HistoryIn the infancy of motion pictures, the cinematographer was usually also the Film director, director and the person physically handling the camera. As the art form and technology evolved, a separation between director and camera operator emerged. With the advent of artificial lighting and faster (more light-sensitive) s, in addition to technological advancements in optics, the technical aspects of cinematography necessitated a specialist in that area. Cinematography was key during the silent movie era; with no sound apart from background music and no dialogue, the films depended on lighting, acting, and set. The American Society of Cinematographers (ASC) was formed in 1919 in Hollywood, and was the first trade society of cinematographers. Similar societies were formed in other countries. Their aims include the recognition of the cinematographer's contribution to the art and science of motion picture making.
Societies and trade organizationsThere are a number of national associations of cinematographers that represent members (irrespective of their official titles) and are dedicated to the advancement of cinematography, including: *the American Society of Cinematographers (A.S.C.) *the Brazilian Cinematographers Society (A.B.C.) *the International Collective of Female Cinematographers, International Collective of Women Cinematographers (ICFC) *the Canadian Society of Cinematographers (C.S.C.) *the Finnish Society of Cinematographers (F.S.C.) *the Guild of British Camera Technicians (G.B.C.T.) *the British Society of Cinematographers (B.S.C.) *the Australian Cinematographers Society (A.C.S.) *the Cinematographers Guild of Korea (C.G.K.) *the Filipino Society of Cinematographers (F.S.C.) *the French Society of Cinematographers (A.F.C.) *the Italian Society of Cinematographers (A.I.C.) *the Indian cinematographers, Western India Cinematographers Association (W.I.C.A.) *the Indian cinematographers, Indian Society of Cinematographers (I.S.C.) *the German Society of Cinematographers (BVK) *the Malaysian Society of Cinematographers (MySC) *the Netherlands Society of Cinematographers (NSC) *the South African Society of Cinematographers (S.A.S.C.) *the Spanish Society of Cinematography Works (A.E.C) *th
Noted cinematographersThe Academy Award for Best Cinematography is an Academy Awards, Academy Award awarded each year to a cinematographer for work on one particular film, motion picture. A number of American cinematographers have become directors, including Reed Morano who lensed ''Frozen River'' and Beyonce's ''Lemonade (Beyoncé album), Lemonade'' before winning an Emmy for directing ''The Handmaid's Tale (TV series), The Handmaid's Tale''. Barry Sonnenfeld, originally the Coen brothers' DP; Jan de Bont, cinematographer on films such as ''Die Hard'' and ''Basic Instinct'', directed ''Speed (1994 film), Speed'' and ''Twister (1996 film), Twister''. Nicolas Roeg, cinematographer on films such as ''The Caretaker (film), The Caretaker'' (1963) and ''The Masque of the Red Death (1964 film), The Masque of the Red Death'' (1964), directed ''Don't Look Now'' (1973) and ''The Man Who Fell to Earth'' (1976). Ellen Kuras, Ellen Kuras, ASC photographed ''Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, Eternal Sunshine of The Spotless Mind'' as well as a number of Spike Lee films such as ''Summer of Sam'' and ''He Got Game'' before directing episodes of ''Legion'' and ''Ozark.'' In 2014, Wally Pfister, cinematographer on Christopher Nolan's Batman in film#Christopher Nolan, three ''Batman'' films, made his directorial debut with ''Transcendence (2014 film), Transcendence,'' whilst British cinematographers Jack Cardiff and Freddie Francis regularly moved between the two positions.
See also*3D film *Camerimage *Cinematography *Cinematography Mailing List, a communication forum for cinematographers *Filmmaking *Glossary of motion picture terms *Indian cinematographers *List of film director and cinematographer collaborations *List of film formats *List of film-related topics, List of motion picture-related topics