other activities to increase appeal. Some may have evolved from serious or necessary activities (such as
running Running is a method of terrestrial locomotion Terrestrial locomotion has evolved Evolution is change in the heritable Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of Phenotypic trait, traits from ...

running
and
jumping Jumping or leaping is a form of locomotion or movement in which an organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical ...

jumping
) into competition and then become entertainment. It is said, for example, that
pole vault Pole vaulting, also known as pole jumping, is a track and field Track and field is a sport that includes athletic contests established on the skills of running, jumping, and throwing. The name is derived from where the sport takes place ...
ing "may have originated in the Netherlands, where people used long poles to vault over wide canals rather than wear out their clogs walking miles to the nearest bridge. Others maintain that pole vaulting was used in warfare to vault over fortress walls during battle." The equipment for such sports has become increasingly sophisticated. Vaulting poles, for example, were originally made from woods such as
ash Ash or ashes are the solid remnants of fire BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction Product (chemistry), products. Fire is hot because th ...
,
hickory Hickory is a common name for trees In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method ...

hickory
or
hazel The hazel (''Corylus'') is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxon ...

hazel
; in the 19th century
bamboo Bamboos are a diverse group of evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in th ...

bamboo
was used and in the 21st century poles can be made of
carbon fibre Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (American English), Carbon fibre reinforced polymer (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English), or carbon fiber reinforced plastic, or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRP, CRP, CFRTP, ...
. Other activities, such as walking on stilts, are still seen in
circus A circus is a company of performers who put on diverse entertainment shows that may include s, , trained animals, acts, s, s, , s, , s, , and as well as other and stunt-oriented artists. The term ''circus'' also describes the performance w ...

circus
performances in the 21st century. , also known as "gladiatorial games", popular during Roman times, provide a good example of an activity that is a combination of sport, punishment, and entertainment. Changes to what is regarded as entertainment can occur in response to cultural or historical shifts. Hunting wild animals, for example, was introduced into the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
from
Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient , on the eastern side of the in what is now . Carthage was the most important trading hub of the Ancient Mediterranean and one of the most affluent cities of the . The city developed from a n colony ...

Carthage
and became a popular public entertainment and spectacle, supporting an international trade in wild animals. Entertainment also evolved into different forms and expressions as a result of social upheavals such as wars and revolutions. During the Chinese
Cultural Revolution The Cultural Revolution, formally known as the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement Movement may refer to: Common uses * Movement (clockwork), the internal mechanism of a timepiece * Motion (physics), co ...
, for example,
Revolutionary opera In China, revolutionary operas or model operas (Chinese: ''yangban xi'', wikt:样板戏, 样板戏) were a series of shows planned and engineered during the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976) by Jiang Qing, the wife of Chairman Mao Zedong. They w ...

Revolutionary opera
was sanctioned by the Communist party and
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
, the
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recess ...
and the
Russian revolution The Russian Revolution was a period of political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relatio ...

Russian revolution
all affected entertainment. Relatively minor changes to the form and venue of an entertainment continue to come and go as they are affected by the period, fashion, culture, technology, and economics. For example, a story told in dramatic form can be presented in an open-air theatre, a
music hall Music hall is a type of British theatrical entertainment Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest In finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they opera ...

music hall
, a
movie theatre A movie theater (American English), cinema (British English), or cinema hall (Indian English), also known as a picture house, the pictures, picture theater, the silver screen, or the movies, is a building that contains auditoria for viewing ...

movie theatre
, a
multiplex Multiplex may refer to: * Multiplex (automobile), a former American car make * Multiplex (comics), a DC comic book supervillain * Multiplex communication or multiplexing, combining many signals into a single transmission circuit or channel ** Multi ...
, or as technological possibilities advanced, via a personal electronic device such as a
tablet computer A tablet computer, commonly shortened to tablet, is a mobile device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations aut ...
. Entertainment is provided for mass audiences in purpose-built structures such as a
theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actor, actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage. The p ...
,
auditorium An auditorium is a room built to enable an audience to hear and watch performances. For movie theatre . The picture the projector is displaying is the 1997 Universal Pictures Universal Pictures (legally Universal City Studios LLC, also ...

auditorium
, or
stadium A stadium (plural stadiums or stadia) is a place or venue for (mostly) outdoor sports, concerts, or other events and consists of a field or stage either partly or completely surrounded by a tiered structure designed to allow spectators to st ...

stadium
. One of the most famous venues in the Western world, the
Colosseum The Colosseum ( ; it, Colosseo ) is an oval amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy, just east of the Roman Forum. It is the largest ancient amphitheatre ever built, and is still the largest standing amphitheatre in the world tod ...

Colosseum
, "dedicated AD 80 with a hundred days of games, held fifty thousand spectators," and in it audiences "enjoyed blood sport with the trappings of stage shows".
Spectacle In general, spectacle refers to an event that is memorable for the appearance it creates. Derived in Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conquest of England, Norman conques ...

Spectacle
s, competitions, , and sports were once presented in this purpose-built arena as public entertainment. New stadia continue to be built to suit the ever more sophisticated requirements of global audiences.


Court entertainment

Imperial and royal courts have provided training grounds and support for professional entertainers, with different cultures using palaces, castles and forts in different ways. In the Maya city states, for example, "spectacles often took place in large plazas in front of palaces; the crowds gathered either there or in designated places from which they could watch at a distance." pp. 4–5. Court entertainments also crossed cultures. For example, the durbar was introduced to India by the
Mughals The Mughal, Mogul, or Moghul Empire was an early modern The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of 's past. It is understood through , , , and , and since the , from and s. ...

Mughals
, and passed onto the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
, which then followed Indian tradition: "institutions, titles, customs, ceremonies by which a
Maharaja Mahārāja (; also spelled Maharajah, Maharaj) is a Sanskrit title for a "great ruler", "great Monarch, king" or "high king". A few ruled mighty states informally called empires, including ruler raja Sri Gupta, founder of the ancient Indian ...
or
Nawab Nawab ( ar, نواب; bn, নবাব/নওয়াব; hi, नवाब; Punjabi language, Punjabi : ਨਵਾਬ; Persian language, Persian, Punjabi language, Punjabi , Sindhi language, Sindhi, Urdu: نواب), also spelt Nawaab, Nava ...

Nawab
were installed ... the exchange of official presents ... the order of precedence", for example, were "all inherited from ... the Emperors of Delhi". In Korea, the "court entertainment dance" was "originally performed in the palace for entertainment at court banquets." p. 36. Court entertainment often moved from being associated with the court to more general use among
commoner '' A commoner, also known as the ''common man'', ''commoners'', the ''common people'' or the ''masses'', was in earlier use an ordinary person in a community or nation who did not have any significant social status, especially one who was a memb ...
s. This was the case with "masked dance-dramas" in Korea, which "originated in conjunction with village
shaman Shamanism is a religious practice that involves a practitioner (shaman) interacting with what they believe to be a spirit world through altered states of consciousness An altered state of consciousness (ASC), also called altered state of mind ...

shaman
rituals and eventually became largely an entertainment form for commoners".
Nautch Nautch dancer in Calcutta, ca. 1900 The nautch ( hi, नाच ''nāc''; ur, ناچ ''nāc''; pra, 𑀡𑀘𑁆𑀘 ''ṇacca''; sa, नृत्य ''nṛtya'', नृत्त ''nṛttá''; all literally meaning "dance" or "dancing")Scott ...
dancers in the Mughal Empire performed in Indian courts and palaces. Another evolution, similar to that from courtly entertainment to common practice, was the transition from religious ritual to secular entertainment, such as happened during the
Goryeo Goryeo (; ) was a Korea Korea is a region in East Asia. Since 1945, it has been divided between two countries at or near the 38th parallel north, 38th parallel, North Korea (the Democratic People's Republic of Korea) and South Korea (th ...
dynasty with the Narye festival. Originally "solely religious or ritualistic, a secular component was added at the conclusion". Former courtly entertainments, such as
jousting Jousting is a martial game or ''hastilude Hastilude is a generic term used in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the late 15th century. It began with the fall of the ...

jousting
, often also survived in children's games. In some courts, such as those during the
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Byzantine Empire
, the genders were segregated among the upper classes, so that "at least before the period of the
Komnenoi Komnenos ( gr, Κομνηνός; Latinized Comnenus; plural Komnenoi or Comneni (Κομνηνοί, )) is a Byzantine Greek Medieval Greek (also known as Middle Greek or Byzantine Greek) is the stage of the Greek language Greek (modern , r ...
" (1081–1185) men were separated from women at ceremonies where there was entertainment such as receptions and banquets. Court ceremonies, palace banquets and the spectacles associated with them, have been used not only to entertain but also to demonstrate wealth and power. Such events reinforce the relationship between ruler and ruled; between those with power and those without, serving to "dramatise the differences between ordinary families and that of the ruler". This is the case as much as for traditional courts as it is for contemporary ceremonials, such as the
Hong Kong handover ceremony The handover ceremony of Hong Kong Hong Kong (, ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR) (), is a metropolitan area and Special administrative regions of China, special administra ...
in 1997, at which an array of entertainments (including a banquet, a parade, fireworks, a festival performance and an art spectacle) were put to the service of highlighting a change in political power. Court entertainments were typically performed for royalty and courtiers as well as "for the pleasure of local and visiting dignitaries". Royal courts, such as the Korean one, also supported traditional dances. In Sudan, musical instruments such as the so-called "slit" or "talking" drums, once "part of the court orchestra of a powerful chief", had multiple purposes: they were used to make music; "speak" at ceremonies; mark community events; send long-distance messages; and call men to hunt or war. Courtly entertainments also demonstrate the complex relationship between entertainer and spectator: individuals may be either an entertainer or part of the audience, or they may swap roles even during the course of one entertainment. In the court at the
Palace of Versailles The Palace of Versailles ( ; french: Château de Versailles ) is a former royal residence located in Versailles, about west of Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, mo ...

Palace of Versailles
, "thousands of courtiers, including men and women who inhabited its apartments, acted as both performers and spectators in daily rituals that reinforced the status hierarchy". Like court entertainment, royal occasions such as coronations and weddings provided opportunities to entertain both the
aristocracy Aristocracy ( grc-gre, ἀριστοκρατία , from 'excellent', and , 'rule') is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Ar ...
and the people. For example, the splendid 1595 Accession Day celebrations of
Queen Elizabeth I Elizabeth I (7 September 153324 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_an ...

Queen Elizabeth I
offered
tournament A tournament is a competition Competition is a rivalry A rivalry is the state of two people or groups engaging in a lasting competitive relationship. Rivalry is the "against each other" spirit between two competing sides. The relationshi ...

tournament
s and jousting and other events performed "not only before the assembled court, in all their finery, but also before thousands of Londoners eager for a good day's entertainment. Entry for the day's events at the
Tiltyard A tiltyard (or tilt yard or tilt-yard) was an enclosed courtyard for jousting. Tiltyards were a common feature of Tudor era castles and palaces. The Horse Guards Parade Horse Guards Parade is a large parade ground off Whitehall in central Lond ...
in
Whitehall Whitehall is a road and area in the City of Westminster, Central London. The road forms the first part of the A roads in Zone 3 of the Great Britain numbering scheme, A3212 road from Trafalgar Square to Chelsea, London, Chelsea. It is the main ...
was set at ".


Public punishment

Although most forms of entertainment have evolved and continued over time, some once-popular forms are no longer as acceptable. For example, during earlier centuries in Europe, watching or participating in the punishment of criminals or social outcasts was an accepted and popular form of entertainment. Many forms of
public humiliation Public humiliation or public shaming is a form of punishment , England Punishment, commonly, is the imposition of an undesirable or suffering, unpleasant outcome upon a group or individual, meted out by an authority In the fields of sociology ...
also offered local entertainment in the past. Even capital punishment such as
hanging Hanging is the suspension of a person by a noose A noose is a loop at the end of a rope in which the knot tightens under load and can be loosened without untying the knot. The knot can be used to secure a rope to a post, pole, or animal but ...

hanging
and
beheading Beheaded may refer to: * The intentional separation of the head from the body as a form of decapitation. * Beheading of St. John the Baptist, is a holy day observed by various Christian churches which follow liturgical traditions ;Music * Beheaded ...

beheading
, offered to the public as a warning, were also regarded partly as entertainment. Capital punishments that lasted longer, such as
stoning Stoning, or lapidation, is a method of capital punishment Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is the State (polity), state-sanctioned killing of a person as punishment for a crime. The sentence (law), sentence ordering ...
and
drawing and quartering To be hanged, drawn and quartered was, from 1352 after the Treason Act 1351, a statutory penalty in England for men convicted of high treason, although the ritual was first recorded during the reign of Henry III of England, King Henry III (1216 ...

drawing and quartering
, afforded a greater public spectacle. "A hanging was a carnival that diverted not merely the unemployed but the unemployable. Good bourgeois or curious aristocrats who could afford it watched it from a carriage or rented a room." Public punishment as entertainment lasted until the 19th century by which time "the awesome event of a public hanging aroused theloathing of writers and philosophers". Both
Dickens Charles John Huffam Dickens (; 7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's best-known fictional characters and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist of the Victorian e ...

Dickens
and
Thackeray William Makepeace Thackeray (; 18 July 1811 – 24 December 1863) was an English novelist, author and illustrator, who was born in India. He is known for his Satire, satirical works, particularly his 1848 novel ''Vanity Fair (novel), Vanity Fai ...

Thackeray
wrote about a hanging in
Newgate Prison Newgate Prison was a prison at the corner of Newgate Street and Old Bailey Street just inside the City of London, England, originally at the site of Newgate, a gate in the Ancient Rome, Roman London Wall. Built in the 12th century and demolis ...
in 1840, and "taught an even wider public that executions are obscene entertainments".


Children

Children's entertainment is centred on
play Play most commonly refers to: * Play (activity), an activity done for enjoyment * Play (theatre), a work of drama Play may refer also to: Computers and technology * Google Play, a digital content service * Play Framework, a Java framework * Play ...
and is significant for their growth. It often mimics adult activities, such as watching performances (9); prepares them for adult responsibilities, such as child rearing or social interaction (1,2,3,4,8); or develops skills such as motor skills (5), needed for sports and music (6,7). In the modern day, it often involves sedentary engagement with advanced technology (9,10). Entertainment is also provided to children or taught to them by adults and many activities that appeal to them such as
puppet A puppet is an object, often resembling a human, animal or mythical figure, that is animated or manipulated by a person called a puppeteer A puppeteer is a person who manipulates an inanimate object, called a puppet A puppet is an ...

puppet
s,
clown A clown is a person who wears a unique makeup-face and flamboyant costume, performing comedy Comedy (from the el, κωμῳδία, ''kōmōdía'') is a genre of fiction that consists of discourses or works intended to be humor Hum ...

clown
s,
pantomime Pantomime (; informally panto) is a type of musical comedy Musical theatre is a form of theatre, theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue, acting and dance. The story and emotional content of a musical – humor, pathos ...

pantomime
s and
cartoon A cartoon is a type of illustration that is typically drawn, sometimes animated, in an unrealistic or semi-realistic style. The specific meaning has evolved over time, but the modern usage usually refers to either: an image or series of images ...

cartoon
s are also enjoyed by adults. Children have always played games. It is accepted that as well as being entertaining, playing games helps children's development. One of the most famous visual accounts of children's games is a painting by
Pieter Bruegel the Elder Pieter Bruegel (also Brueghel or Breughel) the Elder (, ; ; – 9 September 1569) was the most significant artist of Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting, a painter and printmaking, printmaker, known for his landscape art, landscapes and peas ...
called ''
Children's Games This is a list of games that used to be played by children, some of which are still being played today. Traditional children's games do not include commercial products such as board games but do include games which require props such as hopscotch or ...

Children's Games
'', painted in 1560. It depicts children playing a range of games that presumably were typical of the time. Many of these games, such as
marbles A marble is a small spherical object often made from glass Glass is a non- crystalline, often transparency and translucency, transparent amorphous solid, that has widespread practical, technological, and decorative use in, for example, window ...

marbles
,
hide-and-seek Hide-and-seek is a popular children's game in which at least two players (usually at least three) conceal themselves in a set environment, to be found by one or more seekers. The game is played by one chosen player (designated as being "it") cou ...

hide-and-seek
, blowing
soap bubble A soap bubble is an extremely thin soap film, film of soapy water enclosing air that forms a hollow sphere with an iridescent surface. Soap bubbles usually last for only a few seconds before bursting, either on their own or on contact with anot ...
s and piggyback riding continue to be played. Most forms of entertainment can be or are modified to suit children's needs and interests. During the 20th century, starting with the often criticised but nonetheless important work of G. Stanley Hall, who "promoted the link between the study of development and the 'new' laboratory psychology", and especially with the work of Jean Piaget, who "saw cognitive development as being analogous to biological development", it became understood that the Developmental psychology, psychological development of children occurs in stages and that their capacities differ from adults. Hence, stories and activities, whether in books, film, or video games were developed specifically for child audiences. Countries have responded to the special needs of children and the rise of digital entertainment by developing systems such as television content rating systems, to guide the public and the
entertainment industry Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest In and , interest is payment from a or deposit-taking financial institution to a or depositor of an amount above repayment of the (that is, the amount borrowed ...
. In the 21st century, as with adult products, much entertainment is available for children on the internet for private use. This constitutes a significant change from earlier times. The amount of time expended by children indoors on screen-based entertainment and the "remarkable collapse of children's engagement with nature" has drawn criticism for its negative effects on imagination, adult cognition and Subjective well-being, psychological well-being. File:Toy Soldiers British Coldstream Guards.jpg, 1 Toy Coldstream Guards soldiers (19th century) File:6. Reborn doll - Jessy od Elizabeth Maris.jpg, 2 Doll of a newborn baby File:Two children playing with a dog.jpg, 3 Children being entertained by a dog (19th century painting) File:Lewis Wickes Hine, The charter member of the Red Cross Boy Scout Troop Paris, September 1918 - Library of Congress.jpg, 4 French Scouting, scout (early 20th century) File:Playing with glass marbles.jpg, 5 Egyptian toddler playing with glass marbles File:Kids Playing duduk.jpg, 6 Armenian boys play Recorder (musical instrument), recorders File:Girl with styrofoam swimming board.jpg, 7 Chinese girl in a swimming pool File:Playing together 4.jpg, 8 Tanzanian children in a group game File:Children watching TV.jpg, 9 Polish boys watch children's TV File:Interest.jpg, 10 Toddler using a Tablet computer


Forms


Banquets

Banquets have been a venue for
amusement 300px, ''Amusement'', by Viktor Vasnetsov Amusement, from the old French ''à muser'' – to put into a stupid stare, is the state of experiencing humorous Humour (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English) or humor (A ...

amusement
, entertainment or pleasure since ancient times, continuing until the 21st century, when they are still being used for many of their original purposes to impress visitors, especially important ones (4, 6, 9); to show hospitality (2, 4, 8); as an occasion to showcase supporting entertainments such as music or dancing, or both (2, 3). They were an integral part of court entertainments (3, 4) and helped entertainers develop their skills (2, 3). They are also important components of celebrations such as coronations (9), weddings (7), birthdays (10) civic or political achievements (5), military engagements or victories (6) as well as religious obligations (1). In modern times, banquets are commercially available, for example, in restaurants (10) and combined with a performance in dinner theater, dinner theatres. Cooking by professional chefs has also become a form of entertainment as part of global competitions such as the Bocuse d'Or. File:An Egyptian Banquet.jpg, 1 A banquet scene from Ancient Egypt (from a wall painting in Thebes, Egypt, Thebes) File:Byzantine Greek Banquet Alexander Manuscript (cropped).JPG, 2 Byzantine banquet showing musicians and various musical instruments (1204–1453) File:Banquet de Charles V le Sage.jpg, 3 Jean Fouquet, ''Banquet for Charles V of France'' (1455–1460) File:A banquet for Babur.jpg, 4 A banquet including roast goose given for Babur by the Mirzas in 1507 (miniature ) File:Helst, Peace of Münster.jpg, 5 Bartholomeus van der Helst, ''Peace of Münster''
Amsterdam (1648) File:Victory banquet 1788.jpg, 6 Victory banquet by Emperor Qian Long to greet the officers who attended the Lin Shuangwen rebellion, campaign against Taiwan. (late 18th century) File:Wedding in Toropets (landlords coming to the peasants’ wedding)..jpg, 7 Landlords coming to the peasants' wedding banquet (late 18th century) File:The banquet hall in King Sahla Sellases palace colour.jpg, 8 The banquet hall in the palace of King Sahle Selassie painting from a photo, Ethiopia (1852) File:George IV coronation banquet.jpg, 9 Coronation banquet of George IV of the United Kingdom, George IV in Westminster Hall (1821) File:Chinese banquet in a banquet hall.JPG, 10 Chinese banquet in a banquet hall given as a birthday celebration (2012)


Music

Music is a supporting component of many kinds of entertainment and most kinds of performance. For example, it is used to enhance storytelling, it is indispensable in dance (1, 4) and opera, and is usually incorporated into dramatic film or theatre productions. Music is also a universal and popular type of entertainment on its own, constituting an entire performance such as when
concert A concert is a live music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the universal cultural Culture () is an umbrella term wh ...

concert
s are given (2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). Depending on the rhythm, Musical instrument, instrument, performance and style, music is divided into many genres, such as classical music, classical, jazz, Folk music, folk, (4, 5, 8), rock music, rock, pop music (6, 9) or traditional (1, 3). Since the 20th century, performed music, once available only to those who could pay for the performers, has been available cheaply to individuals by the entertainment industry, which broadcasts it or pre-records it for sale. The wide variety of musical performances, whether or not they are artificially Amplifier, amplified (6, 7, 9, 10), all provide entertainment irrespective of whether the performance is from Solo (music), soloists (6), Choir, choral (2) or orchestra, orchestral groups (5, 8), or Musical ensemble, ensemble (3). Live performances use specialised venues, which might be small or large; indoors or outdoors; free or expensive. The audiences have different expectations of the performers as well as of their own role in the performance. For example, some audiences expect to listen silently and are entertained by the excellence of the music, its rendition or its interpretation (5, 8). Other audiences of live performances are entertained by the ambience and the chance to participate (7, 9). Even more listeners are entertained by pre-recorded music and listen privately (10). The instruments used in musical entertainment are either solely the human voice (2, 6) or solely instrumental (1, 3) or some combination of the two (4, 5, 7, 8). Whether the performance is given by Singing, vocalists or Musician, instrumentalists, the performers may be soloists or part of a small or large group, in turn entertaining an audience that might be individual (10), passing by (3), small (1, 2) or large (6, 7, 8, 9). Singing is generally accompanied by instruments although some forms, notably a cappella and overtone singing, are unaccompanied. Modern concerts often use various special effects and other theatrics to accompany performances of singing and dancing (7). File:Lama orchestra.jpg, 1 Traditional instruments used to accompany dance (Tibet, 1949) File:RIAN archive 24089 The youngsters singing.jpg, 2 Children's choir providing musical entertainment (Soviet Union, 1979) File:Paris Metro orchestra.jpg, 3 Ensemble entertains travellers in the Paris Métro (2002) File:Boduberu performer.jpg, 4 Drummer playing Boduberu (Maldives, 2010) File:CORO ECCLESIA.jpg, 5 Choir and orchestra in ecclesiology, ecclesiastical setting (Italy, 2008) File:Rouvas fans.jpg, 6 Contemporary audience in ancient outdoor stadium (Greece, 2009) File:Jay Chou The Era Singapore 2010 concert.jpg, 7 A concert with a 3D enhanced stage (Singapore, 2010) File:Concertkoor Haarlem 19-11-2010 Philharmonie.jpg, 8 Concert hall audience (Netherlands, 2010) File:Phoenix ThomasMars1.jpg, 9 Crowd surfing at a concert (France, 2011) File:Music listener.jpg, 10 Woman listening privately to music through headphones (Russia, 2010)


Games

Games are played for entertainment—sometimes purely for recreation, sometimes for achievement or reward as well. They can be played alone, in teams, or online; by amateurs or by professionals. The players may have an audience of non-players, such as when people are entertained by watching a World Chess Championship, chess championship. On the other hand, players in a game may constitute their own audience as they take their turn to play. Often, part of the entertainment for children playing a game is deciding who is part of their audience and who is a player. Equipment varies with the game. Board games, such as Go (game), Go, ''Monopoly (game), Monopoly'' or backgammon need a board and markers. One of the oldest known board games is Senet, a game played in Ancient Egypt, enjoyed by the pharaoh Tutankhamun. Card games, such as whist, poker and Contract bridge, Bridge have long been played as evening entertainment among friends. For these games, all that is needed is a deck of playing cards. Other games, such as Bingo (U.S.), bingo, played with numerous strangers, have been organised to involve the participation of non-players via gambling. Many are children's game, geared for children, and can be played outdoors, including hopscotch, hide and seek, or Blind man's bluff (game), Blind man's bluff. The list of ball games is quite extensive. It includes, for example, croquet, lawn bowling and paintball as well as many sports using various forms of balls. The options cater to a wide range of skill and fitness levels. Physical games can develop agility and competence in motor skills. Number games such as Sudoku and puzzle games like the Rubik's cube can develop mental prowess. History of video games, Video games are played using a controller to create results on a screen. They can also be played online with participants joining in remotely. In the second half of the 20th century and in the 21st century the number of such games increased enormously, providing a wide variety of entertainment to players around the world. Video games are popular across the world. File:The Chess Game - Sofonisba Anguissola.jpg, Sofonisba Anguissola
''The Chess Game'' (1555)
An intellectual game File:Duverger Hopscotch.jpg, Théophile Emmanuel Duverger (before 1901) ''Hopscotch''
A physical game File:Televised Star Craft.jpg, Televised match of ''StarCraft'' (2006) South Korea
An electronic game


Literature

Reading (process), Reading has been a source of entertainment for a very long time, especially when other forms, such as performance entertainments, were (or are) either unavailable or too costly. Even when the primary purpose of the writing is to inform or instruct, reading is well known for its capacity to distract from everyday worries. Both stories and information have been passed on through the tradition of orality and oral traditions survive in the form of performance poetry for example. However, they have drastically declined. "Once literacy had arrived in strength, there was no return to the oral prerogative." The advent of printing, the reduction in costs of books and an increasing literacy all served to enhance the mass appeal of reading. Furthermore, as fonts were standardised and texts became clearer, "reading ceased being a painful process of decipherment and became an act of pure pleasure". By the 16th century in Europe, the appeal of reading for entertainment was well established. Among literature's many genres are some designed, in whole or in part, purely for entertainment. Limerick (poetry), Limericks, for example, use verse in a strict, predictable rhyme and rhythm to create humour and to amuse an audience of listeners or readers. Interactive books such as "choose your own adventure" can make literary entertainment more participatory. Comics and cartoons are literary genres that use drawings or graphics, usually in combination with text, to convey an entertaining narrative. Many contemporary comics have elements of fantasy and are produced by companies that are part of the
entertainment industry Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest In and , interest is payment from a or deposit-taking financial institution to a or depositor of an amount above repayment of the (that is, the amount borrowed ...
. Others have unique authors who offer a more personal, philosophical view of the world and the problems people face. Comics about superheroes such as Superman are of the first type. Examples of the second sort include the individual work over 50 years of Charles M. Schulz who produced a popular comic called ''Peanuts'' about the relationships among a cast of child characters; and Michael Leunig who entertains by producing whimsical cartoons that also incorporate social criticism. The Japanese Manga style differs from the western approach in that it encompasses a wide range of genres and themes for a readership of all ages. Caricature uses a kind of graphic entertainment for purposes ranging from merely putting a smile on the viewer's face, to raising social awareness, to highlighting the moral characteristics of a person being caricatured.


Comedy

Comedy is both a genre of entertainment and a component of it, providing laughter and amusement, whether the comedy is the sole purpose or used as a form of contrast in an otherwise serious piece. It is a valued contributor to many forms of entertainment, including in literature, theatre, opera, film and games. In royal courts, such as in the Byzantine court, and presumably, also in its wealthy households, "Mime artist, mimes were the focus of orchestrated humour, expected or obliged to make fun of all at court, not even excepting the emperor and members of the imperial family. This highly structured role of jester consisted of verbal humour, including teasing, jests, insult, ridicule, and obscenity and Nonverbal communication, non-verbal humour such as slapstick and horseplay in the presence of an audience." In medieval times, all comic types the buffoon, jester, hunchback, Dwarfism, dwarf, jokester, were all "considered to be essentially of one comic type: the fool", who while not necessarily funny, represented "the shortcomings of the individual". Shakespeare wrote seventeen Shakespearean comedy, comedies that incorporate many techniques still used by performers and writers of comedy—such as jokes, puns, parody, wit, observational humor, or the unexpected effect of irony. One-liner jokes and satire are also used to comedic effect in literature. In farce, the comedy is a primary purpose. The meaning of the word "comedy" and the audience's expectations of it have changed over time and vary according to culture. Simple physical comedy such as slapstick is entertaining to a broad range of people of all ages. However, as cultures become more sophisticated, national nuances appear in the style and references so that what is amusing in one culture may be unintelligible in another.


Performance

Live performances before an audience constitute a major form of entertainment, especially before the invention of audio and video recording. Performance takes a wide range of forms, including theatre, music and drama. In the 16th and 17th centuries, European royal courts presented masques that were complex theatrical entertainments involving dancing, singing and acting. Opera is a similarly demanding performance style that remains popular. It also encompass all three forms, demanding a high level of musical and dramatic skill, collaboration and like the masque, production expertise as well. Audiences generally show their appreciation of an entertaining performance with applause. However, all performers run the risk of failing to hold their audience's attention and thus, failing to entertain. Audience dissatisfaction is often brutally honest and direct.


Storytelling

Storytelling is an ancient form of entertainment that has influenced almost all other forms. It is "not only entertainment, it is also thinking through human conflicts and contradictions". Hence, although stories may be delivered directly to a small listening audience, they are also presented as entertainment and used as a component of any piece that relies on a narrative, such as film, drama, ballet, and opera. Written stories have been enhanced by illustrations, often to a very high artistic standard, for example, on illuminated manuscripts and on ancient scrolls such as Japanese ones. Stories remain a common way of entertaining a group that is on a journey. Showing how stories are used to pass the time and entertain an audience of travellers, Geoffrey Chaucer, Chaucer used pilgrims in his literary work ''The Canterbury Tales'' in the 14th century, as did Wu Cheng'en in the 16th century in ''Journey to the West''. Even though journeys can now be completed much faster, stories are still told to passengers en route in cars and aeroplanes either orally or delivered by some form of technology. The power of stories to entertain is evident in one of the most famous ones—Scheherazade—a story in the Iran, Persian professional storytelling tradition, of a woman who saves her own life by telling stories. The connections between the different types of entertainment are shown by the way that stories like this inspire a retelling in another medium, such as music, film or games. For example, composers Scheherazade (Rimsky-Korsakov), Rimsky-Korsakov, Shéhérazade (Ravel), Ravel and Karol Szymanowski, Szymanowski have each been inspired by the Scheherazade story and turned it into an orchestral work; director Pier Paolo Pasolini, Pasolini made a Arabian Nights (1974 film), film adaptation; and there is an The Magic of Scheherazade, innovative video game based on the tale. Stories may be told wordlessly, in music, dance or puppetry for example, such as in the Javanese tradition of wayang, in which the performance is accompanied by a gamelan orchestra or the similarly traditional Punch and Judy show. Epic narratives, poems, sagas and allegory, allegories from all cultures tell such gripping tales that they have inspired countless other stories in all forms of entertainment. Examples include the Hindu ''Ramayana'' and ''Mahabharata''; Homer's ''Odyssey'' and ''Iliad''; the first Arabic novel ''Hayy ibn Yaqdhan''; the Persian epic ''Shahnameh''; the Sagas of Icelanders and the celebrated ''The Tale of Genji, Tale of the Genji''. Collections of stories, such as ''Grimms' Fairy Tales'' or those by Hans Christian Andersen, have been similarly influential. Originally published in the early 19th century, this collection of folk stories significantly influence modern popular culture, which subsequently used its themes, images, symbols, and structural elements to create new entertainment forms. Some of the most powerful and long-lasting stories are the foundation stories, also called myth of origin, origin or creation myths such as the Dreamtime myths of the Aboriginal Australians, Australian aborigines, the Mesopotamian ''Epic of Gilgamesh'', or the Hawaiian stories of the origin of the world. These too are developed into books, films, music and games in a way that increases their longevity and enhances their entertainment value. File:William Blake - Canterbury Pilgrims Picture.jpg, William Blake's painting of the pilgrims in ''The Canterbury Tales'' File:Sultan Pardons Scheherazade.jpg, Scheherazade telling her stories to King Shahrayar, Shahryar in ''The Arabian Nights'' File:Wayang golek SF Asian Art Museum.JPG, Telling stories via Wayang golek puppets in Java File:Tosa Mitsuoki—Portrait of Murasaki Shikibu.jpg, Tosa Mitsuoki illustrating her ''The Tale of Genji, Tale of Genji''


Theatre

Theatre performances, typically dramatic or musical, are presented on a stage for an audience and have a history that goes back to Hellenistic period, Hellenistic times when "leading musicians and actors" performed widely at "poetical competitions", for example at "Delphi, Delos, Ephesus". Aristotle and his teacher Plato both wrote on the theory and purpose of theatre. Aristotle posed questions such as "What is the function of the arts in shaping character? Should a member of the ruling class merely watch performances or be a participant and perform? What kind of entertainment should be provided for those who do not belong to the elite?" The "Ptolemys in Egypt, the Seleucid Empire, Seleucids in Pergamon, Pergamum" also had a strong theatrical tradition and later, wealthy patrons in Rome staged "far more lavish productions". Expectations about the performance and their engagement with it have changed over time (1). For example, in England during the 18th century, "the prejudice against actresses had faded" p. 620. and in Europe generally, going to the theatre, once a socially dubious activity, became "a more respectable middle-class pastime" pp. 65–66. in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when the variety of popular entertainments increased. Operetta and music halls became available, and new drama theatres such as the Moscow Art Theatre and the Aleksey Suvorin#Suvorin Theatre, Suvorin Theatre in Russia opened. At the same time, commercial newspapers "began to carry theatre columns and reviews" that helped make theatre "a legitimate subject of intellectual debate" in general discussions about art and culture. Audiences began to gather to "appreciate creative achievement, to marvel at, and be entertained by, the prominent 'stars'." Vaudeville and music halls, popular at this time in the United States, England, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, were themselves eventually superseded. Play (theatre), Plays, Musical theatre, musicals, monologues,
pantomime Pantomime (; informally panto) is a type of musical comedy Musical theatre is a form of theatre, theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue, acting and dance. The story and emotional content of a musical – humor, pathos ...

pantomime
s, and performance poetry are part of the very long history of theatre, which is also the venue for the type of performance known as stand-up comedy. In the 20th century, Radio broadcasting, radio and television, often broadcast live, extended the theatrical tradition that continued to exist alongside the new forms. The stage and the spaces set out in front of it for an audience create a theatre. All types of stage are used with all types of seating for the audience, including the impromptu or improvised (2, 3, 6); the temporary (2); the elaborate (9); or the traditional and permanent (5, 7). They are erected indoors (3, 5, 9) or outdoors (2, 4, 6). The skill of managing, organising and preparing the stage for a performance is known as stagecraft (10). The audience's experience of the entertainment is affected by their expectations, the stagecraft, the type of stage, and the type and standard of seating provided. File:Isaac Cruikshank King John's first appearance at the New Theatre Covent Garden 1809.jpg, 1 Satirical representation of audience reaction (1809) File:Öffentlich durchgeführte medizinische Behandlung auf einem französischen Jahrmarkt.jpg, 2 Improvised stage for a public performance at a fair (1642) File:The stage.jpg, 3 Improvised stage for domestic theatre File:Dalhalla stage before show.JPG, 4 Outdoor stage before a show File:Troldsalen-inne03.jpg, 5 Concert theatre ready for solo instrumentalist File:PipesAndDrums.jpg, 6 Outdoor theatre created from Edinburgh castle forecourt File:Noh stage Miyajima Sep2008.jpg, 7 Traditional stage for Japanese Noh theatre File:Music Circus Stage 2011.jpg, 8 Stage for theatre in the round File:Colon-interior-escenario-TM.jpg, 9 Teatro Colón, a highly decorative, horseshoe theatre File:SWHS locking rail.jpg, 10 Stagecraft a Fly system, locking rail backstage


Cinema and film

Films are a major form of entertainment, although not all films have entertainment as their primary purpose: documentary film, for example, aims to create a record or inform, although the two purposes often work together. The medium was a global business from the beginning: "The Auguste and Louis Lumière, Lumière brothers were the first to send cameramen throughout the world, instructing them to film everything which could be of interest for the public." p. 9. In 1908, Pathé launched and distributed Pathé News, newsreels and by
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
, films were meeting an enormous need for mass entertainment. "In the first decade of the [20th] century cinematic programmes combined, at random, fictions and newsfilms." The Americans first "contrived a way of producing an illusion of motion through successive images," but "the French were able to transform a scientific principle into a commercially lucrative spectacle". Film therefore became a part of the entertainment industry from its early days. Increasingly sophisticated techniques have been used in the film medium to delight and entertain audiences. Animation, for example, which involves the display of rapid movement in an art work, is one of these techniques that particularly appeals to younger audiences. The advent of computer-generated imagery (CGI) in the 21st century made it "possible to do spectacle" more cheaply and "on a scale never dreamed of" by Cecil B. DeMille. From the 1930s to 1950s, movies and radio were the "only mass entertainment" but by the second decade of the 21st century, technological changes, economic decisions, risk aversion and globalisation reduced both the quality and range of films being produced. Sophisticated visual effects and CGI techniques, for example, rather than humans, were used not only to create realistic images of people, landscapes and events (both real and Fantasy, fantastic) but also to animate non-living items such as Lego normally used as entertainment as a game in physical form. Creators of ''The Lego Movie'' "wanted the audience to believe they were looking at actual Lego bricks on a tabletop that were shot with a real camera, not what we actually did, which was create vast environments with digital bricks inside the computer." The convergence of computers and film has allowed entertainment to be presented in a new way and the technology has also allowed for those with the personal resources to screen films in a home cinema, home theatre, recreating in a private venue the quality and experience of a public theatre. This is similar to the way that the nobility in earlier times could stage private musical performances or the use of domestic theatres in large homes to perform private plays in earlier centuries. Films also re-imagine entertainment from other forms, turning stories, books and plays, for example, into new entertainments. ''The Story of Film: An Odyssey, The Story of Film'', a documentary about the history of film, gives a survey of global achievements and innovations in the medium, as well as changes in the conception of film-making. It demonstrates that while some films, particularly those in the Cinema of the United States, Hollywood tradition that combines "realism and melodramatic romanticism", are intended as a form of escapism, others require a deeper engagement or more thoughtful response from their audiences. For example, the award-winning Senegalese film ''Xala'' takes government corruption as its theme. Charlie Chaplin's film ''The Great Dictator'' was a brave and innovative parody, also on a political theme. Stories that are thousands of years old, such as Noah (2014 film), ''Noah'', have been re-interpreted in film, applying familiar literary devices such as allegory and personification with new techniques such as CGI to explore big themes such as "human folly", good and evil, courage and despair, love, faith, and death themes that have been a main-stay of entertainment across all its forms. As in other media, excellence and achievement in films is recognised through a range of awards, including ones from the American Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the British Academy of Film and Television Arts, the Cannes International Film Festival in France and the Asia Pacific Screen Awards.


Dance

The many forms of
dance Dance is a performing art art form, form consisting of sequences of movement, either improvised or purposefully selected. This movement has aesthetic and often symbolism (arts), symbolic value. Dance can be categorized and described by its ...

dance
provide entertainment for all age groups and cultures. Dance can be serious in tone, such as when it is used to express a culture's history or important stories; it may be provocative; or it may put in the service of comedy. Since it combines many forms of entertainment music, movement, storytelling, theatre it provides a good example of the various ways that these forms can be combined to create entertainment for different purposes and audiences. Dance is "a form of cultural representation" that involves not just dancers, but "Choreography (dance), choreographers, audience members, Patronage, patrons and impresarios ... coming from all over the globe and from vastly varied time periods." p. xviii. Whether from Africa, Asia or Europe, dance is constantly negotiating the realms of political, social, spiritual and artistic influence." Even though dance traditions may be limited to one cultural group, they all develop. For example, in Africa, there are "Dahomey, Dahomean dances, Hausa people, Hausa dances, Maasai people, Masai dances and so forth." Ballet is an example of a highly developed Western form of dance that moved to the theatres from the French court during the time of Louis XIV of France, Louis XIV, the dancers becoming professional theatrical performers. p. 98. Some dances, such as the quadrille, a square dance that "emerged during the Napoleonic era, Napoleonic years in France" and other country dances were once popular at social gatherings like Ball (dance), balls, but are now rarely performed. On the other hand, many folk dances (such as Scottish highland dance, Scottish Highland dancing and Irish dance, Irish dancing), have evolved into competitions, which by adding to their audiences, has increased their entertainment value. "Irish dance theatre, which sometimes features traditional Irish steps and music, has developed into a major dance form with an international reputation." Since dance is often "associated with the female body and women's experiences", female dancers, who dance to entertain, have in some cases been regarded as distinct from "decent" women because they "use their bodies to make a living instead of hiding them as much as possible". Society's attitudes to female dancers depend on the culture, its history and the entertainment industry itself. For example, while some cultures regard any dancing by women as "the most shameful form of entertainment", other cultures have established venues such as strip clubs where deliberately erotic or sexually provocative dances such as striptease are performed in public by professional women dancers for mostly male audiences. Various political regimes have sought to control or ban dancing or specific types of dancing, sometimes because of disapproval of the music or clothes associated with it. Nationalism, authoritarianism and racism have played a part in banning dances or dancing. For example, during the Nazi Germany, Nazi regime, American dances such as Swing (dance), swing, regarded as "completely un-German", had "become a public offense and needed to be banned". Similarly, in Shanghai, China, in the 1930s, "dancing and nightclubs had come to symbolise the excess that plagued Chinese society" and officials wondered if "other forms of entertainment such as brothels" should also be banned. Banning had the effect of making "the dance craze" even greater. In Ireland, the Public Dance Hall Act of 1935 "banned but did not stop dancing at the crossroads and other popular dance forms such as house and barn dances." In the US, various dances were once banned, either because like burlesque, they were suggestive, or because, like the Twist (dance), Twist, they were associated with African Americans. "African American dancers were typically banned from performing in minstrel shows until after the American Civil War, Civil War." Dances can be performed Solo (dance), solo (1, 4); in pairs, (2, 3); in groups, (5, 6, 7); or by massed performers (10). They might be improvised (4, 8) or highly choreographed (1, 2, 5, 10); spontaneous for personal entertainment, (such as when children begin dancing for themselves); a private audience, (4); a paying audience (2); a world audience (10); or an audience interested in a particular dance genre (3, 5). They might be a part of a celebration, such as a wedding or New Year (6, 8); or a cultural ritual with a specific purpose, such as a dance by warriors like a haka (7). Some dances, such as traditional dance in 1 and ballet in 2, need a very high level of skill and training; others, such as the can-can, require a very high level of energy and physical fitness. Entertaining the audience is a normal part of dance but its physicality often also produces joy for the dancers themselves (9). File:Korea-Andong-Hahoe Folk Village-Thai dancer-01.jpg, 1 Traditional dancer (Thailand) File:Harlekin Columbine Tivoli Denmark.jpg, 2 Harlequinade, Harlequin and Columbine (Denmark) File:Ballroom dance exhibition.jpg, 3 Ballroom dance, Ballroom dancing (Czech Republic) File:Belly dancer dancing in Morocco.jpg, 4 Belly dancer (Morocco) File:Morris dancing at Berwick St John - geograph.org.uk - 903611.jpg, 5 Morris dance, Morris dancing (England) File:Allan-highlandwedding1780.jpg, 6 Scottish Highlands, Highland wedding (Scotland, 1780) File:Mt Hagen Cultural Show PNG 2008.jpg, 7 Warrior dancers (Papua New Guinea) File:Fire Dragon dance.jpg, 8 Fire Dragon dance for Chinese New Year File:Bhangra 1.jpg, 9 Bhangra (dance), Bhangra dancers at the International Children's Festival File:Arirang Mass Games, Pyongyang, North Korea-1.jpg, 10 Children in Mass Games (North Korea)


Animals

Animals have been used for the purposes of entertainment for millennia. They have been hunted for entertainment (as opposed to hunted for food); displayed while they hunt for prey; watched when they compete with each other; and watched while they perform a trained routine for human amusement. The Romans, for example, were entertained both by competitions involving wild animals and acts performed by trained animals. They watched as "lions and bears danced to the music of pipes and cymbals; horses were trained to kneel, bow, dance and prance ... acrobats turning handsprings over wild lions and vaulting over wild leopards." There were "violent confrontations with wild beasts" and "performances over time became more brutal and bloodier". Animals that perform trained routines or "acts" for human entertainment include fleas in flea circuses, dolphins in Dolphinarium, dolphinaria, and monkeys doing tricks for an audience on behalf of the player of a street organ. Animals kept in zoos in ancient times were often kept there for later use in the arena as entertainment or for their entertainment value as exotica. Many contests between animals are now regarded as sports for example, horse racing is regarded as both a sport and an important source of entertainment. Its economic impact means that it is also considered a global industry, one in which horses are carefully transported around the world to compete in races. In Australia, the horse race run on Melbourne Cup Day is a public holiday and the public regards the race as an important annual event. Like horse racing, camel racing requires human riders, while greyhound racing does not. People find it entertaining to watch animals race competitively, whether they are trained, like horses, camels or dogs, or untrained, like Cockroach racing, cockroaches. The use of animals for entertainment is sometimes controversial, especially the hunting of wild animals. Some contests between animals, once popular entertainment for the public, have become illegal because of the cruelty involved. Among these are blood sports such as bear-baiting, dog fighting and cockfighting. Other contests involving animals remain controversial and have both supporters and detractors. For example, the conflict between opponents of pigeon shooting who view it as "a cruel and moronic exercise in marksmanship, and proponents, who view it as entertainment" has been tested in a court of law.An extensive discussion of the legal and cultural issues can be found in Fox hunting, which involves the use of horses as well as hounds, and bullfighting, which has a strong theatrical component, are two entertainments that have a long and significant cultural history. They both involve animals and are variously regarded as sport, entertainment or cultural tradition. Among the organisations set up to advocate for the rights of animals are some whose concerns include the use of animals for entertainment. However, "in many cases of animal advocacy groups versus organisations accused of animal abuse, both sides have cultural claims." File:Ala-uddin and Mahima hunting.JPG, 'Ala'ud-Din and Mahima Dharma Tiger hunting, hunting a tiger while in an intimate relationship, Punjab, South Asia, 1790 File:COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Arabische man met twee gedresseerde aapjes aan de ketting TMnr 60020423.jpg, Trained monkey performing for an audience of children (1900–20) File:Pharlap1930melbournecup.jpg, Crowd watches Pharlap win the Melbourne Cup in Australia, 1930 File:San marcos bullfight 04.jpg, Crowd watches a Bullfighting, bullfight in Mexico, 2010


Circus

A
circus A circus is a company of performers who put on diverse entertainment shows that may include s, , trained animals, acts, s, s, , s, , s, , and as well as other and stunt-oriented artists. The term ''circus'' also describes the performance w ...

circus
, described as "one of the most brazen of entertainment forms", is a special type of theatrical performance, involving a variety of physical skills such as acrobatics and juggling and sometimes performing animals. Usually thought of as a travelling show performed in a wikt:big top, big top, circus was first performed in permanent venues. Philip Astley is regarded as the founder of the modern circus in the second half of the 18th century and Jules Léotard is the French performer credited with developing the art of the trapeze, considered synonymous with circuses. Astley brought together performances that were generally familiar in traditional British fairs "at least since the beginning of the 17th century": "tumbling, rope-dancing, juggling, animal tricks and so on". It has been claimed that "there is no direct link between the Roman circus and the circus of modern times. ... Between the demise of the Roman 'circus' and the foundation of Astley's Amphitheatre in London some 1300 years later, the nearest thing to a circus ring was the rough circle formed by the curious onlookers who gathered around the itinerant tumbler or juggler on a village green."


Magic

The form of entertainment known as
stage magic Magic, which encompasses the subgenres of illusion, stage magic, and close up magic, among others, is a performing art in which audiences are entertainment, entertained by tricks, effects, or illusions of seemingly impossible feats, using natur ...
or conjuring and recognisable as performance, is based on traditions and texts of magical rites and dogmas that have been a part of most cultural traditions since ancient times. (References to magic, for example, can be found in the Bible, in Hermeticism, in Zoroastrianism, in the Kabbalah, Kabbalistic tradition, in mysticism and in the sources of Freemasonry.) Stage magic is performed for an audience in a variety of media and locations: on stage, on television, in the street, and live at parties or events. It is often combined with other forms of entertainment, such as comedy or music and showmanship (performing), showmanship is often an essential part of magic performances. Performance magic relies on deception, psychological manipulation, sleight of hand and other forms of trickery to give an audience the illusion that a performer can achieve the impossible. Audiences amazed at the stunt performer, stunt performances and Escapology, escape acts of Harry Houdini, for example, regarded him as a Magic (illusion), magician. Magician (fantasy), Fantasy magicians have held an important place in literature for centuries, offering entertainment to millions of readers. Famous wizards such as Merlin in the Arthurian legends have been written about since the 5th and 6th centuries, while in the 21st century, the young wizard Harry Potter (character), Harry Potter became a global entertainment phenomenon when the book series about him sold about 450 million copies (as at June 2011), making it the List of book series, best-selling book series in history.


Street performance

Street entertainment, street performance, or "busking" are forms of performance that have been meeting the public's need for entertainment for centuries. It was "an integral aspect of London's life", for example, when the city in the early 19th century was "filled with spectacle and diversion". Minstrels or troubadours are part of the tradition. The art and practice of busking is still celebrated at annual busking festivals. There are three basic forms of contemporary street performance. The first form is the "circle show". It tends to gather a crowd, usually has a distinct beginning and end, and is done in conjunction with street theatre, puppeteering, magic (illusion), magicians, comedians, acrobats, juggling, jugglers and sometimes musicians. This type has the potential to be the most lucrative for the performer because there are likely to be more donations from larger audiences if they are entertained by the act. Good buskers control the crowd so patrons do not obstruct foot traffic. The second form, the ''walk-by act'', has no distinct beginning or end. Typically, the busker provides an entertaining ambience, often with an unusual instrument, and the audience may not stop to watch or form a crowd. Sometimes a walk-by act spontaneously turns into a circle show. The third form, ''café busking'', is performed mostly in restaurants, pubs, bars and cafés. This type of act occasionally uses public transport as a venue.


Parades

Parades are held for a range of purposes, often more than one. Whether their mood is sombre or festive, being public events that are designed to attract attention and activities that necessarily divert normal traffic, parades have a clear entertainment value to their audiences. Cavalcades and the modern variant, the motorcade, are examples of public processions. Some people watching the parade or procession may have made a special effort to attend, while others become part of the audience by happenstance. Whatever their mood or primary purpose, parades attract and entertain people who watch them pass by. Occasionally, a parade takes place in an improvised theatre space (such as the Trooping the Colour in 8) and tickets are sold to the physical audience while the global audience participates via broadcast. One of the earliest forms of parade were "Roman triumph, triumphs" grand and sensational displays of foreign treasures and spoils, given by triumphant Roman generals to celebrate their victories. They presented conquered peoples and nations that exalted the prestige of the victor. "In the summer of 46 Before common era, BCE Julius Caesar chose to celebrate four triumphs held on different days extending for about one month." In Europe from the Middle Ages to the Baroque the Royal Entry celebrated the formal visit of the monarch to the city with a parade through elaborately decorated streets, passing various shows and displays. The annual Lord Mayor's Show in London is an example of a civic parade that has survived since medieval times. Many religious festivals (especially those that incorporate processions, such as Holy Week processions or the Indian festival of Holi) have some entertainment appeal in addition to their serious purpose. Sometimes, religious rituals have been adapted or evolved into secular entertainments, or like the Festa del Redentore in Venice, have managed to grow in popularity while holding both secular and sacred purposes in balance. However, pilgrimages, such as the Roman Catholic pilgrimage of the Way of St. James, the Muslim Hajj and the Hindu Kumbh Mela, which may appear to the outsider as an entertaining parade or procession, are not intended as entertainment: they are instead about an individual's spiritual journey. Hence, the relationship between spectator and participant, unlike entertainments proper, is different. The manner in which the Kumbh Mela, for example, "is divorced from its cultural context and repackaged for Western consumption renders the presence of Voyeurism, voyeurs deeply problematic." Parades generally impress and delight often by including unusual, colourful costumes (7, 10). Sometimes they also commemorate (5, 8) or celebrate (1, 4, 6, 8, 9). Sometimes they have a serious purpose, such as when the context is military (1, 2, 5), when the intention is sometimes to intimidate; or religious, when the audience might participate or have a role to play (6, 7, 10). Even if a parade uses new technology and is some distance away (9), it is likely to have a strong appeal, draw the attention of onlookers and entertain them. File:Triunphus Caesaris plate 6 - Andreani.jpg, 1 Triumph of Caesar, Andreani (1588/9) File:Alfred Jacob Miller - Cavalcade - Walters 371940199.jpg, 2 Alfred Jacob Miller ''Cavalcade'' by the Snake Indians (1858–60) File:Edmund Blair Leighton - 1816.jpg, 3 Parade from the onlooker perspective (1816) File:William McKinley 1901 inauguration.ogv, 4 United States presidential inauguration, Inauguration parade of US President William McKinley, McKinley (1897) File:1945 Eelde Canadezen.jpg, 5 Respectful crowd at motorcade in Canada (1945) File:Anant Chaturdashi.jpg, 6 Ganesh Visarjan, Mumbai (2007) File:West Indian Day Parade 2008-09-01 man in costume.jpg, 7 Costumes in West Indian Day parade (2008) File:Trooping the Colour March on.JPG, 8 Celebratory parade in London before seated audience (2008) File:Red Arrows over the Mall.JPG, 9 Flypast (2012) File:Desfile Portela 2014 (906185).jpg, 10 Rio Carnival, Festive parade in Brazil (2014)


Fireworks

Fireworks are a part of many public entertainments and have retained an enduring popularity since they became a "crowning feature of elaborate celebrations" in the 17th century. First used in China, classical antiquity and Europe for military purposes, fireworks were most popular in the 18th century and high prices were paid for Pyrotechnics, pyrotechnists, especially the skilled Italian ones, who were summoned to other countries to organise displays. Fire and water were important aspects of court spectacles because the displays "inspired by means of fire, sudden noise, smoke and general magnificence the sentiments thought fitting for the subject to entertain of his sovereign: awe fear and a vicarious sense of glory in his might. Birthdays, name-days, weddings and anniversaries provided the occasion for celebration." One of the most famous courtly uses of fireworks was one used to celebrate the end of the War of the Austrian Succession and while the fireworks themselves caused a fire, the accompanying Music for the Royal Fireworks written by George Frideric Handel, Handel has been popular ever since. Aside from their contribution to entertainments related to military successes, courtly displays and personal celebrations, fireworks are also used as part of religious ceremony. For example, during the Indian Dashavatara Kala of Gomantaka "the temple deity is taken around in a procession with a lot of singing, dancing and display of fireworks". The "fire, sudden noise and smoke" of fireworks is still a significant part of public celebration and entertainment. For example, fireworks were one of the primary forms of display chosen to celebrate the turn of the millennium around the world. As the clock struck midnight and 1999 became 2000, firework displays and open-air parties greeted the New Year as the time zones changed over to the next century. Fireworks, carefully planned and choreographed, were let off against the backdrop of many of the world's most famous buildings, including the Sydney Harbour Bridge, the Giza Necropolis, Pyramids of Giza in Egypt, the Acropolis in Athens, Red Square (disambiguation), Red Square in Moscow, Vatican City in Rome, the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, the Eiffel Tower in Paris, and Elizabeth Tower in London.


Sport

Sports, Sporting competitions have always provided entertainment for crowds. To distinguish the players from the audience, the latter are often known as spectators. Developments in
stadium A stadium (plural stadiums or stadia) is a place or venue for (mostly) outdoor sports, concerts, or other events and consists of a field or stage either partly or completely surrounded by a tiered structure designed to allow spectators to st ...

stadium
and
auditorium An auditorium is a room built to enable an audience to hear and watch performances. For movie theatre . The picture the projector is displaying is the 1997 Universal Pictures Universal Pictures (legally Universal City Studios LLC, also ...

auditorium
design, as well as in recording and broadcast technology, have allowed off-site spectators to watch sport, with the result that the size of the audience has grown ever larger and
spectator sport A spectator sport is a sport Sport pertains to any form of competitive Competition is a rivalry A rivalry is the state of two people or groups engaging in a lasting competitive relationship. Rivalry is the "against each other" spi ...
has become increasingly popular. Two of the most popular sports with global appeal are association football and cricket. Their ultimate international competitions, the FIFA World Cup and the Cricket World Cup, are broadcast around the world. Beyond the very large numbers involved in playing these sports, they are notable for being a major source of entertainment for many millions of non-players worldwide. A comparable multi-stage, long-form sport with global appeal is the Tour de France, unusual in that it takes place outside of special stadia, being run instead in the countryside. Aside from sports that have worldwide appeal and competitions, such as the Olympic Games, the entertainment value of a sport depends on the culture and country where people play it. For example, in the United States, baseball and basketball games are popular forms of entertainment; in Bhutan, the national sport is archery; in New Zealand, it is rugby union; in Iran, it is freestyle wrestling. Japan's unique sumo wrestling contains ritual elements that derive from its long history. In some cases, such as the international running group Hash House Harriers, participants create a blend of sport and entertainment for themselves, largely independent of spectator involvement, where the social component is more important than the competitive. The evolution of an activity into a sport and then an entertainment is also affected by the local climate and conditions. For example, the modern sport of History of surfing, surfing is associated with Hawaii and that of History of skiing, snow skiing probably evolved in Scandinavia. While these sports and the entertainment they offer to spectators have spread around the world, people in the two originating countries remain well known for their prowess. Sometimes the climate offers a chance to adapt another sport such as in the case of ice hockey—an important entertainment in Canada.


Fairs, expositions, shopping

Fairs and exhibitions have existed since ancient and medieval times, displaying wealth, innovations and objects for trade and offering specific entertainments as well as being places of entertainment in themselves. Whether in a medieval market or a small shop, "shopping always offered forms of exhilaration that took one away from the everyday". However, in the modern world, "merchandising has become entertainment: spinning signs, flashing signs, thumping music ... video screens, interactive computer kiosks, day care .. cafés". By the 19th century, "expos" that encouraged arts, manufactures and commerce had become international. They were not only hugely popular but affected international ideas. For example, the Exposition Universelle (1878), 1878 Paris Exposition facilitated international cooperation about ideas, innovations and standards. From London 1851 to Paris 1900, "in excess of 200 million visitors had entered the turnstiles in London, Paris, Vienna, Philadelphia, Chicago and a myriad of smaller shows around the world." Since World War II "well over 500 million visits have been recorded through world expo turnstiles". As a form of spectacle and entertainment, expositions influenced "everything from architecture, to patterns of globalisation, to fundamental matters of human identity" and in the process established the close relationship between "fairs, the rise of department stores and art museums", the modern world of mass consumption and the entertainment industry. File:Paris 1889 plakat.jpg, Advertisement for 1889 Paris Universal Exposition File:Qatar's Pavillion at the 2010 World Expo in Shanghai.jpg, Audience queuing for Qatar's World Exposition Pavilion at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo File:Ballpit.jpg, Ball pit of the type provided for children's entertainment in shopping malls


Safety

Some entertainments, such as at large festivals (whether religious or secular), concerts, clubs, parties and celebrations, involve big crowds. From earliest times, crowds at an entertainment have associated hazards and dangers, especially when combined with the recreational consumption of Recreational drug use, intoxicants such as alcohol. The Ancient Greeks had Dionysian Mysteries, for example, and the Romans had Saturnalia. The consequence of excess and crowds can produce breaches of Norm (social), social norms of behaviour, sometimes causing injury or even death, such as for example, at the Altamont Free Concert, an outdoor rock festival. The list of Nightclub#Serious incidents, serious incidents at nightclubs includes those caused by stampede; overcrowding; terrorism, such as the 2002 Bali bombings that targeted a nightclub; and especially fire. Investigations, such as that carried out in the US after The Station nightclub fire often demonstrate that lessons learned "regarding fire safety in nightclubs" from earlier events such as the Cocoanut Grove fire do "not necessarily result in lasting effective change". Efforts to prevent such incidents include appointing special officers, such as the medieval Lord of Misrule or, in modern times, security officers who control access; and also ongoing improvement of relevant International Organization for Standardization, standards such as those for building safety. The tourism industry now regards safety and security at entertainment venues as an important management task.


Industry

Entertainment is big business, especially in the United States, but ubiquitous in all cultures. Although kings, rulers and powerful people have always been able to pay for entertainment to be provided for them and in many cases have paid for public entertainment, people generally have made their own entertainment or when possible, attended a live performance. Technological developments in the 20th century, especially in the area of mass media, meant that entertainment could be produced independently of the audience, packaged and sold on a
commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Television advertisement * (adjective for:) commerce, a system of voluntary exchange of products and se ...

commercial
basis by an entertainment industry. Sometimes referred to as show business, the industry relies on business models to produce, market, broadcast or otherwise distribute many of its traditional forms, including performances of all types. The industry became so sophisticated that its economics became a separate area of academic study. The film industry is a part of the entertainment industry. Components of it include the Cinema of the United States, Hollywood and Bollywood film industries, as well as the cinema of the United Kingdom and all the Cinema of Europe, cinemas of Europe, including cinema of France, France, cinema of Germany, Germany, cinema of Spain, Spain, Cinema of Italy, Italy and others. The sex industry is another component of the entertainment industry, applying the same forms and media (for example, film, books, dance and other performances) to the development, marketing and sale of sex products on a commercial basis. Amusement parks entertain paying guests with rides, such as roller coasters, ridable miniature railways, water rides, and dark rides, as well as other events and associated attractions. The parks are built on a large area subdivided into themed areas named "lands". Sometimes the whole amusement park is based on one theme, such as the various SeaWorld parks that focus on the theme of sea life. One of the consequences of the development of the entertainment industry has been the creation of new types of employment. While jobs such as writer, musician and composer exist as they always have, people doing this work are likely to be employed by a company rather than a patron as they once would have been. New jobs have appeared, such as Gaffer (filmmaking), gaffer or special effects supervisor in the film industry, and attendants in an amusement park. Prestigious awards are given by the industry for excellence in the various types of entertainment. For example, there are awards for Music, Games (including video games), Comics, Comedy, Theatre, Television, Film, Dance and Magic. Sporting awards are made for the results and skill, rather than for the entertainment value. File:Film reel.jpg, Packaged entertainment
35mm film reels in boxes File:Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F079073-0006, Bonn, Sternstraße, Schallplattengeschäft.jpg, Choosing music from a record store (Germany, 1988) File:LOceanogràfic, Ciudad de las artes y las ciencias, 2005, Valencia.jpg, Ticket showing electronic barcode (Valencia, 2005)


Architecture


Architecture for entertainment

Purpose-built structures as venues for entertainment that accommodate audiences have produced many famous and innovative buildings, among the most recognisable of which are Theatre (structure), theatre structures. For the ancient Greeks, "the architectural importance of the theatre is a reflection of their importance to the community, made apparent in their monumentality, in the effort put into their design, and in the care put into their detail."Green, J.R. "The Theatre of Paphos and the Theatre of Alexandria: Some First Thoughts" in p. 115. The Romans subsequently developed the stadium in an oval form known as a Circus (building), circus. In modern times, some of the grandest buildings for entertainment have brought fame to their cities as well as their designers. The Sydney Opera House, for example, is a World Heritage Site and The O₂ (London), The O₂ in London is an entertainment precinct that contains an indoor arena, a music club, a cinema and exhibition space. The Bayreuth Festspielhaus in Germany is a theatre designed and built for performances of one specific musical composition. Two of the chief architectural concerns for the design of venues for mass audiences are speed of egress and safety. The speed at which the venue empty is important both for amenity and safety, because large crowds take a long time to disperse from a badly designed venue, which creates a safety risk. The Hillsborough disaster is an example of how poor aspects of building design can contribute to audience deaths. Sightlines and acoustics are also important design considerations in most theatrical venues. In the 21st century, entertainment venues, especially stadia, are "likely to figure among the leading architectural genres". p. xvi. However, they require "a whole new approach" to design, because they need to be "sophisticated entertainment centres, multi-experience venues, capable of being enjoyed in many diverse ways". Hence, architects now have to design "with two distinct functions in mind, as sports and entertainment centres playing host to live audiences, and as sports and entertainment studios serving the viewing and listening requirements of the remote audience". File:Colosseum in Rome, Italy - April 2007.jpg,
Colosseum The Colosseum ( ; it, Colosseo ) is an oval amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy, just east of the Roman Forum. It is the largest ancient amphitheatre ever built, and is still the largest standing amphitheatre in the world tod ...

Colosseum
, Rome (70–80 AD), Roman venue for mass entertainment File:Palais Garnier's grand salon, 12 February 2008.jpg, The Grand Foyer in the Palais Garnier, Paris (1875), influenced architecture around the world. File:Maracana-predefinicao.jpg, Estádio do Maracanã, Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro, at inauguration (1950) the world's largest stadium by capacity File:The O2 from the air.jpg, The O₂ (London), The O₂ entertainment precinct, London (2007) File:Flamingo Spa Vesipuisto.jpg, Flamingo, Finland, Flamingo Entertainment Centre, Vantaa (2008), include variety of entertainment activities (e.g. a movie theater, spa, bowling, laser games, virtual experiences), 40 different stores and hotel


Architecture as entertainment

Architects who push the boundaries of design or construction sometimes create buildings that are entertaining because they exceed the expectations of the public and the client and are aesthetically outstanding. Buildings such as Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, designed by Frank Gehry, are of this type, becoming a tourist attraction as well as a significant international museum. Other apparently usable buildings are really folly, follies, deliberately constructed for a decorative purpose and never intended to be practical. On the other hand, sometimes architecture is entertainment, while pretending to be functional. The tourism industry, for example, creates or renovates buildings as "attractions" that have either never been used or can never be used for their ostensible purpose. They are instead re-purposed to entertain visitors often by simulating cultural experiences. Buildings, history and sacred spaces are thus made into commodities for purchase. Such intentional tourist attractions divorce buildings from the past so that "the difference between historical authenticity and contemporary entertainment venues/theme parks becomes hard to define". p. xvii. Examples include "the preservation of the Alcázar of Toledo, with its grim Civil War History, the conversion of slave dungeons into tourist attractions in Ghana, [such as, for example, Cape Coast Castle] and the presentation of indigenous culture in Libya". The specially constructed buildings in amusement parks represent the park's theme and are usually neither authentic nor completely functional.


Effects of developments in electronic media


Globalisation

By the second half of the 20th century, developments in electronic Media (communication), media made possible the delivery of entertainment products to mass audiences across the globe. The technology enabled people to see, hear and participate in all the familiar forms stories, theatre, music, dance wherever they live. The rapid development of entertainment technology was assisted by improvements in data storage devices such as Compact Cassette, cassette tapes or compact discs, along with increasing miniaturisation. Computerisation and the development of barcodes also made ticketing easier, faster and global.


Obsolescence

In the 1940s, radio was the electronic medium for family entertainment and information. In the 1950s, it was television that was the new medium and it rapidly became global, bringing visual entertainment, first in black and white, then in colour, to the world. By the 1970s, history of video games, games could be played electronically, then Handheld video game, hand-held devices provided mobile entertainment, and by the last decade of the 20th century, via online game, networked play. In combination with products from the entertainment industry, all the traditional forms of entertainment became available personally. People could not only select an entertainment product such as a piece of music, film or game, they could choose the time and place to use it. The "proliferation of portable media players and the emphasis on the computer as a site for film consumption" together have significantly changed how audiences encounter films. One of the most notable consequences of the rise of electronic entertainment has been the rapid obsolescence of the various recording and storage methods. As an example of speed of change driven by electronic media, over the course of one generation, television as a medium for receiving standardised entertainment products went from unknown, to novel, to ubiquitous and finally to superseded. One estimate was that by 2011 over 30 percent of households in the US would own a Wii console, "about the same percentage that owned a television in 1953". Some expected that halfway through the second decade of the 21st century, online entertainment would have completely replaced television—which didn't happen. The so-called "digital revolution" has produced an increasingly transnational marketplace that has caused difficulties for governments, business, industries, and individuals, as they all try to keep up. Even the sports stadium of the future will increasingly compete with television viewing "...in terms of comfort, safety and the constant flow of audio-visual information and entertainment available." Other flow on effects of the shift are likely to include those on public architecture such as hospitals and nursing homes, where television, regarded as an essential entertainment service for patients and residents, will need to be replaced by access to the internet. At the same time, the ongoing need for entertainers as "professional engagers" shows the continuity of traditional entertainment.


Convergence

By the second decade of the 21st century, analogue recording was being replaced by digital recording and all forms of electronic entertainment began to technological convergence, converge. For example, convergence is challenging standard practices in the film industry: whereas "success or failure used to be determined by the first weekend of its run. Today, ... a series of exhibition 'windows', such as DVD, pay-per-view, and fibre-optic video-on-demand are used to maximise profits." Part of the industry's adjustment is its release of new commercial product directly via video hosting services. Media convergence is said to be more than technological: the convergence is cultural as well. It is also "the result of a deliberate effort to protect the interests of business entities, policy institutions and other groups". Globalisation and cultural imperialism are two of the cultural consequences of convergence. Others include fandom and interactive storytelling as well as the way that single franchises are distributed through and affect a range of delivery methods. The "greater diversity in the ways that signals may be received and packaged for the viewer, via terrestrial, satellite or cable television, and of course, via the Internet" also affects entertainment venues, such as sports stadia, which now need to be designed so that both live and remote audiences can interact in increasingly sophisticated ways for example, audiences can "watch highlights, call up statistics", "order tickets and merchandise" and generally "tap into the stadium's resources at any time of the day or night". The introduction of television altered the availability, cost, variety and quality of entertainment products for the public and the convergence of online entertainment is having a similar effect. For example, the possibility and popularity of user-generated content, as distinct from commercial product, creates a "networked audience model [that] makes programming obsolete". Individuals and corporations use video hosting services to broadcast content that is equally accepted by the public as legitimate entertainment. While technology increases demand for entertainment products and offers increased speed of delivery, the forms that make up the content are in themselves, relatively stable. Storytelling, music, theatre, dance and games are recognisably the same as in earlier centuries.


See also

* Entertainment law * Family entertainment centre * List of entertainer occupations * Outline of entertainment * Performing arts * Performing arts education


References


External links

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