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In
botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek wo ...

botany
, a drupe (or stone fruit) is an
indehiscent Dehiscence is the splitting of a mature plant structure along a built-in line of weakness in order to release its contents. This is common among fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plan ...
fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the ...

fruit
in which an outer fleshy part (
exocarp Fruit anatomy is the plant anatomy Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the internal structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a ...
, or skin, and
mesocarp Fruit anatomy is the plant anatomy Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the internal structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a ...
, or flesh) surrounds a single shell (the ''pit'', ''stone'', or ''
pyrena A pyrena or pyrene (commonly called a "pit" or "stone") is the fruitstone within a drupe ), showing both fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after ...
'') of hardened
endocarp Fruit anatomy is the plant anatomy Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the internal structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a ...
with a
seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. The band's first double album, it was released to generally positi ...

seed
(''kernel'') inside. These fruits usually develop from a single
carpel Gynoecium (; ) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproduction, reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, ...
, and mostly from flowers with superior ovaries (
polypyrenous drupe In botany, a pome (derived from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the p ...
s are exceptions). The definitive characteristic of a drupe is that the hard, lignified stone is derived from the
ovary The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system The female reproductive system is made up of the internal and external sex organs that function in reproduction of new offspring. In humans, the female reproductive system is im ...
wall of the
flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Image:Cerisier du Japon Prunus serrulata.jpg, Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit fruit tree, trees (genus ''Prunus'') and of some other plan ...

flower
. In an
aggregate fruit A raspberry fruit (shown with a raspberry beetle larva) is an aggregate fruit, an aggregate of drupelets image:Aquilegia vulgaris 004.JPG, The fruit of an ''Aquilegia'' flower is one fruit that forms from several ovaries of one flower, and it is an ...
, which is composed of small, individual drupes (such as a
raspberry The raspberry is the edible fruit of a multitude of plant species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is o ...

raspberry
), each individual is termed a drupelet, and may together form an aggregate fruit. Such fruits are often termed ''
berries A berry is a small, pulpy, and often edible fruit. Typically, berries are juicy, rounded, brightly colored, sweet, sour or tart, and do not have a stone or pit, although many pips or seeds may be present. Common examples are strawberries, raspbe ...

berries
'', although botanists use a different definition of ''berry''. Other fleshy fruits may have a stony enclosure that comes from the seed coat surrounding the seed, but such fruits are not drupes.
Flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greec ...

Flowering plant
s that produce drupes include
coffee Coffee is a drink prepared from roasted s, the seeds of from certain s in the ' genus. From the coffee fruit, the seeds are separated to produce a stable, raw product: unroasted ''green coffee''. The seeds are then , a process which transfo ...

coffee
,
jujube Jujube (), sometimes jujuba, known by the scientific name ''Ziziphus jujuba'' and also called red date, Chinese date, and Chinese jujube, is a species in the genus ''Ziziphus'' in the buckthorn family Rhamnaceae. Description It is a small ...

jujube
,
mango A mango is an edible stone fruit ), showing both fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosper ...

mango
,
olive The olive, botanical name ''Olea europaea'', meaning "European olive", is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodivers ...

olive
, most palms (including , ,
sabal ''Sabal'' is a genus of palms (or fan-palms) Endemism, endemic to the New World. Currently, there are 17 recognized species of ''Sabal'', including one hybrid species. The species are native to the subtropical and tropical regions of the Americas ...
,
coconut The coconut tree (''Cocos nucifera'') is a member of the palm tree family (biology), family (Arecaceae) and the only living species of the genus ''Cocos''. The term "coconut" (or the archaic "cocoanut") can refer to the whole coconut palm, t ...

coconut
and
oil palm ''Elaeis'' () is a genus of Arecaceae, palms containing two species, called oil palms. They are used in commercial agriculture in the production of palm oil. The African oil palm ''Elaeis guineensis'' (the species name ''guineensis'' referring ...
s),
pistachio The pistachio (, ''Pistacia vera''), a member of the cashew family, is a small tree originating from Central Asia Central Asia is a region in Asia which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afg ...

pistachio
,
white sapote The white sapote (''Casimiroa edulis''), also called casimiroa and Mexican apple, and known as ''cochitzapotl'' in the Nahuatl language (meaning "sleep-sapote") is a species of tropical fruiting tree in the family Rutaceae, native to eastern Mex ...
,
cashew The cashew tree (''Anacardium occidentale'') is a tropical evergreen tree that produces the cashew seed and the cashew apple pseudofruit. The tree can grow as high as , but the dwarf cultivars, growing up to , prove more profitable, with earlier ...

cashew
, and all members of the genus ''
Prunus ''Prunus'' is a genus of trees and shrubs, which includes (among many others) the fruits plums, Cherry, cherries, peaches, Peach#Nectarine, nectarines, apricots, and almonds. Native to the northern temperate regions, 430 different species are c ...

Prunus
'', including the
almond The almond (''Prunus dulcis'', syn. ''Prunus amygdalus'') is a species of tree native to Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, ...

almond
,
apricot An apricot (, ) is a fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The ...

apricot
,
cherry A cherry is the fruit In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. T ...

cherry
,
damson The damson () or damson plum (''Prunus domestica'' subsp. ''insititia'', or sometimes ''Prunus insititia''),M. H. Porche"Sorting ''Prunus'' names" in "Multilingual multiscript plant names database, University of Melbourne. Plantnames.unimelb.edu ...

damson
,
peach The peach (''Prunus persica'') is a deciduous In the fields of horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists grow ...

peach
,
nectarine The peach (''Prunus persica'') is a deciduous tree native to the region of Northwest China Northwest China () is a statistical region of China which includes the autonomous regions of Xinjiang Xinjiang, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, ...

nectarine
, and
plum A plum is a fruit of some species in Prunus subg. Prunus, ''Prunus'' subg. ''Prunus'.'' Mature plum fruits may have a dusty-white waxy coating that gives them a glaucous appearance. This is an epicuticular wax coating and is known as "wax blo ...

plum
. The term drupaceous is applied to a fruit having the structure and texture of a drupe, but which does not precisely fit the definition of a drupe.


Terminology

The boundary between a drupe and a berry is not always clear. Thus, some sources describe the fruit of species of the genus ''
Persea ''Persea'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a s ...
'', which includes the
avocado The avocado (''Persea americana''), a likely originating from southcentral , is as a member of the family . The fruit of the plant, also called an avocado (or avocado pear or alligator pear), is a large containing a single large seed. Avo ...

avocado
, as a drupe, others describe avocado fruit as a berry. One definition of ''berry'' requires the endocarp to be less than thick, other fruits with a stony endocarp being drupes. In marginal cases, terms such as ''drupaceous'' or ''drupe-like'' may be used. The term stone fruit (also stonefruit) can be a synonym for drupe or, more typically, it can mean just the fruit of the genus ''Prunus''. Freestone refers to a drupe having a stone which can be removed from the flesh with ease. The flesh is not attached to the stone and does not need to be cut to free the stone. Freestone varieties of fruits are preferred for uses that require careful removal of the stone, especially if removal will be done by hand. Freestone plums are preferred for making homegrown
prune A prune is a dried plum, most commonly from the European plum (''Prunus domestica''). Not all plum species or varieties can be dried into prunes. A prune is the firm-fleshed fruit (plum) of ''Prunus domestica'' varieties that have a high solu ...
s, and freestone
sour cherries ''Prunus cerasus'' (sour cherry, tart cherry, or dwarf cherry) is a species of '' Prunus'' in the subgenus '' Cerasus'' ( cherries), native to much of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Ge ...

sour cherries
are preferred for making pies and
cherry soup Sour cherry soup is a slightly sweet soup made with sour cream, sugar and whole fresh Prunus cerasus, sour cherries, and served chilled. Originating in Hungarian cuisine, this soup is a summer delicacy in several European cuisines. The dish has be ...

cherry soup
. Clingstone refers to a drupe having a stone which cannot be easily removed from the flesh. The flesh is attached strongly to the stone and must be cut to free the stone. Clingstone varieties of fruits in the genus ''Prunus'' are preferred as table fruit and for jams, because the flesh of clingstone fruits tends to be more tender and juicy throughout. Tryma is a specialized term for such
nut Nut often refers to: * Nut (fruit), a fruit composed of a hard shell and a seed * Nut (food), collective noun for dry and edible fruits or seeds * Nut (hardware), a fastener used with a bolt Nut or Nuts may also refer to: Places * Nomenclature of ...
-like drupes that are difficult to categorize. Hickory nuts ( ''Carya'') and
walnut A walnut is the Nut (fruit), nut of any tree of the genus ''Juglans'' (family Juglandaceae), particularly the Persian or English walnut, ''Juglans regia''. A walnut is the edible seed of a drupe, and thus not a true botanical nut. It is com ...

walnut
s (''
Juglans Walnut trees are any species of tree in the plant genus ''Juglans'', the type genus In biological taxonomy the type genus is the genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classificat ...
'') in the
Juglandaceae The Juglandaceae are a plant family known as the walnut family. They are trees, or sometimes shrubs, in the order Fagales. Members of this family are native to the Americas, Eurasia, and Southeast Asia. The nine or ten genera in the family have a ...
family grow within an outer husk; these fruits are technically drupes or drupaceous nuts, thus are not true botanical
nuts Nut often refers to: * Nut (fruit) A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible. In general usage and in a Culinary nut, culinary sense, a wide variety of dried seeds are called nuts, but in a botan ...
.W.P. Armstrong. 2008
''Identification Of Major Fruit Types''
/ref>


Ecology

Many drupes, with their sweet, fleshy outer layer, attract the attention of animals as a
food Food is any substance consumed to provide Nutrient, nutritional support for an organism. Food is usually of plant, animal or Fungus, fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, protein (nutrient), proteins, vi ...

food
, and the plant population benefits from the resulting dispersal of its seeds. The
endocarp Fruit anatomy is the plant anatomy Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the internal structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a ...
(pit or stone) is sometimes dropped after the fleshy part is eaten, but is often swallowed, passing through the
digestive tract The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract, digestive tract, alimentary canal) is the tract or passageway of the digestive system that leads from the mouth to the anus. The GI tract contains all the major organ (biology), organs of the digestive syst ...
, and returned to the soil in
feces Feces ( or faeces) is the solid or semi-solid remains of food that was not digested in the small intestine The small intestine or small bowel is an organ (anatomy), organ in the human gastrointestinal tract, gastrointestinal tract where mos ...

feces
with the seed inside unharmed. This passage through the digestive tract can reduce the thickness of the endocarp, thus can aid in germination rates. The process is known as
scarification Scarifying (also scarification modification) involves scratching, etching , who is believed to have been the first to apply the technique to printmaking. '', an etching by Rembrandt Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (, also , ; 15 July 1606&nb ...
.


Examples

Typical drupes include
apricots An apricot (, ) is a fruit, or the tree that bears the fruit, of several species in the genus ''Prunus'' (stone fruits). Usually, an apricot is from the species ''Prunus armeniaca, P. armeniaca'', but the fruits of the other species in ''Prunus' ...

apricots
,
olives The olive, botanical name ''Olea europaea'', meaning "European olive", is a species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemica ...

olives
,
loquat The loquat (''Eriobotrya japonica'') is a large evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who sp ...

loquat
,
peaches The peach (''Prunus persica'') is a deciduous In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term ''deciduous'' (; ) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usu ...

peaches
,
plums A plum is a fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds. Edible fruits, in ...

plums
,
cherries A cherry is the fruit In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds. Edible fru ...

cherries
,
mangoes A mango is an edible drupe, stone fruit produced by the tropical tree ''Mangifera indica'' which is believed to have originated from the region between northwestern Myanmar, Bangladesh, and northeastern India. ''M. indica'' has been cultivated ...

mangoes
,
pecans The pecan (''Carya illinoinensis'') is a species of hickory Hickory is a type of tree, comprising the genus ''Carya'', which includes around 18 species. Five or six species are native to China China, officially the People's Republic ...

pecans
, and amlas (Indian gooseberries). Other examples include sloe (''
Prunus spinosa ''Prunus spinosa'', called blackthorn or sloe, is a species of flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of Embryophyte, land plants, with 64 Order(biology), orders, ...

Prunus spinosa
'') and ivy (''
Hedera helix ''Hedera helix'', the common ivy, English ivy, European ivy, or just ivy, is a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversi ...

Hedera helix
''). The
coconut The coconut tree (''Cocos nucifera'') is a member of the palm tree family (biology), family (Arecaceae) and the only living species of the genus ''Cocos''. The term "coconut" (or the archaic "cocoanut") can refer to the whole coconut palm, t ...

coconut
is also a drupe, but the
mesocarp Fruit anatomy is the plant anatomy Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the internal structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a ...
is fibrous or dry (termed a ''husk''), so this type of fruit is classified as a simple dry, fibrous drupe. Unlike other drupes, the coconut seed is so large that it is unlikely to be dispersed by being swallowed by
fauna Fauna is all of the animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals Heterotroph, consume organic material, Cellular r ...
, but it can float extremely long distances—across oceans.
Bramble A bramble is any rough, tangled, prickly shrub, usually in the genus ''Rubus ''Rubus'' is a large and diverse genus of flowering plants in the rose family, Rosaceae, subfamily Rosoideae, with List of Rubus species, over 1,350 species. Rasp ...

Bramble
fruits such as the
blackberry The blackberry is an edible fruit produced by many species in the genus ''Rubus'' in the family (biology), family Rosaceae, hybrids among these species within the subgenus ''Rubus'', and hybrids between the subgenera ''Rubus'' and ''Idaeobatus'' ...

blackberry
and the
raspberry The raspberry is the edible fruit of a multitude of plant species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is o ...

raspberry
are aggregates of drupelets. The fruit of blackberries and raspberries comes from a single flower whose
pistil '' stigmas and style Gynoecium (, from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided in ...
is made up of a number of free carpels. However, , which closely resemble blackberries, are not aggregate fruit, but are
multiple fruit Multiple fruits, also called collective fruits, are fruiting bodies formed from a cluster of fruiting flowers A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms are the flowers of ston ...
s, actually derived from bunches of
catkin A catkin or ament is a slim, cylindrical flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Image:Cerisier du Japon Prunus serrulata.jpg, Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit fruit tre ...

catkin
s, each drupelet thus belonging to a different flower. Certain drupes occur in large clusters, as in the case of palm species, where a large array of drupes is found in a cluster. Examples of such large drupe clusters include , ''
Jubaea chilensis ''Jubaea'' is a genus of Arecaceae, palms with one species, ''Jubaea chilensis'' or ''Jubaea spectabilis'', commonly known in English as the "Chilean wine palm" or "Chile cocopalm", and "palma chilena" in Spanish. It is native to southwestern Sout ...
'' in central Chile and ''
Washingtonia filifera ''Washingtonia filifera'', also known as desert fan palm, California fan palm, or California palm, is a flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of Embryophyte, land p ...

Washingtonia filifera
'' in the
Sonoran Desert The Sonoran Desert ( es, Desierto de Sonora) is a North American desert and ecoregion An ecoregion (ecological region) or ecozone (ecological zone) is an and geographically defined area that is smaller than a , which in turn is smaller than ...

Sonoran Desert
of North America. Drupe-like "fruits" are also known in many
gymnosperm The gymnosperms ( lit. revealed seeds) are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers Conifers are a group of cone-bearing seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the division Pinophyta (), also ...
s like
cycad :''For the insect, see Cicada.'' Cycads are seed plants that typically have a stout and woody (ligneous) trunk (botany), trunk with a crown (botany), crown of large, hard, stiff, evergreen and (usually) pinnate leaves. The species are dioecious ...

cycad
s,
ginkgo ''Ginkgo'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circums ...

ginkgo
s and some
cypress Cypress is a common name for various conifer Conifers are a group of conifer cone, cone-bearing Spermatophyte, seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the phylum, division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta ( ...

cypress
es.


Gallery

Image:NIEdot325.jpg, Assorted drupes Image:Autumn Red peaches.jpg, The
peach The peach (''Prunus persica'') is a deciduous In the fields of horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists grow ...

peach
is a typical drupe (stone fruit) Image:Prunus - Elena.JPG, 'Elena', a freestone
prune plum The prune plum (''Prunus domestica'' subsp. ''domestica'') is a fruit-bearing tree, or its fruit. It is a subspecies of the plum ''Prunus domestica#Subspecies, Prunus domestica''. The drupe#Terminology, freestone fruit is similar to, but distinct ...
Image:Nectarine_stone.jpg, The pit of a
nectarine The peach (''Prunus persica'') is a deciduous tree native to the region of Northwest China Northwest China () is a statistical region of China which includes the autonomous regions of Xinjiang Xinjiang, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, ...

nectarine
Image:Black Pepper (Piper nigrum) fruits.jpg, Unripe drupes of
black pepper Black pepper (''Piper nigrum'') is a flowering A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offs ...

black pepper
Image:Black Butte blackberry.jpg, 'Black Butte' blackberry, a bramble fruit of aggregated drupelets Image:arecanut.jpg, A ripe
areca nut The areca nut ( or ) is the seed of the areca ''Areca'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil organisms as well as Vir ...

areca nut
File:Ginkgo biloba 007.jpg,
Ginkgo ''Ginkgo'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circums ...

Ginkgo
"fruits", often noted as drupe-like


See also

*
Pome In botany, a pome is a type of fruit produced by flowering plants in the subtribe Malinae of the family Rosaceae. Well-known pomes include the apple, pear, and quince. Etymology The word ''pome'' entered English in the late 14th century, and ref ...

Pome
(polypyrenous drupe)


References


External links


Identification Of Major Fruit Types


* {{Nuts Edible nuts and seeds Fruit morphology