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End-systolic volume (ESV) is the volume of blood in a ventricle at the end of contraction, or
systole The systole ( ) is the part of the cardiac cycle The cardiac cycle is the performance of the human heart The heart is a cardiac muscle, muscular Organ (biology), organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of ...
, and the beginning of filling, or
diastole Image:Heart diastole.png, upright=1.5, Heart performance during ventricular diastole: early diastole is a suction mechanism that draws blood 'down' from the left atrium (pink) and right atrium (blue) into each of the two ventricles. Then, in late ve ...
. ESV is the lowest volume of blood in the ventricle at any point in the
cardiac cycle The cardiac cycle is the performance of the human heart The heart is a cardiac muscle, muscular Organ (biology), organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system. The pumped blood carries oxy ...
. The main factors that affect the end-systolic volume are
afterload Afterload is the pressure that the heart must work against to eject blood during systole (ventricular contraction). Afterload is proportional to the average arterial pressure. As aortic and pulmonary pressures increase, the afterload increases on ...
and the contractility of the heart. __TOC__


Uses

End systolic volume can be used clinically as a measurement of the adequacy of cardiac emptying, related to systolic function. On an
electrocardiogram Electrocardiography is the process of producing an electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG). It is a graph of voltage Voltage, electric potential difference, electromotive force emf, electric pressure or electric tension is the difference in elec ...

electrocardiogram
, or
ECG Electrocardiography is the process of producing an electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG). It is an electrogram of the heart The heart is a cardiac muscle, muscular Organ (biology), organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood ...

ECG
, the end-systolic volume will be seen at the end of the T wave. Clinically, ESV can be measured using two-dimensional
echocardiography An echocardiography, echocardiogram, cardiac echo or simply an echo, is an of the . It is a type of of the heart, using standard ultrasound or . Echocardiography has become routinely used in the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of patients ...
, MRI (
magnetic resonance tomography Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body. Physics of magnetic resonance imaging#MRI scanner, MRI scanners use strong magnetic fi ...
) or cardiac CT (
computed tomography A CT scan or computed tomography scan (formerly known as computed axial tomography or CAT scan) is a medical imaging Imaging is the representation or reproduction of an object's form; especially a visual representation (i.e., the formation of ...

computed tomography
) or SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography).


Sample values

Along with
end-diastolic volume In cardiovascular physiologyCardiovascular physiology is the study of the cardiovascular system, specifically addressing the physiology of the heart ("cardio") and blood vessels ("vascular"). These subjects are sometimes addressed separately, unde ...
, ESV determines the stroke volume, or output of blood by the heart during a single phase of the cardiac cycle. The
stroke volume In cardiovascular physiologyCardiovascular physiology is the study of the cardiovascular system, specifically addressing the physiology of the heart ("cardio") and blood vessels ("vascular"). These subjects are sometimes addressed separately, unde ...
is the difference between the
end-diastolic volume In cardiovascular physiologyCardiovascular physiology is the study of the cardiovascular system, specifically addressing the physiology of the heart ("cardio") and blood vessels ("vascular"). These subjects are sometimes addressed separately, unde ...
and the end-systolic volume. The end-systolic values in the table below are for the left ventricle: The right ventricular end-systolic volume (RVESV) normally ranges between 50 and 100 mL.


References

Cardiovascular physiology {{circulatory-stub