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In
computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and software. It has sci ...

computing
, data (treated as singular, plural, or as a
mass noun In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic ...
) is any sequence of one or more
symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), m ...

symbol
s. Datum is a single symbol of data. Data requires interpretation to become
information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is whether it can be demonstrated to c ...

information
.
Digital data Digital data, in information theory and information systems, is information represented as a string of discrete symbols each of which can take on one of only a finite number of values from some alphabet, such as letters or digit (unit), digits. A ...
is data that is represented using the
binary number In mathematics and digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of electronics The field of electronics is a branch of physics and electrical engineering that deals with the emission, behaviour and effects of electrons The electr ...
system of ones (1) and zeros (0), as opposed to
analog
analog
representation. In modern (post-1960) computer systems, all data is digital. Data exists in three states: data at rest, data in transit and data in use. Data within a computer, in most cases,
moves as parallel data
moves as parallel data
. Data moving to or from a computer, in most cases,
moves as serial data
moves as serial data
. Data sourced from an analog device, such as a temperature sensor, may be converted to digital using an
analog-to-digital converter In electronics, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC, A/D, or A-to-D) is a system that converts an analog signal, such as a sound picked up by a microphone or light entering a digital camera, into a Digital signal (signal processing), digit ...
. Data representing
quantities Quantity or amount is a property that can exist as a multitude Multitude is a term for a group of people who cannot be classed under any other distinct category, except for their shared fact of existence. The term has a history of use reaching ba ...
, characters, or symbols on which operations are performed by a
computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, programs. These ...

computer
are stored and recorded on
magnetic Magnetism is a class of physical attributes that are mediated by magnetic field A magnetic field is a vector field In vector calculus and physics, a vector field is an assignment of a vector to each point in a subset of space. For in ...
,
optical Optics is the branch of physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entitie ...
, electronic, or mechanical recording media, and
transmitted
transmitted
in the form of digital electrical or optical signals. Data pass in and out of computers via peripheral devices. Physical
computer memory In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and soft ...
elements consist of an address and a byte/word of data storage. Digital data are often stored in
relational databases A relational database is a digital database based on the relational model of data, as proposed by E. F. Codd in 1970. A system used to maintain relational databases is a relational database management system (RDBMS). Many relational database system ...
, like
tables Table may refer to: * Table (information) A table is an arrangement of information or data, typically in rows and columns, or possibly in a more complex structure. Tables are widely used in communication, research, and data analysis. Tables ap ...
or SQL databases, and can generally be represented as abstract key/value pairs. Data can be organized in many different types of
data structures 315px, A data structure known as a hash table. In computer science, a data structure is a data organization, management, and storage format that enables efficient access and modification. More precisely, a data structure is a collection of dat ...
, including arrays,
graphs Graph may refer to: Mathematics *Graph (discrete mathematics) In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes an ...
, and objects. Data structures can store data of many different
types Type may refer to: Science and technology Computing * Typing Typing is the process of writing or inputting text by pressing keys on a typewriter, computer keyboard, cell phone, or calculator. It can be distinguished from other means of text inpu ...
, including
numbers A number is a mathematical object A mathematical object is an abstract concept arising in mathematics. In the usual language of mathematics, an ''object'' is anything that has been (or could be) formally defined, and with which one may do deduc ...
,
strings String or strings may refer to: *String (structure), a long flexible structure made from threads twisted together, which is used to tie, bind, or hang other objects Arts, entertainment, and media Films * Strings (1991 film), ''Strings'' (1991 fil ...
and even other
data structures 315px, A data structure known as a hash table. In computer science, a data structure is a data organization, management, and storage format that enables efficient access and modification. More precisely, a data structure is a collection of dat ...
.


Characteristics

Metadata Metadata is "data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sense, data are a set of values of qualitative property, qualitative or quantity, quantitative variable (research), v ...

Metadata
helps translate data to information. Metadata is data about the data. Metadata may be implied, specified or given. Data relating to physical events or processes will have a temporal component. This temporal component may be implied. This is the case when a device such as a temperature logger receives data from a temperature
sensor A sensor is a device that produces an output signal for the purpose of sensing of a physical phenomenon. In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, machine, or subsystem that detects events or changes in its environment and s ...

sensor
. When the temperature is received it is assumed that the data has a temporal reference of ''now''. So the device records the date, time and temperature together. When the data logger communicates temperatures, it must also report the date and time as metadata for each temperature reading. Fundamentally, computers follow a sequence of instructions they are given in the form of data. A set of instructions to perform a given task (or tasks) is called a '' program''. A program is data in the form of coded instructions to control the operation of a computer or other machine. In the nominal case, the program, as
executed Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is the State (polity), state-sanctioned killing of a person as punishment for a crime. The sentence (law), sentence ordering that someone is punished with the death penalty is called a dea ...
by the computer, will consist of
machine code In computer programming Computer programming is the process of designing and building an executable In computing, executable code, an executable file, or an executable program, sometimes simply referred to as an executable or binary, c ...
. The elements of storage manipulated by the program, but not actually executed by the
central processing unit A central processing unit (CPU), also called a central processor, main processor or just processor, is the electronic circuit 200px, A circuit built on a printed circuit board (PCB). An electronic circuit is composed of individual electroni ...

central processing unit
(CPU), are also data. At its most essential, a single datum is a value stored at a specific location. Therefore, it is possible for computer programs to operate on other computer programs, by manipulating their programmatic data. To store data
byte The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bit The bit is a basic unit of information in computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It ...
s in a file, they have to be
serialized
serialized
in a
file format A file format is a standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrology), an object that bears ...
. Typically, programs are stored in special file types, different from those used for other data.
Executable file In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and ...
s contain programs; all other files are also
data file A data file is a computer file A computer file is a computer resource for recording data Data are units of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an entity is" and ...
s. However, executable files may also contain data used by the program which is built into the program. In particular, some executable files have a
data segment In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and softwar ...
, which nominally contains constants and initial values for variables, both of which can be considered data. The line between program and data can become blurry. An interpreter, for example, is a program. The input data to an interpreter is itself a program, just not one expressed in native
machine language In computer programming Computer programming is the process of designing and building an executable computer program to accomplish a specific computing result or to perform a particular task. Programming involves tasks such as analysis, ...
. In many cases, the interpreted program will be a human-readable
text file A text file (sometimes spelled textfile; an old alternative name is flatfile) is a kind of computer file A computer file is a computer resource for recording data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, oft ...
, which is manipulated with a
text editor A text editor is a type of computer program In imperative programming, a computer program is a sequence of instructions in a programming language that a computer can execute or interpret. In declarative programming, a ''computer program'' is ...

text editor
program.
Metaprogramming Metaprogramming is a programming technique in which computer program In imperative programming In computer science, imperative programming is a programming paradigm that uses Statement (computer science), statements that change a program's sta ...
similarly involves programs manipulating other programs as data. Programs like
compiler In computing, a compiler is a computer program that Translator (computing), translates computer code written in one programming language (the ''source'' language) into another language (the ''target'' language). The name "compiler" is primarily ...

compiler
s,
linker Linker or linkers may refer to: Computing * Linker (computing) In computing, a linker or link editor is a computer System software, system program that takes one or more object files (generated by a compiler or an assembler (computing), asse ...
s,
debugger A debugger or debugging tool is a computer program In imperative programming, a computer program is a sequence of instructions in a programming language that a computer can execute or interpret. In declarative programming, a ''computer progra ...

debugger
s, program updaters, virus scanners and such use other programs as their data. For example, a
user User may refer to: Ancient Egyptian roles * User (ancient Egyptian official)User was an ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization of Ancient history, ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile, Nile Rive ...
might first instruct the
operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Examples of system software include operating systems (OS) like macOS, Linux, Android (operating system), Android and Mi ...

operating system
to load a
word processor A word processor (WP) is a device or computer program that provides for input, editing, formatting, and output of text, often with some additional features. Early word processors were stand-alone devices dedicated to the function, but current ...
program from one file, and then use the running program to open and edit a
document A document is a writing, written, drawing, drawn, presented, or memorialized representation of thought, often the manifestation of nonfiction, non-fictional, as well as fictional, content. The word originates from the Latin ''Documentum'', whic ...
stored in another file. In this example, the document would be considered data. If the word processor also features a
spell checkerIn software Software is a collection of instructions that tell a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets ...

spell checker
, then the dictionary (word list) for the spell checker would also be considered data. The
algorithm In and , an algorithm () is a finite sequence of , computer-implementable instructions, typically to solve a class of problems or to perform a computation. Algorithms are always and are used as specifications for performing s, , , and other ...

algorithm
s used by the spell checker to suggest corrections would be either
machine code In computer programming Computer programming is the process of designing and building an executable In computing, executable code, an executable file, or an executable program, sometimes simply referred to as an executable or binary, c ...
data or text in some interpretable
programming language A programming language is a formal language In logic, mathematics, computer science, and linguistics, a formal language consists of string (computer science), words whose symbol (formal), letters are taken from an alphabet (computer science) ...

programming language
. In an alternate usage,
binary file A binary file is a computer file that is not a text file. The term "binary file" is often used as a term meaning "non-text file". Many binary file formats contain parts that can be interpreted as text; for example, some Document file format, co ...

binary file
s (which are not
human-readable 220px, ISBN represented as EAN-13 bar code showing both human-readable and machine-readable data A human-readable medium or human-readable format is any encoding of data Data are units of information Information can be thought of as ...
) are sometimes called ''data'' as distinguished from human-readable ''
text Text may refer to: Written word * Text (literary theory) In literary theory, a text is any object that can be "read", whether this object is a work of literature, a street sign, an arrangement of buildings on a city block, or styles of clothin ...
''. The total amount of digital data in 2007 was estimated to be 281 billion gigabytes (281
exabytes The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bit The bit is a basic unit of information in computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It ...
).


Data keys and values, structures and persistence

Keys in data provide the context for values. Regardless of the structure of data, there is always a key component present. Keys in data and data-structures are essential for giving meaning to data values. Without a key that is directly or indirectly associated with a value, or collection of values in a structure, the values become meaningless and cease to be data. That is to say, there has to be a key component linked to a value component in order for it to be considered data. Data can be represented in computers in multiple ways, as per the following examples:


RAM

*
Random access memory 8GB DDR3 RAM stick with a white Heat sink">heatsink File:Laptop Heatsink.jpg, 330px, Typical heatsink-fan combination found on a consumer laptop. The heatpipes which contain a working fluid make direct contact with the CPU and GPU, conductin ...

Random access memory
(RAM) holds data that the CPU has direct access to. A CPU may only manipulate data within its
processor register Processor may refer to: Computing Hardware * Processor (computing) In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic p ...
s or memory. This is as opposed to data storage, where the CPU must direct the transfer of data between the storage device (disk, tape...) and memory. RAM is an array of linear contiguous locations that a processor may read or write by providing an address for the read or write operation. The processor may operate on any location in memory at any time in any order. In RAM the smallest element of data is the binary
bit The bit is a basic unit of information in computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithm of an algorithm (Euclid's algo ...
. The capabilities and limitations of accessing RAM are processor specific. In general
main memory Computer data storage is a technology consisting of computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform ...
is arranged as an array of
locations In geography, location or place are used to denote a region (geometry), regions (point, line, or area) on the earth's surface or elsewhere. The term ''location'' generally implies a higher degree of certainty than ''place'', the latter often indica ...
beginning at address 0 (
hexadecimal In mathematics and computing, the hexadecimal (also base 16 or hex) numeral system is a Numeral system#Positional systems in detail, positional numeral system that represents numbers using a radix (base) of 16. Unlike the decimal system repres ...
0). Each location can store usually 8 or 32 bits depending on the
computer architecture In computer engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems. The architecture of a system refers to its structure in terms of separately specifi ...
.


Keys

* Data keys need not be a direct hardware address in memory. Indirect, abstract and logical keys codes can be stored in association with values to form a
data structure In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of ...

data structure
. Data structures have predetermined offsets (or links or paths) from the start of the structure, in which data values are stored. Therefore, the data key consists of the key to the structure plus the offset (or links or paths) into the structure. When such a structure is repeated, storing variations of the data values and the data keys within the same repeating structure, the result can be considered to resemble a
table Table may refer to: * Table (information) A table is an arrangement of data Data are units of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an entity is" and thus define ...
, in which each element of the repeating structure is considered to be a column and each repetition of the structure is considered as a row of the table. In such an organization of data, the data key is usually a value in one (or a composite of the values in several) of the columns.


Organised recurring data structures

* The tabular view of repeating data structures is only one of many possibilities. Repeating data structures can be organised
hierarchically
hierarchically
, such that nodes are linked to each other in a cascade of parent-child relationships. Values and potentially more complex data-structures are linked to the nodes. Thus the nodal hierarchy provides the key for addressing the data structures associated with the nodes. This representation can be thought of as an inverted tree. E.g. Modern computer operating system file-systems are a common example; and
XML Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language #REDIRECT Markup language In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotation, annotating a document in a way that is Syntax (logic), syntactically distinguishable fro ...

XML
is another.


Sorted or ordered data

* Data has some inherent features when it is sorted on a key. All the values for subsets of the key appear together. When passing sequentially through groups of the data with the same key, or a subset of the key changes, this is referred to in data processing circles as a break, or a control break. It particularly facilitates the aggregation of data values on subsets of a key.


Peripheral storage

* Until the advent of non-volatile computer memories like USB sticks, persistent data storage was traditionally achieved by writing the data to external block devices like magnetic tape and disk drives. These devices typically seek to a location on the magnetic media and then read or write blocks of data of a predetermined size. In this case, the seek location on the media, is the data key and the blocks are the data values. Early data file-systems, or disc operating systems used to reserve
contiguous Contiguity or contiguous may refer to: *Contiguous data storage, in computer science *Contiguity (probability theory) *Contiguity (psychology) *Contiguous distribution of species, in biogeography *Geographic contiguity of territorial land *Contiguo ...
blocks on the disc drive for
data file A data file is a computer file A computer file is a computer resource for recording data Data are units of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an entity is" and ...
s. In those systems, the files could be filled up, running out of data space before all the data had been written to them. Thus much unused data space was reserved unproductively to avoid incurring that situation. This was known as raw disk. Later file-systems introduced partitions. They reserved blocks of disc data space for partitions and used the allocated blocks more economically, by dynamically assigning blocks of a partition to a file as needed. To achieve this, the file-system had to keep track of which blocks were used or unused by data files in a catalog or file allocation table. Though this made better use of the disc data space, it resulted in fragmentation of files across the disc, and a concomitant performance overhead due to latency. Modern file systems reorganize fragmented files dynamically to optimize file access times. Further developments in
file system In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and soft ...
s resulted in
virtualization In computing, virtualization or virtualisation (sometimes abbreviated v12n, a numeronym) is the act of creating a virtual (rather than actual) version of something, including virtual computer hardware platforms, Data storage device, storage device ...
of disc drives i.e. where a logical drive can be defined as partitions from a number of physical drives.


Indexed data

* Retrieving a small subset of data from a much larger set implies searching though the data sequentially. This is uneconomical.
Index Index may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Fictional entities * Index (''A Certain Magical Index''), a character in the light novel series ''A Certain Magical Index'' * The Index, an item on a Halo megastructure in the ''Halo'' series ...
es are a way to copy out keys and location addresses from data structures in files, tables and data sets, then organize them using
inverted tree
inverted tree
structures to reduce the time taken to retrieve a subset of the original data. In order to do this, the key of the subset of data to be retrieved must be known before retrieval begins. The most popular indexes are the
B-tree In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of Algo ...

B-tree
and the dynamic
hash Hash, hashes, hash mark, or hashing may refer to: Substances * Hash (food), a coarse mixture of ingredients * Hash, a nickname for hashish, a cannabis product Hash mark *Hash mark (sports), a marking on hockey rinks and gridiron football fields ...

hash
key indexing methods. Indexing is yet another costly overhead for filing and retrieving data. There are other ways of organizing indexes, e.g. sorting the keys or correction of quantities (or even the key and the data together), and using a
binary Binary may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Binary number In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the base-2 numeral system or binary numeral system, which uses only two symbols: ty ...
search on them.


Abstraction and indirection

* Object orientation uses two basic concepts for understanding data and software: 1) The taxonomic rank-structure of program-code classes, which is an example of a hierarchical data structure; and 2) At run time, the creation of data key references to in-memory data-structures of objects that have been instantiated from a
class library 277px, Illustration of an application which uses libvorbisfile to play an Ogg Vorbis file In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as ...
. It is only after instantiation that an executing object of a specified class exists. After an object's key reference is nullified, the data referred to by that object ceases to be data because the data key reference is null; and therefore the object also ceases to exist. The memory locations where the object's data was stored are then referred to as
garbage Garbage, trash, rubbish, or refuse is waste material that is discarded by humans, usually due to a perceived lack of utility. The term generally does not encompass bodily waste products, purely liquid or gaseous wastes, nor toxic waste produ ...
and are reclassified as unused memory available for reuse.


Database data

* The advent of
database In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and sof ...

database
s introduced a further layer of abstraction for persistent data storage. Databases use
meta data Metadata is "data Data are units of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an entity is" and thus defines both its essence and the nature of its characteristics. T ...

meta data
, and a
structured query language
structured query language
protocol between client and server systems, communicating over a network, using a two phase commit logging system to ensure transactional completeness, when persisting data.


Parallel distributed data processing

* Modern scalable / high performance data persistence technologies rely on massively parallel distributed data processing across many commodity computers on a high bandwidth network. An example of one is
Apache Hadoop Apache Hadoop () is a collection of open-source Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product ...
. In such systems, the data is distributed across multiple computers and therefore any particular computer in the system must be represented in the key of the data, either directly, or indirectly. This enables the differentiation between two identical sets of data, each being processed on a different computer at the same time.


See also

*
Assembly language In computer programming Computer programming is the process of designing and building an executable computer program to accomplish a specific computing result or to perform a particular task. Programming involves tasks such as analysis, gene ...
*
Big data Big data is a field that treats ways to analyze, systematically extract information from, or otherwise deal with data set A data set (or dataset) is a collection of data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of informati ...

Big data
*
Bus (computing) In computer architecture, a bus (a contraction of the Latin ''wikt:omnibus, omnibus'', and historically also called ''data highway'') is a communication system that transfers Data (computing), data between components inside a computer, or bet ...
*
Byte The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bit The bit is a basic unit of information in computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It ...
*
Computer memory In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and soft ...
*
CPU A central processing unit (CPU), also called a central processor, main processor or just processor, is the electronic circuit File:PExdcr01CJC.jpg, 200px, A circuit built on a printed circuit board (PCB). An electronic circuit is composed of ...

CPU
*
CPU cache A CPU cache is a hardware cache In computing, a cache ( , or in Australian English) is a hardware or software component that stores data so that future requests for that data can be served faster; the data stored in a cache might be the resu ...
*
Data Data (; ) are individual facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is whether it can be demonstrated to correspond to experience. Standard reference works are often used ...

Data
*
Data dictionary A data dictionary, or metadata repository, as defined in the ''IBM Dictionary of Computing'', is a "centralized repository of information about data such as meaning, relationships to other data, origin, usage, and format". '' Oracle'' defines it a ...

Data dictionary
*
Data modeling Data modeling in software engineering is the process of creating a data model for an information system by applying certain formal techniques. Overview Data modeling is a process used to define and analyze data requirements needed to sup ...
*
Data network A computer network is a group of computers that use a set of common communication protocols over digital signal, digital interconnections for the purpose of sharing resources located on or provided by the Node (networking), network nodes. The ...
*
Data storage device Data storage is the recording (storing) of information (data) in a storage medium. Handwriting, Phonograph record, phonographic recording, magnetic tape, and optical discs are all examples of storage media. Some authors even propose that DNA ...
*
Data stream In connection-oriented communication Connection-oriented communication is a network communication mode in telecommunications and computer networking, where a communication session or a semi-permanent connection is established before any useful ...
*
Data type In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of , ...
*
Database In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and sof ...

Database
* Databus *
Data set A data set (or dataset) is a collection of data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sense, data are a set of values of qualitative property, qualitative or quantity, quantit ...
*
Digital data Digital data, in information theory and information systems, is information represented as a string of discrete symbols each of which can take on one of only a finite number of values from some alphabet, such as letters or digit (unit), digits. A ...
*
Foreign key A foreign key is a set of attributes in a table that refers to the primary key In the relational model The relational model (RM) for database A database is an organized collection of data Data are units of information Information can b ...
* Hash key *
Information processor An information processor or information processing system, as its name suggests, is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, ...
*
Instruction set In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of co ...
* Memory address/location/key *
Offset (computer science) In computer science, an offset within an Array data structure, array or other data structure object is an integer (computer science), integer indicating the distance (displacement) between the beginning of the object and a given element or point, p ...
* Primary/unique key *
Processor register Processor may refer to: Computing Hardware * Processor (computing) In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic p ...
*
Shift register A shift register is a type of digital circuitIn theoretical computer science Image:Maquina.png, An artistic representation of a Turing machine. Turing machines are used to model general computing devices. Theoretical computer science (TCS) is a s ...

Shift register
*
State (computer science) In information technology and computer science, a system is described as stateful if it is designed to remember preceding events or user interactions; the remembered information is called the state of the system. The set of states a system can oc ...
*
Tuple In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). ...
*
Value (computer science) In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of Algori ...
*
Von Neumann architecture The von Neumann architecture — also known as the von Neumann model or Princeton architecture — is a computer architecture In computer engineering Computer engineering (CoE or CpE) is a branch of engineering Engineering is ...

Von Neumann architecture


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Data (Computing)