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In
linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo ...

linguistics
, declension is the changing of the form of a
word In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most lang ...

word
, generally to express its syntactic function in the sentence, by way of some
inflection In linguistic morphology Morphology, from the Greek and meaning "study of shape", may refer to: Disciplines * Morphology (archaeology), study of the shapes or forms of artifacts * Morphology (astronomy), study of the shape of astronomical ob ...
. The inflectional change of verbs is called
conjugation Conjugation or conjugate may refer to: Linguistics * Grammatical conjugation, the modification of a verb from its basic form * Emotive conjugation or Russell's conjugation, the use of loaded language Mathematics * Complex conjugation, the change ...
. Declensions may apply to
noun A noun () is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), meaning. In many l ...

noun
s,
pronoun In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languag ...

pronoun
s,
adjective In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langu ...
s,
adverb An adverb is a word or an expression that modifies a verb A verb () is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (''bring'', ''read'', ''walk'', ''run'', ''learn''), an occurrence (''happen'', ''become''), or a state of being ...

adverb
s, and articles to indicate
number A number is a mathematical object A mathematical object is an abstract concept arising in mathematics. In the usual language of mathematics, an ''object'' is anything that has been (or could be) formally defined, and with which one may do deduct ...
(e.g., singular, dual, plural),
case Case or CASE may refer to: Containers * Case (goods), a package of related merchandise * Case, the metallic enclosure component in modern firearm cartridge (firearms), cartridges * Bookcase, a piece of furniture used to store books * Briefcase or ...
(e.g.,
nominative case In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as wel ...
,
accusative case The accusative case (abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the word or phras ...
,
genitive case In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as ...
,
dative case In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as ...
),
gender Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between femininity Femininity (also called womanliness or girlishness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with women A woman is ...
(e.g., masculine, neuter, feminine), and a number of other
grammatical categories A grammatical category or grammatical feature is a property of items within the grammar of a language. Within each category there are two or more possible values (sometimes called grammemes), which are normally mutually exclusive. Frequently encou ...
. Declension occurs in many of the world's languages. Declension is an important aspect of language families like
Quechuan Quechua (, ; ), usually called ("people's language") in Quechuan languages, is an Indigenous languages of the Americas, indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Peruvian Andes. Derived from a common an ...
(native to the
Andes The Andes, Andes Mountains or Andean Mountains ( es, Cordillera de los Andes) are the List of mountain ranges#Mountain ranges by length, longest continental mountain range in the world, forming a continuous highland along the western edge of Sou ...

Andes
),
Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family A language family is a group of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation ...
(e.g.,
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
, Lithuanian, Latvian,
Slavic
Slavic
,
Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor langua ...

Sanskrit
,
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
,
Ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – 3.0
"History"
from ...
,
Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , 'discourse', from , 'through' ...
and
Kurdish
Kurdish
),
Bantu Bantu may refer to: *Bantu languages, constitute the largest sub-branch of the Niger–Congo languages *Bantu peoples, over 400 peoples of Africa speaking a Bantu language *Afro-textured hair#Styling, Bantu knots, a type of African hairstyle *Blac ...
(e.g.,
Zulu Zulu may refer to: Zulu people * Zulu Kingdom or Zulu Empire, a former monarchy in what is now South Africa * Zulu language, a Bantu language spoken in southern Africa * Zulu people, an ethnic group of southern Africa Arts, entertainment, and med ...
,
KikuyuKikuyu or Gikuyu (Gĩkũyũ) may refer to: *Kikuyu people *Kikuyu language *Kikuyu, Kenya, a town in the Central Province *Kikuyu Central Association, a political organisation *Kikuyu Constituency, an electoral division in Kenya *Kikuyu grass, ''Pen ...
),
Semitic Semitic most commonly refers to the Semitic languages, a name used since the 1770s to refer to the language family currently present in West Asia, North and East Africa, and Malta. Semitic may also refer to: Religions * Abrahamic religions ** ...

Semitic
(e.g.,
Modern Standard Arabic Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) or Modern Written Arabic (shortened to MWA), terms used mostly by Western linguists, is the variety of standardized Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical stand ...
),
Finno-Ugric Finno-Ugric ( or ; ''Fenno-Ugric'') or Finno-Ugrian (''Fenno-Ugrian''), is a traditional grouping of all languages in the Uralic language family except the Samoyedic languages. Its formerly commonly accepted status as a subfamily of Uralic is ba ...

Finno-Ugric
(e.g.,
HungarianHungarian may refer to: * Hungary, a country in Central Europe * Kingdom of Hungary, state of Hungary, existing between 1000 and 1946 * Hungarians, ethnic groups in Hungary * Hungarian algorithm, a polynomial time algorithm for solving the assignmen ...
,
Finnish Finnish may refer to: * Something or someone from, or related to Finland * Finnish culture * Finnish people or Finns, the primary ethnic group in Finland * Finnish language, the national language of the Finnish people * Finnish cuisine See also

...
,
Estonian Estonian may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Estonia, a country in the Baltic region in northern Europe *Estonians, people from Estonia, or of Estonian descent *Estonian language *Estonian cuisine *Estonian culture See also

* * La ...
), and
Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambiguation) ** Turkish language, the most widely spoken Turkic language * T ...

Turkic
(e.g.,
Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offi ...

Turkish
).
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
was an inflectional language, but largely abandoned inflectional changes as it evolved into
Modern English Modern English (sometimes New English or NE (ME) as opposed to Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conquest of England, Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th cen ...

Modern English
. Though traditionally classified as
syntheticA synthetic is an artificial material produced by organic chemistry, organic chemical synthesis. Synthetic may also refer to: In the sense of both "combination" and "artificial" * Synthetic chemical or synthetic compress, produced by the process ...
, Modern English has moved towards an
analytic language In linguistic typology Linguistic typology (or language typology) is a field of linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods fo ...
.


Examples

Many languages use suffixes to specify subjects and objects and word cases in general.
Inflected languages Fusional languages or inflected languages are a type of synthetic language A synthetic language uses inflection In linguistic morphology, inflection (or inflexion) is a process of word formation, in which a word is modified to express dif ...
have a freer word order, unlike modern English that is an
analytic language In linguistic typology Linguistic typology (or language typology) is a field of linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods fo ...
in which word order identifies the subject and object. "The dog chased the cat" has different meaning than "The cat chased the dog", even though both sentences consist of the same words. Suppose English were a language with more complex declension, in which cases were formed by adding suffixes -no (for nominative singular), -ge (genitive), -da (dative), -ac (accusative), -lo (locative), -in (instrumental), -vo (vocative), -ab (ablative), and so on. The sentence "The dog chased the cat" would appear as "The dog chased the cat". Sentences like "The cat chased the dog" or "Chased the cat the dog" would be possible and would have the same meaning. The sentence * Mom, this little boy's dog was chasing a cat down our street! becomes meaningless if the words are rearranged and no cases are used at all, * Mom, a cat was down our street chasing dog this little boy! If English were a highly inflected language, like Latin or some Slavic languages, both sentences would mean the same. They would contain five nouns in five different cases: (hey!) ''mom'' – vocative, (who?) ''dog'' – nominative, (of who?) ''boy'' – genitive, (whom?) ''cat'' – accusative, (in/at) ''street'' – locative; the adjective ''little'' would be in the same case as the corresponding noun ''boy'', and the case of ''our'' would agree with the case of ''street''. Using the case suffixes invented for this example, the original sentence would read * Mom, this little boy dog was chasing a cat down our street! Borrowing further from one of the inflected languages, the sentence rearranged in the following ways would mean exactly the same, with different levels of expressiveness: * Mom, a cat was down our street chasing dog this little boy! * Down street our cat was chasing this little boy dog, mom! The instrumental form of "down our street" could be another possibility: * Mom, this little boy dog our street was chasing a cat! * A cat was, mom, our street chasing dog this little boy! * Our street cat was chasing dog this little boy, mom! Many other word orders preserving the original meaning are possible in an inflected language, but very few to none in modern English. When read without the case suffixes, most sentences above become confusing. The examples listed here are relatively simple. Inflected languages have a far more complicated set of declensions, where the suffixes (or prefixes or infixes) change depending on the gender of the noun, the quantity of the noun, and other possible factors. Many of these languages lack articles. There may also be irregular nouns where the declensions are unique for each word. In inflected languages, other kinds of words such as
numerals A numeral is a figure, symbol, or group of figures or symbols denoting a number. It may refer to: * Numeral system used in mathematics * Numeral (linguistics), a part of speech denoting numbers (e.g. ''one'' and ''first'' in English) * Numerical di ...
,
demonstratives Demonstratives ( abbreviated ) are word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), mean ...
, adjectives, and articles are also declined.


History

It is agreed that
Ancient Greeks Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of Classical Antiquity, antiquity ( AD 600). This era was ...
had a "vague" idea of the forms of a noun in their language. A fragment of
Anacreon Anacreon (; grc-gre, wikt:Ἀνακρέων, Ἀνακρέων ὁ Τήϊος; BC) was a Greece, Greek lyric poetry, lyric poet, notable for his drinking songs and erotic poems. Later Greeks included him in the canonical list of Nine Lyric Po ...

Anacreon
seems to confirm this idea. Nevertheless, it cannot be concluded that the Ancient Greeks actually knew what the cases were. The
Stoics Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophyHellenistic philosophy is the period of Western philosophy Western philosophy refers to the philosophy, philosophical thought and work of the Western world. Historically, the term refers to the ph ...
developed many basic notions that today are the rudiments of
linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo ...

linguistics
. The idea of grammatical cases is also traced back to the Stoics, but it's still not completely clear what the Stoics exactly meant with their notion of cases.


Modern English

In
Modern English Modern English (sometimes New English or NE (ME) as opposed to Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conquest of England, Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th cen ...

Modern English
, the system of declensions is so simple compared to some other languages that the term ''declension'' is rarely used. Most nouns in English have distinct singular and plural forms and have distinct plain and
possessive A possessive or ktetic form (abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the wor ...
forms. Plurality is most commonly shown by the
affix In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the met ...
''-s'' (or ''-es''), whereas possession is always shown by the
clitic In morphology and syntax In linguistics, syntax () is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of Sentence (linguistics), sentences (sentence structure) in a given Natural language, language, usually including word ...
''-'s'' (or by just the apostrophe for most plural forms ending in ''s'') attached to the noun. Consider, for example, the forms of the noun ''girl'': Most speakers pronounce all of the forms other than the singular plain form (''girl'') exactly the same (though the elided possessive-indicating ''s'' of the plural possessive may be realised as in some speakers' pronunciations, being separated from the plural-indicating ''s'' normally by a central vowel such as ̞. By contrast, a few nouns are slightly more complex in their forms. For example: In that example, all four forms are pronounced distinctly. There can be other derivations from nouns that are not usually considered declensions. For example, the proper noun ''Britain'' has the associated descriptive adjective ''British'' and the
demonym A demonym (; from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ...
''Briton''. Though these words are clearly related and are generally considered cognates, they are not specifically treated as forms of the same word and thus not declensions. Pronouns in English have even more complex declensions. For example: Whereas nouns do not distinguish between the subjective (nominative) and objective (oblique) cases, some pronouns do; that is, they decline to reflect their relationship to a
verb A verb () is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (''bring'', ''read'', ''walk'', ''run'', ''learn''), an occurrence (''happen'', ''become''), or a state of being (''be'', ''exist'', ''stand''). In the usual description of E ...
or
preposition Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a used to express spatial or temporal relations (''in'', ''under'', ''towards'', ''before'') or mark various (''of'', ''for''). A pre ...
, or
case Case or CASE may refer to: Containers * Case (goods), a package of related merchandise * Case, the metallic enclosure component in modern firearm cartridge (firearms), cartridges * Bookcase, a piece of furniture used to store books * Briefcase or ...
. Consider the difference between ''he'' (subjective) and ''him'' (objective), as in "He saw it" and "It saw him"; similarly, consider ''
who The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations and each other through the co-ordinating machinery of the Unite ...
'', which is subjective, and the objective ''whom'' (although it is increasingly common to use ''who'' for both). The one situation where gender is still clearly part of the English language is in the pronouns for the third person singular. Consider the following: The distinguishing of neuter for persons and non-persons is peculiar to English. This has existed since the 14th century. However, the use of the so-called ''
singular they Singular ''they'' is the use in English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eve ...
'' is often restricted to specific contexts, depending on the dialect or the speaker. It is most typically used to refer to a single person of unknown gender (e.g., "someone left their jacket behind") or a hypothetical person where gender is insignificant (e.g., "If someone wants to, then they should"). Its use has expanded in recent years due to increasing social recognition of persons who do not identify themselves as male or female. (see gender-nonbinary) Note that the ''singular they'' still uses plural verb forms, reflecting its origins. For nouns, in general, gender is not declined in Modern English, or at best one could argue there are isolated situations certain nouns may be modified to reflect gender, though not in a systematic fashion. Loan words from other languages, particularly Latin and the Romance languages, often preserve their gender-specific forms in English, e.g. ''alumnus'' (masculine singular) and ''alumna'' (feminine singular). Similarly, names borrowed from other languages show comparable distinctions: ''Andrew'' and ''Andrea'', ''Paul'' and ''Paula'', etc. Additionally, suffixes such as ''-ess'', ''-ette'', and ''-er'' are sometimes applied to create overtly gendered versions of nouns, with marking for feminine being much more common than marking for masculine. Many nouns can actually function as members of two genders or even all three, and the gender classes of English nouns are usually determined by their agreement with pronouns, rather than marking on the nouns themselves. Most adjectives are not declined. However, when used as nouns rather than adjectives, they do decline (e.g., "I'll take the reds", meaning "I'll take the red ones" or as shorthand for "I'll take the red wines"). Also, the demonstrative determiners ''this'' and ''that'' are declined for number, as ''these'' and ''those''. Some adjectives borrowed from other languages are, or can be, declined for gender, at least in writing: ''blond'' (male) and ''blonde'' (female). Adjectives are not declined for case in Modern English, though they were in Old English. The
article Article often refers to: * Article (grammar) An article is any member of a class of dedicated words that are used with noun phrases to mark the identifiability of the referents of the noun phrases. The category of articles constitutes a part of ...
is never regarded as declined in Modern English, although formally, the words ''that'' and possibly '' she'' correspond to forms of the predecessor of ''the'' (''sē'' m., ''þæt'' n., ''sēo'' f.) as it was declined in Old English.


Latin

Just as verbs in Latin are conjugated to indicate grammatical information, Latin nouns and adjectives that modify them are declined to signal their roles in sentences. There are five important cases for Latin nouns:
nominative In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as ...
,
genitive In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, a ...
,
dative In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as we ...
,
accusative The accusative case (list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. The same case is used in many languages for the objects of (some or all) prepositions. It is ...
, and
ablative In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, ...
. Since the
vocative case In grammar In linguistics, the grammar (from Ancient Greek ''grammatikḗ'') of a natural language is its set of structure, structural constraints on speakers' or writers' composition of clause (linguistics), clauses, phrases, and words. The ...
takes the same form as the nominative, it is seldom spelt out in grammar books. Yet another case, the
locative In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, a ...
, is limited to a small number of words. The usual basic functions of these cases are as follows: *Nominative case indicates the subject. *Genitive case indicates possession and can be translated with ‘of’. *Dative case marks the
indirect object In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic ...
and can be translated with ‘to’ or ‘for’. *Accusative case marks the
direct object In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the me ...
. *Ablative case is used to modify verbs and can be translated as ‘by’, ‘with’, ‘from’, etc. *Vocative case is used to address a person or thing. The genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative also have important functions to indicate the object of a preposition. Given below is the declension paradigm of Latin ''puer'' ‘boy’ and ''puella'' ‘girl’: From the provided examples we can see how cases work: * ''liber puerī'' → the book of the boy (''puerī'' boy=genitive) * ''puer puellae rosam dat'' → the boy gives the girl a rose (''puer'' boy=nominative; ''puellae'' girl=dative; ''rosam'' rose=accusative; ''dat'' give=third person singular present)


Sanskrit

Sanskrit, another Indo-European language, has eight cases:
nominative In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as ...
,
vocative In grammar, the vocative Grammatical case, case (list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ) is a grammatical case which is used for a noun that identifies a person (animal, object, etc.) being addressed, or occasionally for the determiner (li ...
,
accusative The accusative case (list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. The same case is used in many languages for the objects of (some or all) prepositions. It is ...
,
genitive In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, a ...
,
dative In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as we ...
,
ablative In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, ...

ablative
,
locative In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, a ...
and
instrumental An instrumental is a recording normally without any vocals, although it might include some inarticulate vocal The human voice consists of sound In physics, sound is a vibration that propagates as an acoustic wave, through a transmissio ...
. Some do not count vocative as a separate case, despite it having a distinctive ending in the singular, but consider it as a different use of the nominative.
Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia after its predecessor langua ...

Sanskrit
grammatical cases have been analyzed extensively. The grammarian
Pāṇini (Devanagari: पाणिनि, ) was a Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language ...
identified six semantic
roles A role (also rôle or social role) is a set of connected behaviors, rights, moral obligation, obligations, beliefs, and norms as conceptualized by people in a social situation. It is an expected or free or continuously changing behavior and may h ...
or ''karaka'', which correspond closely to the eight cases:Pieter Cornelis Verhagen,
Handbook of oriental studies: India. A history of Sanskrit grammatical literature in Tibet, Volume 2
', BRILL, 2001, , p. 281.
* agent (''kartṛ'', related to the nominative) * patient (''karman'', related to the accusative) * means (''karaṇa'', related to the instrumental) * recipient (''sampradāna'', related to the dative) * source (''apādāna'', related to the ablative) *relation (''sambandha,'' related to genitive) * locus (''adhikaraṇa'', related to the locative) * address (''sambodhana'', related to the vocative) For example, consider the following sentence: :"a leaf falls from the tree to the ground" Here ''leaf'' is the agent, ''tree'' is the source, and ''ground'' is the locus. The endings ''-aṁ'', ''-at'', ''-āu'' mark the cases associated with these meanings.


Declension in specific languages

* Albanian declension * Arabic ʾIʿrab * Basque declension * Hindi declension


Greek and Latin

*Ancient Greek and Latin
First declensionThe first declension is a category of declension In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word, generally to express its syntactic function in the sentence, by way of some inflection. The inflectional change of verbs is called Gr ...
*Ancient Greek and Latin
Second declensionThe second declension is a category of nouns in Latin and Ancient Greek, Greek with similar grammatical case, case inflection, formation. In particular, these nouns are thematic stem, thematic, with an original ''o'' in most of their forms. In Classi ...
*Ancient Greek and Latin
Third declension{{No footnotes, date=February 2021 The third declension In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word, generally to express its syntactic function in the sentence, by way of some inflection. The inflectional change of verbs is ca ...
* Greek declension *
Latin declension Latin declension is the set of patterns according to which Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known ...


Celtic languages

* Irish declension


Germanic languages

* Dutch declension system * German declension *Gothic declension *Icelandic grammar#Morphology, Icelandic declension *Middle English declension


Baltic languages

*Latvian declension *Lithuanian declension


Slavic languages

*Serbo-Croatian grammar#Declension, Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian declension *Czech declension *Polish grammar#Declension, Polish declension *Russian grammar, Russian declension *Slovak declension *Slovene declension *Ukrainian grammar, Ukrainian declension


Uralic languages

*Finnish language noun cases


See also

* Grammatical conjugation * Grammatical case * Strong inflection * Weak inflection


References


External links


The Status of Morphological Case in the Icelandic Lexicon
by Eiríkur Rögnvaldsson. Discussion of whether cases convey any inherent syntactic or semantic meaning.
Optimal Case: The Distribution of Case in German and Icelandic
by Dieter Wunderlich * Lexicon of Linguistics:Declension
* Lexicon of Linguistics:BaseStemRoot
* Lexicon of Linguistics:Defective Paradigm
* Lexicon of Linguistics:Strong Verb
* Lexicon of Linguistics:Inflection Phrase (IP)INFLAGRTense
* Lexicon of Linguistics:Lexicalist Hypothesis
{{Authority control Declension, Grammatical cases Grammar Linguistic morphology Linguistics terminology