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Count (feminine: countess) is a historical title of
nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility has often been an Estates of the realm, estate of the realm that p ...
in certain
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
an countries, varying in relative status, generally of middling rank in the hierarchy of nobility. Pine, L. G. ''Titles: How the King Became His Majesty''. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1992. p. 73. . The etymologically related English term "
county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert Chambers (publisher bo ...
" denoted the land owned by a count. Equivalents of the rank of count exist or have existed in the nobility structures of some non-European countries, such as ''
hakushaku The was the hereditary peerage A peerage is a legal system historically comprising various hereditary titles (and sometimes Life peer, non-hereditary titles) in a number of countries, and composed of assorted noble ranks. Peerages include: ...
'' during the
Japanese Imperial era The was a historical nation-state A nation state is a state in which a great majority shares the same culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, ...

Japanese Imperial era
.


Definition

The word ''count'' came into English from the
French
French
''comte'', itself from
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
''
comes ''Comes'' ( ), plural ''comites'' ( ), is the Latin word for "companion", either individually or as a member of a collective denominated a "''comitatus ''Comitatus'' was in ancient times the Latin term for an armed escort or retinue. The term is ...
''—in its
accusative The accusative case (abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the word or phrase ...
''comitem''—meaning “companion”, and later “companion of the emperor, delegate of the emperor”. The adjective form of the word is "
comital Count (feminine: countess) is a historical title of nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility ...
". The
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the British identity and common culture * British English, ...

British
and
Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...

Irish
equivalent is an
earl Earl () is a rank of the nobility in Britain. The title originates in the Old English word ''eorl'', meaning "a man of noble birth or rank". The word is cognate with the Scandinavia Scandinavia, Sami languages, Sami: ''Skadesi-suolu''/''S ...

earl
(whose wife is a "countess", for lack of an
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
term). In the late
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
, the Latin title ''
comes ''Comes'' ( ), plural ''comites'' ( ), is the Latin word for "companion", either individually or as a member of a collective denominated a "''comitatus ''Comitatus'' was in ancient times the Latin term for an armed escort or retinue. The term is ...
'' denoted the high rank of various courtiers and provincial officials, either military or administrative: before
Anthemius Procopius Anthemius (; – 11 July 472) was western Roman emperor from 467 to 472. Perhaps the last capable Western Roman Emperor, Anthemius attempted to solve the two primary military challenges facing the remains of the Western Roman Empire ...

Anthemius
became emperor in the West in 467, he was a military ''comes'' charged with strengthening defenses on the
Danube The Danube ( ; ) is the List of rivers of Europe#Longest rivers, second-longest river in Europe, after the Volga in Russia. It flows through much of Central Europe, Central and Southeastern Europe, from the Black Forest into the Black Sea. It ...

Danube
frontier. In the
Western Roman Empire The Western Roman Empire comprises the western provinces of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican ...

Western Roman Empire
, Count came to indicate generically a military commander but was not a specific rank. In the
Eastern Roman Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Eastern Roman Empire
, from about the seventh century, "count" was a specific rank indicating the commander of two ''
centuria ''Centuria'' (, plural ''centuriae'') is a Latin term (from the stem ''centum'' meaning one hundred) denoting military units originally consisting of 100 men. The size of the century changed over time, and from the first century BC through most o ...
e'' (i.e., 200 men). Military counts in the Late Empire and the Germanic successor kingdoms were often appointed by a ''
dux ''Dux'' (; plural: ''ducēs'') is Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the ...

dux
'' and later by a king. From the start the count was not in charge of a roving warband, but settled in a locality, known as a county; his main rival for power was the
bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Moravian Chu ...

bishop
, whose
diocese In Ecclesiastical polity, church governance, a diocese or bishopric is the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. History In the later organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided Roman province, prov ...
was sometimes coterminous with the county. In the
Frankish Frankish may refer to: * Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European tribes, first mentioned by Graeco-Roman author ...

Frankish
kingdoms in the early
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
, a count might also be a
count palatine A count palatine (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of t ...
, whose authority derived directly from the royal household, the "
palace A palace is a grand residence, especially a royal residence, or the home of a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to eit ...

palace
" in its original sense of the seat of power and administration. This other kind of count had vague antecedents in
Late Antiquity Late antiquity is a periodization Periodization is the process or study of categorizing the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of time.Adam Rabinowitz. It’s about time: historical periodization and Linked Ancient World Data'. Inst ...
too: the father of
Cassiodorus Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus Senator (c. 485 – c. 585), commonly known as Cassiodorus (), was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people ...
held positions of trust with Theodoric, as ''comes rerum privatarum'', in charge of the imperial lands, then as ''comes sacrarum largitionum'' ("count of the sacred doles"), concerned with the finances of the realm. The position of ''comes'' was originally not hereditary. The position of count was regarded as an administrative official dependent on the king, until the process of allodialisation during the 9th century in which it became private possessions of noble families. By virtue of their large estates, many counts could pass the title to their heirs—but not always. For instance, in
Piast Poland The period of rule by the Piast dynasty between the 10th and 14th centuries is the first major stage of the history of Poland, history of the Polish state. The dynasty was founded by a series of dukes listed by the chronicler Gallus Anonymous in ...
, the position of ''komes'' was not hereditary, resembling the early
Merovingian The Merovingian dynasty () was the ruling family of the Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of whose name was first mentioned in 3rd-century Roman sources, and associated with tribes between the and the , on the edge of the ...
institution. The title had disappeared by the era of the
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally known as the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and, after 1791, the Commonwealth of Poland, was a country and bi-federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is ...
, and the office had been replaced by others. Only after the
Partitions of Poland The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian CommonwealthPolish–Lithuanian can refer to: * Polish–Lithuanian union (1385–1569) * Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795) * Polish-Lithuanian identity as ...

Partitions of Poland
did the title of "count" resurface in the title ''hrabia'', derived from the German ''Graf''.


Land attached to title

Originally, with the emergence of the title came the most powerful symbol of entitlement, that is the ownership of and jurisdiction over land, hence the term ''county''. The term is derived from the
Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular o ...
''conté'' or ''cunté'' denoting a
jurisdiction Jurisdiction (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be i ...
under the control of a count (
earl Earl () is a rank of the nobility in Britain. The title originates in the Old English word ''eorl'', meaning "a man of noble birth or rank". The word is cognate with the Scandinavia Scandinavia, Sami languages, Sami: ''Skadesi-suolu''/''S ...

earl
) or a
viscount A viscount ( , for male) or viscountess (, for female) is a title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qu ...
.The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology, C. W. Onions (Ed.), 1966,
Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the university press A university press is an academic publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for fre ...

Oxford University Press
The modern French is ''comté'', and its equivalents in other languages are ''contea'', ''contado'', ''comtat'', ''condado'', ''Grafschaft'', ''graafschap'', etc. (cf. '' conte'', ''comte'', ''conde'', ''
Graf (feminine: ) is a historical title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qualification. In some language ...

Graf
''). The title of Count was also often conferred by the monarch as an honorific title for special services rendered, without a feudal estate (countship, county) being attached, so it was merely a title, with or without a domain name attached to it. In the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
, the equivalent "Earl" can also be used as a
courtesy title A courtesy title is a title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qualification. In some languages, titles ma ...
for the eldest son of a duke or marquess. In the
Italian states Italy, up until the Italian unification in 1861, was a conglomeration of city-states, republics, and other independent entities. The following is a list of the various Italian states during that period. Archaic Italy * Italic peoples: **Latino-F ...

Italian states
, by contrast, all the sons of certain counts were little counts (''contini''). In
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that ...

Sweden
there is a distinction between counts (Swedish: ''greve'') created before and after 1809. All children in comital families elevated before 1809 were called count/countess. In families elevated after 1809, only the head of the family was called count, the rest have a status similar to barons and were called by the equivalent of "Mr/Ms/Mrs", before the recognition of titles of nobility was abolished.


Comital titles in different European languages

The following lists are originally based on a Glossary on Heraldica.org by Alexander Krischnig. The male form is followed by the female, and when available, by the territorial circumscription.


Etymological derivations from the Latin


Etymological parallels with the German (some approximate)


Compound and related titles

Apart from all these, a few unusual titles have been of comital rank, not necessarily permanently. * (English: ''Dolphin''; es, Delfín, links=no; it, Delfino, links=no; pt, Delfim, links=no; la, Delphinus) was a multiple (though rare) comital title in southern France, used by the Dauphins of Vienne and Auvergne, before 1349 when it became the title of the heir to the French throne. The Dauphin was the lord of the province still known as the . * "Count-Duke" is a rare title used in
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
, notably by Gaspar de Guzmán, Count-Duke of Olivares. He had inherited the title of count of Olivares, but when created Duke of Sanlucar la Mayor by King
Philip IV of Spain Philip IV ( es, Felipe, pt, Filipe; 8 April 160517 September 1665), also called the Planet King (Spanish: ''Rey Planeta''), was King of Spain , coatofarms = Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch.svg , coatofarms_article = Coat of arms ...

Philip IV of Spain
he begged permission to preserve his inherited title in combination with the new honour—according to a practice almost unique in Spanish history; logically the incumbent ranks as Duke (higher than Count) just as he would when simply concatenating both titles. * 'Count-Baron' is a rare title used in
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...

Portugal
, notably by Dom , 7th Baron of Alvito, who received the title of Count of Oriola in 1653 from King
John IV of Portugal John IV ( pt, João, ; 19 March 1604 – 6 November 1656), List of monarchs by nickname, nicknamed John the Restorer ( pt, João o Restaurador), was the List of Portuguese monarchs, King of Portugal whose reign, lasting from 1640 until his death, ...
. His palace in Lisbon still exists, located in a square named after him (). * Archcount is a very rare title, etymologically analogous to
archduke Archduke (feminine: Archduchess; German: ''Erzherzog'', feminine form: ''Erzherzogin'') was the title borne from 1358 by the Habsburg rulers of the Archduchy of Austria, and later by all senior members of that dynasty. It denotes a rank within ...
, apparently never recognized officially, used by or for: ** the
count of Flanders Image:Coat of Arms of the Count of Flanders (according to the Gelre Armorial).svg, 150px, Coat of arms of the counts of Flanders. The count of Flanders was the ruler or sub-ruler of the county of Flanders, beginning in the 9th century. The title ...
(an original of the French realm in present Belgium, very rich, once expected to be raised to the rank of kingdom); the informal, rather descriptive use on account of the countship's de facto importance is rather analogous to the unofficial epithet (before
Grand duke Grand Duke (feminine: Grand Duchess) is a European , used either by certain s or by members of certain monarchs' families. In status, a Grand Duke traditionally ranks in below an , or and above a sovereign or sovereign . The title is used i ...
became a formal title) for the even wealthier
Duke of Burgundy Duke of Burgundy (french: duc de Bourgogne) was a title used by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy The Duchy of Burgundy (; la, Ducatus Burgundiae; french: Duché de Bourgogne, ) emerged in the 9th century as one of the successors of the an ...
** at least one
Count of Burgundy 125px, Coat of arms of the Free County of Burgundy after the 13th century. This is a list of the counts of Burgundy, i.e., of the region known as Franche-Comté not to be confused with the Duchy of Burgundy The Duchy of Burgundy (; la, Ducatus ...
(i.e. of ) * In German kingdoms, the title was combined with the word for the jurisdiction or domain the nobleman was holding as a fief or as a conferred or inherited jurisdiction, such as (see also
Marquess A marquess (; french: marquis ), es, marqués, pt, marquês. is a nobleman Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), arist ...
), , ("free count"), , where signifies castle; see also
Viscount A viscount ( , for male) or viscountess (, for female) is a title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qu ...
, (translated both as "Count Palatine" and, historically, as "Palsgrave"), ("Raugrave", see "
Graf (feminine: ) is a historical title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qualification. In some language ...

Graf
", and (), where signifies a large forest) (from Latin ''nemus'' = grove). * The German and Dutch ( la, grafio) stem from the Byzantine-Greek meaning "he who calls a meeting .e. the courttogether"). * The Ottoman military title of was used in Montenegro and Serbia as a lesser noble title with the equivalent rank of a Count. * These titles are not to be confused with various minor administrative titles containing the word in various offices which are not linked to feudal nobility, such as the Dutch titles (a court
sinecure A sinecure ( or ; from Latin ''sine'' 'without' and ''cura'' 'care') is an office, carrying a salary or otherwise generating income, that requires or involves little or no responsibility, labour, or active service. The term originated in the medi ...
, so usually held by noble courtiers, may even be rendered hereditary) and (to the present, in the Low Countries, a manager in the local or regional administration of watercourses through dykes, ditches, controls etc.; also in German , synonymous with , "dike captain").


Lists of countships


Territory of today's France


Kingdom of the Western Franks

Since
Louis VII Louis VII (1120 – 18 September 1180), called the Younger or the Young (french: link=no, le Jeune), was King of the Franks The Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples ...

Louis VII
(1137–80), the highest precedence amongst the vassals (
Prince-bishop A prince-bishop is a bishop who is also the civil ruler of some Secularity, secular principality and sovereignty. Thus the principality or Hochstift, prince-bishopric ruled politically by a prince-bishop could wholly or largely overlap with his ...
s and secular nobility) of the French crown was enjoyed by those whose benefice or temporal fief was a ''pairie'', i.e. carried the exclusive rank of ''
pair Pair or PAIR or Pairing may refer to: Government and politics * Pair (parliamentary convention), matching of members unable to attend, so as not to change the voting margin * ''Pair'', a member of the Prussian House of Lords * ''Pair'', the Frenc ...
''; within the first (i.e. clerical) and second (noble) estates, the first three of the original twelve ''anciennes pairies'' were ducal, the next three comital '' comté-pairies'': * Bishop-counts of Beauvais (in Picardy) * Bishop-counts of Châlons (in Champagne) * Bishop-counts of
Noyon Noyon (; pcd, Noéyon; la, Noviomagus Veromanduorum, Noviomagus of the Veromandui The Viromandui (or Veromandui) were a Belgic tribe dwelling in the modern Vermandois Vermandois was a French county that appeared in the Merovingian The Mer ...

Noyon
(in Picardy) *
Count of Toulouse The Count of Toulouse ( oc, comte de Tolosa, french: comte de Toulouse) was the ruler of county of Toulouse, Toulouse during the 8th to 13th centuries. Originating as vassals of the kingdom of the Franks, Frankish kings, the hereditary counts ...
, until united to the crown in 1271 by marriage *
Count of Flanders Image:Coat of Arms of the Count of Flanders (according to the Gelre Armorial).svg, 150px, Coat of arms of the counts of Flanders. The count of Flanders was the ruler or sub-ruler of the county of Flanders, beginning in the 9th century. The title ...
(Flandres in French), which is in the Low countries and was confiscated in 1299, though returned in 1303 *
Count of Champagne The Count of Champagne was the ruler of the County of Champagne from 950 to 1316. Champagne evolved from the county of Troyes in the late eleventh century and Hugh I was the first to officially use the title "Count of Champagne". When Sancho VI ...
, until united to the crown (in 1316 by marriage, conclusively in 1361) Later other countships (and duchies, even baronies) have been raised to this French peerage, but mostly as
apanage An appanage, or apanage (; french: apanage ), is the grant of an estate, title, office or other thing of value to a younger child of a sovereign, who would otherwise have no inheritance under the system of primogeniture Primogeniture ( ) i ...
s (for members of the royal house) or for foreigners; after the 16th century all new peerages were always duchies and the medieval countship-peerages had died out, or were held by royal princes Other French countships of note included those of: * Count of Angoulême, later Duke * Count of Anjou, later Duke *
Count of Auvergne This is a list of the various rulers of Auvergne. History In the 7th century Auvergne (province), Auvergne was disputed between the Franks and Aquitanians. It was later conquered by the Carolingians, and was integrated for a time into the kingdom ...
* Count of Bar, later Duke *
Count of Blois The County of Blois was originally centred on Blois, south of Paris, France. One of the chief cities, along with Blois itself, was Chartres. History Blois was associated with Champagne (historical province), Champagne Province, the House of Chât ...
*
Count of Boulogne Count of Boulogne was a historical title in the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France; frm, Royaulme de France; french: link=yes, Royaume de France) is the historiographical name or Hyponymy and hypernymy, umbrella ...
*
Count of Foix The Count of Foix ruled the independent County of Foix, in what is now southern France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of m ...
*
Count of Montpensier Count (feminine: countess) is a historical title of nobility in certain European countries, varying in relative status, generally of middling rank in the hierarchy of nobility.L. G. Pine, Pine, L. G. ''Titles: How the King Became His Majesty''. ...
*
Count of Poitiers Among the people who have borne the title of Count of Poitiers (or ''Poitou'', in what is now France but in the Middle Ages became part of Aquitaine) are: *Bodilon *Saint Warinus, Warinus (638–677), son of Bodilon *Hatton (Poitou), Hatton (7 ...


Parts of today's France long within other kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire

* Freigraf ("free count") of Burgundy (i.e. present Franche-Comté) * The
Dauphiné The Dauphiné (, ; ; oc, Daufinat or ; frp, Dôfenât or ; former English name: Dauphiny) is a former province in Southeastern France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a List of ...


The Holy Roman Empire

''See also above for parts of present France''


In Germany

A ''Graf'' ruled over a territory known as a Grafschaft ('county'). See also various comital and related titles; especially those actually reigning over a principality: Gefürsteter Graf, Landgraf, Reichsgraf; compare
Markgraf Margrave was originally the medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the peo ...
,
Pfalzgraf A count palatine (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the R ...


Northern Italian states

The title of ''Conte'' is very prolific on the peninsula. In the eleventh century, ''Conti'' like the Count of Savoy or the Norman Count of Apulia, were virtually sovereign lords of broad territories. Even apparently "lower"-sounding titles, like
Viscount A viscount ( , for male) or viscountess (, for female) is a title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qu ...
, could describe powerful dynasts, such as the
House of Visconti A house is a single-unit residential building, which may range in complexity from a rudimentary hut to a complex structure of wood, masonry, concrete or other material, outfitted with plumbing, electrical, and heating, ventilation, and air con ...
which ruled a major city such as
Milan Milan (, , Milanese: ; it, Milano ) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the List of cities in Italy, second-most populous city proper in Italy after Rome. The city proper has a population of about 1.4 million, while its ...

Milan
. The essential title of a feudatory, introduced by the Normans, was ''signore'', modeled on the French ''seigneur'', used with the name of the
fief A fief (; la, feudum) was the central element of feudalism Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe In the hist ...
. By the fourteenth century, ''conte'' and the Imperial title ''barone'' were virtually synonymous. Some titles of a count, according to the particulars of the patent, might be inherited by the eldest son of a Count. Younger brothers might be distinguished as "X dei conti di Y" ("X of the counts of Y"). However, if there is no male to inherit the title and the count has a daughter, in some regions she could inherit the title. Many Italian counts left their mark on Italian history as individuals, yet only a few ''contadi'' (countships; the word ''contadini'' for inhabitants of a "county" remains the Italian word for "peasant") were politically significant principalities, notably: * Norman Count of
Apulia it, Pugliese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_titl ...

Apulia
* Count of Savoy, later Duke (also partly in France and in Switzerland) *
Count of Asti
Count of Asti
* Count of Montferrat (Monferrato) * Count of Montefeltro *
Count of Tusculum The counts of Tusculum were the most powerful secular noblemen in Latium, near Rome, in present-day Italy between the 10th and 12th centuries. Several popes and an antipope during the 11th century came from their ranks. They created and perfected ...


In Austria

The principalities tended to start out as margraviate or (promoted to) duchy, and became nominal archduchies within the Habsburg dynasty; noteworthy are: * Count of Tyrol * Count of Cilli * Count of Schaumburg


In the Low Countries

Apart from various small ones, significant were : * in present Belgium : **
Count of Flanders Image:Coat of Arms of the Count of Flanders (according to the Gelre Armorial).svg, 150px, Coat of arms of the counts of Flanders. The count of Flanders was the ruler or sub-ruler of the county of Flanders, beginning in the 9th century. The title ...
(Vlaanderen in Dutch), but only the small part east of the river Schelde remained within the empire; the far larger west, an original French comté-pairie became part of the French realm **
Count of Hainaut The Count of Hainaut (, , ) was the ruler of the county of Hainaut, a historical region in the Low Countries (including the modern countries of Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg and parts of northern France and western Germany). In English-l ...
**
Count of Namur Count (feminine: countess) is a historical title of nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility ...
, later a margraviate ** Count of Leuven (Louvain) soon became the Duke of Brabant ** Count of Mechelen, though the Heerlijkheid Mechelen was given the title of "Graafschap" in 1490, the city was rarely referred to as a county and the title of Count has not been in practical use by or for anyone of the series of persons that became rightfully entitled to it; the flag and weapon of the municipality still has the corresponding heraldic crowned single-headed eagle of sabre on gold. * in the present Netherlands: **
Count of Guelders of the County and Duchy of Guelders Image:Guelders-Jülich Arms.svg, 125px, Coat of arms after 1379 This article is about the rulers of the historical county and duchy of Guelders Guelders or Gueldres ( nl, Gelre, german: Geldern) is a hist ...
later Dukes of Guelders **
Count of Holland The counts of Holland ruled over the County of Holland in the Low Countries The term Low Countries, also known as the Low Lands ( nl, de Lage Landen, french: les Pays-Bas) and historically called the Netherlands ( nl, de Nederlanden), Flander ...
**
Count of Zeeland The County of Zeeland ( nl, Graafschap Zeeland) was a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in c ...
**
Count of Zutphen The title of Count of Zutphen historically belonged to the ruler of the Dutch province of Gelderland Gelderland (), also known as Guelders () in English, is a province of the Netherlands, occupying the centre-east of the country. With a total a ...


In Switzerland

*
Count of Geneva Count (feminine: countess) is a historical title of nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility ...
* Count of
Neuchâtel Neuchâtel or Neuchatel (, , ), in German language, German Neuenburg, is a list of towns in Switzerland, town, a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality, and the capital (political), capital of the cantons of Switzerland, Swiss canton of Neuch ...

Neuchâtel
* Count of Toggenburg * Count of Kyburg *
Count de Salis-Soglio Count de Salis-Soglio is a continental title of nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility has of ...
(also in the UK, Canada and Australia) *
Count de Salis-Seewis Count de Salis- Seewis (also written Comte or Graf v. Salis-Seewis / Graf Salis-Seewis / Graf Salis / Gräfin Countess"'' von Salis / Graf von Salis) is a primogenitive title created in Versailles, France on 1 February 1777, while the title Graf ...
* Count of Panzutti *Count In-Albon


In other continental European countries


Holy See

Count/Countess was one of the noble titles granted by the Pope as a temporal sovereign, and the title's holder was sometimes informally known as a papal count/papal countess or less so as a Roman count/Roman countess, but mostly as count/countess. The comital title, which could be for life or hereditary, was awarded in various forms by popes and Holy Roman Emperors since the Middle Ages, infrequently before the 14th century, and the pope continued to grant the comital and other noble titles even after 1870, it was largely discontinued in the mid 20th-century, on the accession of
John XXIII Pope John XXIII ( la, Ioannes; it, Giovanni; born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, ; 25 November 18813 June 1963) was Bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is ...
. The Papacy and the
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies ( nap, Regno d’ ’e Ddoje Sicilie; scn, Regnu dî Dui Sicili; it, Regno delle Due Sicilie; es, Reino de las Dos Sicilias) was a kingdom located in Southern Italy from 1816 to 1860. The kingdom was the larg ...
might appoint counts palatine with no particular territorial fief. Until 1812 in some regions, the purchaser of land designated "feudal" was ennobled by the noble seat that he held and became a ''conte''. This practice ceased with the formal abolition of feudalism in the various principalities of early-19th century Italy, last of all in the
Papal States The Papal States ( ; it, Stato Pontificio), officially the State of the Church ( it, Stato della Chiesa, ; la, Status Ecclesiasticus; also '), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Ital ...
.


In Poland

Poland was notable throughout its history for not granting titles of nobility. This was on the premise that one could only be born into nobility, outside rare exceptions. Instead, it conferred non-hereditary courtly or civic roles. The noble titles that were in use on its territory were mostly of foreign provenance and usually subject to the process of
indygenat ''Indygenat'' or 'naturalization' in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was the grant of nobility to foreign nobles. To grant ''indygenat'', a foreign noble had to submit proof of their service to the Republic, together with proof of nobility iss ...
, naturalisation.


In Hungary

Somewhat similar to the native privileged class of nobles found in Poland, Hungary also had a class of
Conditional noble A conditional noble or predialistSegeš 2002, p. 286. ( hu, prédiális nemes; la, nobilis praedialis; hr, predijalci) was a landowner in the Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Midd ...
s.


On the Iberian peninsula

As opposed to the plethora of hollow "gentry" counts, only a few countships ever were important in medieval
Iberia The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese language, Aragonese and Occitan language, Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eibérica * eu, Iberiar penintsula also known as Iberia, is a penin ...

Iberia
; most territory was firmly within the
Reconquista The ' (Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portug ...

Reconquista
kingdoms before counts could become important. However, during the 19th century, the title, having lost its high rank (equivalent to that of
Duke Duke is a male title either of a monarch ruling over a , or of a member of , or . As rulers, dukes are ranked below s, s, s, s, and sovereign s. As royalty or nobility, they are ranked below princes of nobility and grand dukes. The title comes ...

Duke
), proliferated.


=Portugal

=
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...

Portugal
itself started as a countship in 868, but became a
kingdom Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by: **A king, during the reign of a male monarch **A queen regnant, during the reign of a female monarch Taxonomy * Kingdom (biology), a category in biological taxonomy Arts an ...
in 1139 (see:''
County of Portugal The County of Portugal ( pt, Condado de Portugal, Condado Portucalense, Condado de Portucale; in documents of the period the name used was Portugalia) refers to two successive medieval counties in the region around Braga and Porto Porto or Op ...
''). Throughout the
History of Portugal The history of Portugal can be traced from circa 400,000 years ago, when the region of present-day Portugal Portugal (), officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=no ), is a country located on the Iberian Penin ...
, especially during the
Constitutional Monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises his authority in accordance with a constitution and is not alone in deciding. Constitutional monarchies differ from ...
many other countships were created (see: '' List of Countships in Portugal'').


=Spain

= In Spain, no countships of wider importance exist, except in the former Spanish march. *
County of Barcelona The County of Barcelona ( la, Comitatus Barcinonensis, ca, Comtat de Barcelona) was originally a frontier region under the rule of the Carolingian dynasty The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Caroli ...
, the initial core of the
Principality of Catalonia The Principality of Catalonia ( ca, Principat de Catalunya, la, Principatus Cathaloniæ, oc, Principat de Catalonha, es, Principado de Cataluña, french: Principauté de Catalogne) was a Middle Ages, medieval and early modern state (polity), ...
, later one of the states of the
Crown of Aragon The Crown of Aragon (; an, Corona d'Aragón; ca, Corona d'Aragó; es, Corona de Aragón)' ()' (, , )' ()' (). was a composite monarchy A composite monarchy (or composite state) is a historical category, introduced by H. G. Koenigsberger ...
, which became one of the two main components of the Spanish crown. *
Count of AragonThe County of Aragon or County of Jaca was a small Frankish marcher county in the central Pyrenean valley of the Aragon river, comprising Ansó, Echo, and Canfranc and centered on the small town of Jaca Jaca (in Aragonese: ''Chaca'' or ' ...
*
Count of Castile This is a list of counts of Kingdom of Castile, Castile. The County of Castile had its origin in a fortified March (territorial entity), march on the eastern frontier of the Kingdom of Asturias. The earliest counts were not hereditary, being appoint ...
*
Count of Galicia
Count of Galicia
*
Count of Lara Primitive coat of arms of the House of Lara The House of Lara (Spanish: ''Casa de Lara'') is a noble family from the medieval Kingdom of Castile The Kingdom of Castile (; es, Reino de Castilla, la, Regnum Castellae) was a large and powerful st ...
*
Count CassiusCount Cassius (floruit, fl. 8th century A.D.), also called "Count Casius" ( es, Casio; ar, قَسِيّ قُومِس, links=no, "Qasīy Qūmis"), was a Hispano-Roman or Visigothic nobleman who founded the Banu Qasi dynasty. His actual existence has ...
, progenitor of the
Banu Qasi The Banu Qasi, Banu Kasi, Beni Casi ( ar, بني قسي or بنو قسي, meaning "sons" or "heirs of Cassius") or Banu Musa were a Muwallad dynasty that in the 9th century ruled the Upper March, a frontier territory of the Umayyads, Um ...
*
County of Urgell File:Comtat d'Urgell.svg, Location of the County of Urgell The County of Urgell ( ca, Comtat d'Urgell, ; la, Comitatus Urgellensis) is one of the historical Catalan counties, bordering on the counties of County of Pallars, Pallars and Cerdanya. H ...
, later integrated into the
Principality of Catalonia The Principality of Catalonia ( ca, Principat de Catalunya, la, Principatus Cathaloniæ, oc, Principat de Catalonha, es, Principado de Cataluña, french: Principauté de Catalogne) was a Middle Ages, medieval and early modern state (polity), ...
. *The other
Catalan counties The Catalan counties ( ca, Comtats Catalans, ) were the administrative Christian divisions of the eastern Carolingian The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings, Karolinger or Karlings) was a Franks, ...
were much smaller and were absorbed early into the
County of Barcelona The County of Barcelona ( la, Comitatus Barcinonensis, ca, Comtat de Barcelona) was originally a frontier region under the rule of the Carolingian dynasty The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Caroli ...
(between parentheses the annexation year):
County of Girona The Counts of Girona Girona (, ca, Girona , es, Gerona ) is a city in northern Catalonia Catalonia (; ca, Catalunya ; Aranese, Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es, Cataluña ) is an Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community ...
(897),
County of Besalú The County of Besalú ( ca, Comtat de Besalú, ; la, Comitatus Bisuldunensis) was one of the landlocked medieval Catalan counties near the Mediterranean coastline. It was roughly coterminous with the modern ''Comarques of Catalonia, comarca'' of Ga ...
,
County of Osona The County of Osona, also Ausona ( ca, Comtat d'Osona, ; la, Comitatus Ausonae), was one of the Catalan counties The Catalan counties ( ca, Comtats Catalans, ) were the administrative Christian divisions of the eastern Carolingian The Carol ...
, which included the nominal
County of ManresaThe County of Manresa ( ca, Comtat de Manresa, es, Condado de Manresa) is the western extremity of the County of Osona The County of Osona, also Ausona ( ca, Comtat d'Osona, ; la, Comitatus Ausonae), was one of the Catalan counties The Catalan c ...
(1111), County of Berga and
County of Conflent 200px, Conflent in the context of the western Spanish march in the early ninth century. The County of Conflent or Confluent ( la, Confluensis) was one of the Catalan counties The Catalan counties ( ca, Comtats Catalans, ) were the administrative ...
(1117) and
County of Cerdanya The County of Cerdanya ( ca, Comtat de Cerdanya, ; la, Comitatus Ceritaniae; es, Condado de Cerdaña, french: Comté de Cerdagne) was one of the Catalan counties The Catalan counties ( ca, Comtats Catalans, ) were the administrative Christian di ...
(1118). From 1162 these counties, together with that of Barcelona, were merged into the
Principality of Catalonia The Principality of Catalonia ( ca, Principat de Catalunya, la, Principatus Cathaloniæ, oc, Principat de Catalonha, es, Principado de Cataluña, french: Principauté de Catalogne) was a Middle Ages, medieval and early modern state (polity), ...
, a sovereign state that absorbed some other counties:
County of Roussillon The County of Roussillon ( ca, Comtat de Rosselló, , la, Comitatus Ruscinonensis) was one of the Catalan counties The Catalan counties ( ca, Comtats Catalans, ) were the administrative Christian divisions of the eastern Carolingian The Car ...
(1172), County of Pallars Jussà (1192), County of Empúries (1402),
County of Urgell File:Comtat d'Urgell.svg, Location of the County of Urgell The County of Urgell ( ca, Comtat d'Urgell, ; la, Comitatus Urgellensis) is one of the historical Catalan counties, bordering on the counties of County of Pallars, Pallars and Cerdanya. H ...
(1413) and County of Pallars Sobirà (1487), giving the Principality its definitive shape.


South Eastern Europe


Bulgaria

In the
First Bulgarian Empire The First Bulgarian Empire ( cu, блъгарьско цѣсарьствиѥ, blagarysko tsesarystviye) was a medieval Bulgar- Slavic and later Bulgarian Bulgarian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Bulgaria * Bulg ...

First Bulgarian Empire
, a ''komit'' was a hereditary provincial ruler under the
tsar Tsar ( or ), also spelled ''czar'', ''tzar'', or ''csar'', is a Royal and noble ranks, title used to designate Orthodox Slavs, East and South Slavic monarchs. In this last capacity it lends its name to a system of government, tsarist autocra ...

tsar
documented since the reign of Presian (836-852) The
Cometopouli
Cometopouli
dynasty was named after its founder, the ''komit'' of
Sredets : ''Sredets is also a medieval name of Sofia. For the district in Sofia, see Sredets, Sofia.'' Sredets ( bg, Средец ) is a town in Burgas Province in southeastern Bulgaria. It is located near Lake Mandrensko and the northern slopes of Strand ...

Sredets
.


Montenegro and Serbia

The title of Serdar was used in the
Principality of Montenegro The Principality of Montenegro ( sr, Књажевина Црна Горa, Knjaževina Crna Gora) was a former realm in Southeastern Europe that existed from 13 March 1852 to 28 August 1910. It was then proclaimed a kingdom by Nikola I, who then ...
and the
Principality of Serbia The Principality of Serbia ( sr, Кнежевина Србија, Kneževina Srbija) was a semi-independent state in the Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe i ...
as a noble title below that of
Voivode Voivode (, also spelled Voievod, Voivoda, Vojvoda or Wojewoda) is a title denoting a "military-leader" or "warlord A warlord is a strong leader able to exercise military, economic, and political control over a subnational territory within a s ...
equivalent to that of Count.


Crusader states

* Count of Edessa *
Count of Tripoli The count of Tripoli was the ruler of the County of Tripoli, a crusader state from 1102 through 1289. Of the four major crusader states in the Levant, Tripoli was created last. The history of the counts of Tripoli began with Raymond IV of Toulou ...
(1102–1288)


Scandinavia

In
Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), hu ...

Denmark
and historically in Denmark-Norway the title of count (''greve'') is the highest rank of nobility used in the modern period. Some Danish/Dano-Norwegian countships were associated with
fief A fief (; la, feudum) was the central element of feudalism Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe In the hist ...
s, and these counts were known as "feudal counts" ( ''lensgreve''). They rank above ordinary (titular) counts, and their position in the Danish aristocracy as the highest-ranking noblemen is broadly comparable to that of dukes in other European countries.Ferdinand Christian Herman von Krogh: ''Den høiere danske Adel. En genealogisk Haandbog'', C. Steen & søn, 1866 With the first free
Constitution of Denmark The Constitutional Act of the Realm of Denmark ( da, Danmarks Riges Grundlov), also known as the Constitutional Act of the Kingdom of Denmark, or simply the Constitution ( da, Grundloven, fo, Grundlógin, kl, Tunngaviusumik inatsit), is the con ...
of 1849 came a complete abolition of the privileges of the nobility. Since then the title of count has been granted only to members of the Danish royal family, either as a replacement for a princely title when marrying a commoner, or in recent times, instead of that title in connection with divorce. Thus the first wife of
Prince Joachim of Denmark , father = Henri de Laborde de Monpezat , mother = Margrethe II of Denmark , religion = Church of Denmark , occupation = Military Attaché, Royal Danish Embassy in France, Special expert at Danish Defence , signat ...
, the younger son of
Margrethe II of Denmark Margrethe II (; Margrethe Alexandrine Þórhildur Ingrid, born 16 April 1940) is Queen of Denmark and commander-in-chief of the Danish Defence. Born into the House of Glücksburg, Margrethe is the eldest child of Frederick IX of Denmark and Ing ...
, became
Alexandra, Countess of Frederiksborg Alexandra, Countess of Frederiksborg, (''née'' Alexandra Christina Manley; born 30 June 1964) is the former wife of Prince Joachim of Denmark , father = Henri de Laborde de Monpezat , mother = Margrethe II of Denmark , r ...
on their divorce - initially retaining her title of princess, but losing it on her remarriage. In the Middle Ages the title of
jarl
jarl
(earl) was the highest title of nobility. The title was eventually replaced by the title of duke, but that title was abolished in Denmark and Norway as early as the Middle Ages. Titles were only reintroduced with the introduction of absolute monarchy in 1660, with count as the highest title. In Sweden the rank of count is the highest rank conferred upon nobles in the modern era and are, like their Danish and Norwegian counterparts, broadly comparable to that of dukes in other European countries. Unlike the rest of Scandinavia, the title of duke is still used in Sweden, but only by members of the royal family and are not considered part of the nobility.


Equivalents

Like other major Western
noble title Traditional rank amongst European royalty, peers, and nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobili ...
s, Count is sometimes used to render certain titles in non-western languages with their own traditions, even though they are as a rule historically unrelated and thus hard to compare, but which are considered "equivalent" in rank. This is the case with: *the
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...

Chinese
''Bó'' (伯), hereditary title of nobility ranking below ''Hóu'' (侯) and above ''Zĭ'' (子) *the
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
ese equivalent ''
Hakushaku The was the hereditary peerage A peerage is a legal system historically comprising various hereditary titles (and sometimes Life peer, non-hereditary titles) in a number of countries, and composed of assorted noble ranks. Peerages include: ...
'' (), adapted during the
Meiji restoration#REDIRECT Meiji Restoration The , referred to at the time as the , and also known as the Meiji Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was a political event that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. Although t ...
*the
Korea Korea is a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental ...

Korea
n equivalent ''Baekjak'' (백작) or ''Poguk'' * in
Vietnam Vietnam ( vi, Việt Nam, ), officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,, group="n" is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the ...

Vietnam
, it is rendered ''Bá'', one of the lower titles reserved for male members of the Imperial clan, above ''Tử'' (Viscount), ''Nam'' (Baron) and ''Vinh phong'' (lowest noble title), but lower than—in ascending order—''Hầu'' (Marquis), ''Công'' (Prince), ''Quận-Công'' (Duke/Duke of a commandery) and ''Quốc-Công'' (Grand Duke/Duke of the Nation), all under ''Vương'' (King) and ''Hoàng Đế'' (Emperor). *the
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
n ''
Sardar Sardar ( fa, سردار , , 'commander', literally 'headmaster'), also spelled as Sirdar, Sardaar, Shordar or Serdar, is a title of nobility that was originally used to denote princes, noblemen, and other Aristocracy (class), aristocrats. It ...

Sardar
'', adopted by the
Maratha Empire The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was a power that dominated a large portion of the Indian subcontinent in the 18th century. The empire formally existed from 1674 with the coronation of Shivaji Shivaji Bhonsale I (; 19 ...

Maratha Empire
, additionally,
Jagir A jagir ( fa, , translit=Jāgir), also spelled as jageer, was a type of feudal Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe between ...
dar and
Deshmukh Deshmukh (), ( mr, देशमुख, kn, ದೇಶ್ಮುಖ್, te, దేశముఖ్) is a historical title conferred to the rulers of a . It is used as a surname in certain regions of India, specifically in the states of Maharashtra ...
are close equivalents *the
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
equivalent ''
Sheikh Sheikh ( , ; ar, شيخ ' , mostly pronounced , plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of le ...

Sheikh
'' *In traditional Sulu equivalent to Datu Sadja


In fiction

The title "Count" in fiction is commonly given to evil characters or vampires: *Count Nefaria *Count Vertigo *The Count (Sesame Street) *Count Duckula *Count Olaf *Count Chocula *Count Paris *Count of Monte Cristo *Count Dooku *Count Dracula *Count Orlok


See also

* Czech nobility * Icelandic nobility * Romanian nobility * Russian nobility *
Viscount A viscount ( , for male) or viscountess (, for female) is a title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qu ...
* Earl


References


Sources

* Labarre de Raillicourt: ''Les Comtes Romains'' * Westermann, ''Großer Atlas zur Weltgeschichte'' (in German)


External links


Heraldica.org - here the French peerage



Webster's 1828 Dictionary
{{Authority control Counts, Feudalism Roman Empire in Late Antiquity Noble titles Titles Men's social titles de:Graf