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The denarius (, dēnāriī ) was the standard
Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epistle to the Romans'', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in ...
silver coin from its introduction in the
Second Punic War The Second Punic War (218–201 BC) was the second of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the 3rd century BC. For seventeen years, the two states struggled for supremacy, primarily in ...
to the reign of
Gordian III Gordian III ( la, Marcus Antonius Gordianus; 20 January 225 – 11 February 244 AD) was Roman emperor from AD 238 to 244. At the age of 13, he became the youngest sole Roman emperor. Gordian was the son of Antonia Gordiana and Junius Balbus who die ...
(AD 238–244), when it was gradually replaced by the
Antoninianus (silver 218–222 AD), Trajan Decius (silver 249–251 AD), Gallienus (billon 253–268 AD Asian mint) ''Row 2'': Gallienus (copper 253–268 AD), Aurelian (silvered 270–275 AD), barbarous radiate (copper), barbarous radi ...
. It continued to be minted in very small quantities, likely for ceremonial purposes, until and through the
tetrarchy The Tetrarchy is the term adopted to describe the system of government of the ancient Roman Empire instituted by Roman Emperor Diocletian in 293, marking the end of the Crisis of the Third Century and the recovery of the Roman Empire. The gov ...
(293–313). The word ''dēnārius'' is derived from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language ...
''dēnī'' "containing ten", as its value was originally of 10 assēs.Its value was increased to 16 assēs in the middle of the 2nd century BC. The word for "money" descends from it in Italian (''denaro''), Slovene (''denar''), Portuguese (''dinheiro''), and Spanish (''dinero''). Its name also survives in the
dinar The dinar () is the principal currency unit in several countries near the Mediterranean Sea, and its historical use is even more widespread. The modern dinar's historical antecedents are the gold dinar, the main coin of the medieval Islamic emp ...

dinar
currency. Its symbol is represented in
Unicode Unicode is an information technology standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems. The standard is maintained by the Unicode Consortium, and , it has a total of (th ...
as 𐆖 (U+10196), however it can also be represented as X̶ (capital letter X with combining long stroke overlay).


History

A predecessor of the ''denarius'' was first struck in 269 or 268 BC, five years before the
First Punic War The First Punic War (264–241 BC) was the first of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the early 3rd century BC. For 23 years, in the longest continuous conflict and greatest naval war ...
, with an average weight of 6.81 
gram The gram (alternative spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) is a metric system unit of mass. Originally defined as "the absolute weight of a volume of pure water equal to the cube of the hundredth part of a metre cm3], and at the temperature ...
s, or of a
Roman pound The ancient Roman units of measurement were primarily founded on the Hellenic system, which in turn were influenced by the Egyptian system and the Mesopotamian system. The Roman units were comparatively consistent and well documented. Length The ...
. Contact with the Greeks had prompted a need for silver coinage in addition to the bronze currency that the Romans were using at that time. This predecessor of the ''denarius'' was a Greek-styled silver coin of ''didrachm'' weight, which was struck in Neapolis and other Greek cities in southern Italy. These coins were inscribed with a legend that indicated that they were struck for Rome, but in style they closely resembled their Greek counterparts. They were rarely seen at Rome, to judge from finds and hoards, and were probably used either to buy supplies or pay soldiers. The first distinctively Roman silver coin appeared around 226 BC. Classical historians have sometimes called these coins ''heavy denarii'', but they are classified by modern numismatists as ''quadrigati'', a term which survives in one or two ancient texts and is derived from the quadriga, or four-horse chariot, on the reverse,. This, with a two-horse chariot or ''biga'' which was used as a reverse type for some early denarii, was the prototype for the most common designs used on Roman silver coins for a number of years. Rome overhauled its coinage shortly before 211 BC, and introduced the denarius alongside a short-lived denomination called the
victoriatus The victoriatus was a silver coin issued during the Roman Republic from about 221 BC to 170 BC. The obverse of the coin featured the bust of Jupiter and the reverse featured Victory placing a wreath upon a trophy with the inscription "ROMA" in ...
. The denarius contained an average 4.5 grams, or of a Roman pound, of silver, and was at first tariffed at ten asses, hence its name, which means 'tenner'. It formed the backbone of Roman currency throughout the
Roman republic#REDIRECT Roman Republic#REDIRECT Roman Republic {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
and the early empire. The denarius began to undergo slow debasement toward the end of the republican period. Under the rule of
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor, reigning from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. His status as the founder of the Roman Principate (the first phase of the Roman Empire) has consolidated ...

Augustus
(27 BC to AD 14) its weight fell to 3.9 grams (a theoretical weight of of a Roman pound). It remained at nearly this weight until the time of
Nero Nero ( ; Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68 AD) was the fifth Roman emperor, ruling from 54 to 68. His infamous reign is usually associated with tyranny, extravagance, and debauchery.Kragelund, Patrick. 2000. ...
(AD 37–68), when it was reduced to of a pound, or 3.4 grams. Debasement of the coin's silver content continued after Nero. Later Roman emperors also reduced its weight to 3 grams around the late 3rd century. The value at its introduction was 10 asses, giving the denarius its name, which translates as "containing ten". In about 141 BC, it was re-tariffed at 16 asses, to reflect the decrease in weight of the
as As, AS, A/S or similar may refer to: Art, entertainment, and media * "As" (song), a song by Stevie Wonder * , a Spanish sports newspaper * , academic male voice choir of Helsinki, Finland * Adult Swim, a programming block on Cartoon Network. Bus ...
. The denarius continued to be the main coin of the
Roman Empire#REDIRECT Roman Empire#REDIRECT Roman Empire {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...

Roman Empire until it was replaced by the so-called
antoninianus (silver 218–222 AD), Trajan Decius (silver 249–251 AD), Gallienus (billon 253–268 AD Asian mint) ''Row 2'': Gallienus (copper 253–268 AD), Aurelian (silvered 270–275 AD), barbarous radiate (copper), barbarous radi ...
in the early 3rd century AD. The coin was last issued, in bronze, under
Aurelian Aurelian ( la, Lucius Domitius Aurelianus; 9 September 214c. October 275) was Roman emperor from 270 to 275. As emperor, he won an unprecedented series of military victories which reunited the Roman Empire after it had practically disintegrated u ...

Aurelian
between AD 270 and 275, and in the first years of the reign of
Diocletian Diocletian (; la, Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus; Greek: Διοκλητιανός; born Diocles; 22 December c. 244 – 3 December 311) was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305. Born to a family of low status in Dalmatia, Diocletian rose through ...
. ('Denarius', in ''A Dictionary of Ancient Roman Coins'', by John R. Melville-Jones (1990)).


Debasement and evolution


Value, Comparisons and silver content

1
gold Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au (from la, aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally. In a pure form, it is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable, and ...
aureus The ''aureus'' ( ''aurei'', 'golden', used as a noun) was a gold coin of ancient Rome originally valued at 25 pure silver ''denarii''. The ''aureus'' was regularly issued from the 1st century BC to the beginning of the 4th century AD, when it was ...
= 2 gold quinarii = 25 silver denarii = 50
silver Silver is a chemical element with the symbol Ag (from the Latin ', derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical cond ...
quinarii = 100
bronze Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12–12.5% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or ...
sestertii The sestertius (plural sestertii), or sesterce (plural sesterces), was an ancient Roman coin. During the Roman Republic it was a small, silver coin issued only on rare occasions. During the Roman Empire it was a large brass coin. The name ''seste ...
= 200 bronze dupondii = 400
copper Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from la, cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a pinkish-orang ...

copper
asses = 800 copper
semis 200px The semis, literally meaning half, was a small Roman bronze coin that was valued at half an as. During the Roman Republic, the semis was distinguished by an 'S' (indicating semis) or 6 dots (indicating a theoretical weight of 6 uncia). Some ...
ses = 1,600 copper quadrantes It is difficult to give even rough comparative values for money from before the 20th century, as the range of products and services available for purchase was so different. During the republic (509 BC–27 BC), a legionnaire earned 112.5 denarii per year (0.3 denarii per day) Under
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general and statesman who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus and Po ...

Julius Caesar
, this was doubled to 225 denarii/yr, with soldiers having to pay for their own food and arms, while in the reign of Augustus a
Centurion A centurion (; la, centurio , . la, centuriones, label=none; grc-gre, κεντυρίων, kentyríōn, or ) was a position in the Roman army during Classical Antiquity, nominally the commander of a century (), a military unit of around 80 legionar ...
received at least 3,750 denarii per year, and for the highest rank, 15,000 denarii.. By the late
Roman Republic#REDIRECT Roman Republic#REDIRECT Roman Republic {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
and early
Roman Empire#REDIRECT Roman Empire#REDIRECT Roman Empire {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...

Roman Empire (), a common soldier or unskilled laborer would be paid 1 denarius/day (with no tax deductions), around 300% inflation compared to the early period. Using the cost of bread as a baseline, this pay equates to around US$20 in 2013 terms. Expressed in terms of the price of silver, and assuming 0.999 purity, a
troy ounce 1 troy ounce (1.097 avoirdupois ounces, 31.1 g) coin example (Platinum Eagle) A Good Delivery silver bar weighing Troy weight is a system of units of mass that originated in 15th-century England, and is primarily used in the precious metals indu ...
denarius had a precious metal value of around US$2.60 in 2021. At the height of the
Roman Empire#REDIRECT Roman Empire#REDIRECT Roman Empire {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...

Roman Empire a
sextarius The ancient Roman units of measurement were primarily founded on the Hellenic system, which in turn were influenced by the Egyptian system and the Mesopotamian system. The Roman units were comparatively consistent and well documented. Length The ...
(546ml or about 2 1/4 cups) of ordinary wine cost roughly one
Dupondius The dupondius (Latin ''two-pounder'') was a brass coin used during the Roman Republic and Roman Empire valued at 2 asses (4/5 of a sestertius or 1/5 of a denarius during the Republic and 1/2 of a sestertius or 1/8 of a denarius during the time of A ...
(⅛ of a Denarius), after Diocletian's
Edict on Maximum Prices , Berlin Image:Prices edict.jpg, upOne of four pieces of the edict (in Greek) re-used in the door frame of the medieval church of St. John Chrysostomos in Geronthres, Geraki The Edict on Maximum Prices (Latin: ''Edictum de Pretiis Rerum Venalium ...
were issued in 301 AD, the same item cost 8 debased common denarii – 6,400% inflation. Silver content plummeted across the lifespan of the denarius. Under the Roman Empire (after
Nero Nero ( ; Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68 AD) was the fifth Roman emperor, ruling from 54 to 68. His infamous reign is usually associated with tyranny, extravagance, and debauchery.Kragelund, Patrick. 2000. ...
) the denarius contained approximately 50
grains A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption. A grain crop is a grain-producing plant. The two main types of commercial grain crops are cereals and legumes. After b ...
, 3.24 grams, or (0.105ozt)
troy ounce 1 troy ounce (1.097 avoirdupois ounces, 31.1 g) coin example (Platinum Eagle) A Good Delivery silver bar weighing Troy weight is a system of units of mass that originated in 15th-century England, and is primarily used in the precious metals indu ...
. The fineness of the silver content varied with political and economic circumstances. From a purity of greater than 90% silver in the 1st century AD, the denarius fell to under 60% purity by AD 200, and plummeted to 5% purity by AD 300. By the reign of
Gallienus Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus (; c. 218 – September 268) was Roman emperor with his father Valerian from 253 to 260 and alone from 260 to 268. He ruled during the Crisis of the Third Century that nearly caused the collapse of the empire. W ...
, the ''antoninianus'' was a copper coin with a thin silver wash.


Influence

In the final years of the 1st century BC
Tincomarus Tincomarus (a dithematic name form typical of insular and continental Celtic onomastics, analysable as ''tinco-'', perhaps a sort of fish f Latin ''tinca'', English ''tench''+ ''maro-'', "big") was a king of the Iron Age Belgic tribe of the Atrebat ...
, a local ruler in southern Britain, started issuing coins that appear to have been made from melted down ''denarii''. The coins of
Eppillus Eppillus (Celtic: "little horse") was the name of a Roman client king of the Atrebates tribe of the British Iron Age. He appears to have ruled part of the territory that had previously been held by Commius, the Gaulish former ally of Julius Caesar ...
, issued around
Calleva Atrebatum Calleva Atrebatum ("Calleva of the Atrebates") was originally an Iron Age settlement, capital of the Atrebates tribe, and subsequently a town in the Roman province of Britannia. Its ruins lie to the west of, and partly beneath, the Church of St Mar ...
around the same time, appear to have derived design elements from various ''denarii'' such as those of
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor, reigning from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. His status as the founder of the Roman Principate (the first phase of the Roman Empire) has consolidated ...

Augustus
and M. Volteius. Even after the ''denarius'' was no longer regularly issued, it continued to be used as a unit of account, and the name was applied to later Roman coins in a way that is not understood. The
Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: ) are an ethnic group mainly inhabiting the Arab world. In modern usage the term refers to th ...
s who conquered large parts of the land that once belonged to the Eastern Roman Empire issued their own
gold dinar The gold dinar ( ar, ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭ ذهبي) is an Islamic medieval gold coin first issued in AH 77 (696–697 CE) by Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan. The weight of the dinar is 1 mithqal (4.25 grams). The word ''dinar'' comes from t ...
. The lasting legacy of the ''denarius'' can be seen in the use of "d" as the abbreviation for the British
penny A penny is a coin ( pennies) or a unit of currency (pl. pence) in various countries. Borrowed from the Carolingian denarius (hence its former abbreviation d.), it is usually the smallest denomination within a currency system. Presently, it is the ...
until 1971. It also survived in
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of Fr ...
as the name of a coin, the
denier Denier may refer to: * the French form of ''denarius'' (penny) ** French denier (penny), a type of medieval coin ** Denier (unit), a unit of linear mass density of fibers ** ''Denier'', also ''Denyer'', a French and English surname (probably a me ...
. The denarius also survives in the common Arabic name for a currency unit, the ''
dinar The dinar () is the principal currency unit in several countries near the Mediterranean Sea, and its historical use is even more widespread. The modern dinar's historical antecedents are the gold dinar, the main coin of the medieval Islamic emp ...

dinar
'' used from pre-Islamic times, and still used in several modern Arab nations. The major currency unit in former
Principality of Serbia The Principality of Serbia ( sr, Кнежевина Србија, Kneževina Srbija) was a semi-independent state in the Balkans that came into existence as a result of the Serbian Revolution, which lasted between 1804 and 1817. Its creation was neg ...
,
Kingdom of Serbia The Kingdom of Serbia ( sr, Краљевина Србија, Kraljevina Srbija) was a country located in the Balkans which was created when the ruler of the Principality of Serbia, Milan I was proclaimed king in 1882. Since 1817, the Principality ...
and former
Yugoslavia Yugoslavia (; sh, Jugoslavija / ; sl, Jugoslavija ; mk, Југославија ;; rup, Iugoslavia; hu, Jugoszlávia; Pannonian Rusyn: , transcr. ; sk, Juhoslávia; ro, Iugoslavia; cs, Jugoslávie; it, Iugoslavia ; tr, Yugoslavya; bg, Юго ...
was ''
dinar The dinar () is the principal currency unit in several countries near the Mediterranean Sea, and its historical use is even more widespread. The modern dinar's historical antecedents are the gold dinar, the main coin of the medieval Islamic emp ...

dinar
'', and it is still used in present-day
Serbia Serbia (, ; sr, Србија, Srbija, ),, * cs, Srbsko, * ro, Serbia * rue, Сербия *german: Serbien *french: Serbie * uk, Сербія * hu, Szerbia * bg, Сърбия * sq, Serbia * bs, Srbija * officially the Republic of Serbia,, is a cou ...
. The Macedonian currency ''
denar The dinar () is the principal currency unit in several countries near the Mediterranean Sea, and its historical use is even more widespread. The modern dinar's historical antecedents are the gold dinar, the main coin of the medieval Islamic emp ...
'' is also derived from the Roman denarius. The
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...
word ''denaro'', the
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...
word ''dinero'', the
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...
word ''dinheiro'', and the Slovene word ', all meaning money, are also derived from Latin ''denarius''. The pre-decimal currency of the United Kingdom until 1970 of pounds, shillings and pence was abbreviated as
lsd Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known colloquially as acid, is a hallucinogenic drug. Effects typically include altered thoughts, feelings, and awareness of one's surroundings. Many users have visual or auditory hallucinations. Dilated ...
, with "d" referring to denarius and standing for penny.


Use in the Bible

In the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus, as well as events in first-century Christianit ...
, the gospels refer to the denarius as a day's wage for a common laborer (
Matthew Matthew may refer to: * Matthew (given name) * Mazzhew surname) * ''Matthew'' (ship), the replica of the ship sailed by John Cabot in 1497 * ''Matthew'' (album), a 2000 album by rapper Kool Keith * Matthew (elm cultivar), a cultivar of the Chinese ...
20:2,
John John is a common English name and surname: * John (given name) * John (surname), including a list of people who have the name John John may also refer to: New Testament Works *Johannine literature ** Gospel of John, a title often shortened to ...
12:5). In the
Book of Revelation The Book of Revelation (also called the Apocalypse of John, Revelation to John or Revelation from Jesus Christ) is the final book of the New Testament, and consequently is also the final book of the Christian Bible. Its title is derived from ...
, during the Third Seal: Black Horse, a choinix ("quart") of wheat and three quarts of barley were each valued at one denarius. Bible scholar Robert H. Mounce says the price of the wheat and barley as described in the vision appears to be ten to twelve times their normal cost in ancient times.The New International Commentary on the New Testament, "The Book of Revelation," p. 155) Revelation thus describes a condition where basic goods are sold at greatly inflated prices. Thus, the black horse rider depicts times of deep scarcity or famine, but not of starvation. Apparently, a choinix of wheat was the daily ration of one adult. Thus, in the conditions pictured by
Revelation 6 Revelation 6 is the sixth chapter of the Book of Revelation or the Apocalypse of John in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. The book is traditionally attributed to John the Apostle, but the precise identity of the author remains a point of ac ...
, the normal income for a working-class family would buy enough food for only one person. The less costly barley would feed three people for one day's wages. The denarius is also mentioned in the
Parable of the Good Samaritan#REDIRECT Parable of the Good Samaritan#REDIRECT Parable of the Good Samaritan {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
(
Luke People *Luke (name), a masculine given name and a surname (including a list of people and characters with the name) *Luke the Evangelist, the companion of Paul, often called Saint Luke or Luke of Antioch *Luke, a stage name for the American rapper ...
10:25–37). The
Render unto Caesar "Render unto Caesar" is the beginning of a phrase attributed to Jesus in the synoptic gospels, which reads in full, "Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and unto God the things that are God's" (). This phrase has become a widely quo ...
passage in Matthew 22:15–22 and Mark 12:13–17 uses the word (δηνάριον) to describe the coin held up by Jesus, translated in the King James Bible as "
tribute penny#REDIRECT Tribute penny {{R from other capitalisation ...
". It is commonly thought to be a denarius with the head of Tiberius.


See also

*
Denarius of L. Censorinus300px, Denarius minted at Rome in 82 BC by L. Censorinus, with the head of Apollo and the figure of Marsyas holding a wineskin In 82 BC, a denarius was minted by Lucius Marcius Censorinus picturing Apollo and Marsyas the satyr. The coin has attracted ...
, for the detailed description of a specific Roman denarius *
Dupondius The dupondius (Latin ''two-pounder'') was a brass coin used during the Roman Republic and Roman Empire valued at 2 asses (4/5 of a sestertius or 1/5 of a denarius during the Republic and 1/2 of a sestertius or 1/8 of a denarius during the time of A ...
*
French denierDenier of Charlemagne. AD 768–814. 21mm, 1.19 g, Toulouse mint. The denier ( la, denarius; . d.) or penny was a medieval coin which takes its name from the Frankish coin first issued in the late seventh century; in English it is sometimes ref ...
*
Gold Dinar The gold dinar ( ar, ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭ ذهبي) is an Islamic medieval gold coin first issued in AH 77 (696–697 CE) by Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan. The weight of the dinar is 1 mithqal (4.25 grams). The word ''dinar'' comes from t ...
*
Macedonian denar The Macedonian denar ( mk, денар; paucal: denari / денари; sign: den, code: MKD) is the currency of North Macedonia. It is subdivided into one hundred deni (), which is no longer in use since 2013. History The first denar from the Republ ...
*
Sestertius The sestertius (plural sestertii), or sesterce (plural sesterces), was an ancient Roman coin. During the Roman Republic it was a small, silver coin issued only on rare occasions. During the Roman Empire it was a large brass coin. The name ''seste ...
*
Solidus (coin) The solidus (Latin 'solid';  solidi), nomisma ( grc-gre, νόμισμα, ''nómisma'',  'coin'), or bezant was originally a relatively pure gold coin issued in the Late Roman Empire. Under Constantine, who introduced it on a wide scale, ...
*
Tribute penny#REDIRECT Tribute penny {{R from other capitalisation ...


Notes


References


External links


Denarius
* ttp://coins.about.com/od/coinsglossary/g/denarius_define.htm Denarius – A Roman soldier's daily pay {{Authority control Coins of ancient Rome Coins in the Bible New Testament Latin words and phrases
Numismatics Numismatics is the study or collection of money, coins, medals, tokens, exonumia and banknotes. Cultural history Collecting History of money Money {{CatAutoTOC ...
Silver coins