Corals are marine invertebrates within the class Anthozoa of the
phylum In biology, a phylum (; plural The plural (sometimes list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical number, grammatical category of number. The plural of a noun typically denotes a q ...
Cnidaria Image:Sea nettles.jpg, Chrysaora fuscescens, Pacific sea nettles, ''Chrysaora fuscescens'' Cnidaria () is a phylum under kingdom Animalia containing over 11,000 species of aquatic animals found both in freshwater and marine environments, predomin ...
. They typically live in compact colonies of many identical individual polyps. Coral species include the important
builders that inhabit tropical oceans and secrete
calcium carbonate Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula Ca CO3. It is a common substance found in rocks as the minerals calcite and aragonite (most notably as limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate rock, carbonate sediment ...

calcium carbonate
to form a hard skeleton. A coral "group" is a colony of myriad genetically identical polyps. Each polyp is a sac-like animal typically only a few millimeters in diameter and a few centimeters in height. A set of
tentacle with 2 tentacles and 8 arms In zoology Zoology ()The pronunciation of zoology as is typically regarded as nonstandard, though it is not uncommon. is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the anatomy, structure, emb ...
s surround a central mouth opening. Each polyp excretes an
exoskeleton An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, ''éxō'' "outer" and σκελετός, ''skeletós'' "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton ( endoskeleton) of, for example, a hum ...
near the base. Over many generations, the colony thus creates a skeleton characteristic of the species which can measure up to several meters in size. Individual colonies grow by
asexual reproduction Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction that does not involve the fusion of gametes or change in the number of chromosomes. The offspring that arise by asexual reproduction from either unicellular or multicellular organisms inherit the ful ...
of polyps. Corals also breed sexually by spawning: polyps of the same species release
gamete A gamete ( /ˈɡæmiːt/; from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the follo ...
s simultaneously overnight, often around a
full moon The full Moon of 22 October 2010, as seen through a ecliptic latitude (or northern lunar standstill">lunistice), so the southern lunar craters, craters are especially prominent and cast shadows visible from Earth. The full moon is the lunar p ...
. Fertilized eggs form planulae, a mobile early form of the coral polyp which when mature settles to form a new colony. Although some corals are able to catch
plankton Plankton are the diverse collection of organisms found in Hydrosphere, water (or atmosphere, air) that are unable to propel themselves against a current (or wind). The individual organisms constituting plankton are called plankters. In the ocea ...
and small
fish Fish are Aquatic animal, aquatic, craniate, gill-bearing animals that lack Limb (anatomy), limbs with Digit (anatomy), digits. They form a sister group to the tunicates, together forming the Chordate#Taxonomy, olfactores. Included in this def ...
using stinging cells on their tentacles, most corals obtain the majority of their energy and nutrients from
photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to Energy transformation, convert light energy into chemical energy that, through cellular respiration, can later be released to fuel the organism's metabolic activities. This chemi ...

unicellular dinoflagellates of the genus ''Symbiodinium'' that live within their tissues. These are commonly known as zooxanthellae and give the coral color. Such corals require sunlight and grow in clear, shallow water, typically at depths less than . Corals are major contributors to the physical structure of the coral reefs that develop in tropical and subtropical waters, such as the Great Barrier Reef off the coast of Australia. These corals are increasingly at risk of coral bleaching, bleaching events where polyps expel the zooxanthellae in response to stress such as high water temperature or toxins. Other corals do not rely on zooxanthellae and can live globally in much deeper water, such as the cold-water genus ''Lophelia'' which can survive as deep as . Some have been found as far north as the Darwin Mounds, northwest of Cape Wrath, Scotland, and others off the coast of Washington (state), Washington state and the Aleutian Islands.


The classification of corals has been discussed for millennia, owing to having similarities to both plants and animals. Aristotle's pupil Theophrastus described the Corallium rubrum, red coral, ''korallion'', in his book on stones, implying it was a mineral, but he described it as a deep-sea plant in his ''Enquiries on Plants'', where he also mentions large stony plants that reveal bright flowers when under water in the Red Sea, Gulf of Heroes. Pliny the Elder stated boldly that several sea creatures including sea nettles and sponges "are neither animals nor plants, but are possessed of a third nature (''tertia natura'')". Petrus Gyllius copied Pliny, introducing the term ''zoophyta'' for this third group in his 1535 book ''On the French and Latin Names of the Fishes of the Marseilles Region''; it is popularly but wrongly supposed that Aristotle created the term. Gyllius further noted, following Aristotle, how hard it was to define what was a plant and what was an animal. The Babylonian Talmud refers to coral among a list of types of trees, and the 11th century French commentator Rashi describes it as "a type of tree (מין עץ) that grows underwater that goes by the (French) name "coral." The Persian polymath Al-Biruni (d.1048) classified sponges and corals as animals, arguing that they respond to touch. Nevertheless, people believed corals to be plants until the eighteenth century, when William Herschel used a microscope to establish that coral had the characteristic thin cell membranes of an animal. Presently, corals are classified as species of animals within the sub-classes Hexacorallia and Octocorallia of the class Anthozoa in the
phylum In biology, a phylum (; plural The plural (sometimes list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical number, grammatical category of number. The plural of a noun typically denotes a q ...
Cnidaria Image:Sea nettles.jpg, Chrysaora fuscescens, Pacific sea nettles, ''Chrysaora fuscescens'' Cnidaria () is a phylum under kingdom Animalia containing over 11,000 species of aquatic animals found both in freshwater and marine environments, predomin ...
. Hexacorallia includes the stony corals and these groups have polyps that generally have a 6-fold symmetry. Octocorallia includes blue coral and soft corals and species of Octocorallia have polyps with an eightfold symmetry, each polyp having eight tentacles and eight Mesentery (zoology), mesenteries. The group of corals is paraphyletic because the sea anemones are also in the sub-class Hexacorallia.


For most of their life corals are Sessility (motility), sessile animals of colonies of genetically identical polyps. Each polyp varies from millimeters to centimeters in diameter, and colonies can be formed from many million individual polyps. Stony coral, also known as hard coral, polyps produce a skeleton composed of
calcium carbonate Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula Ca CO3. It is a common substance found in rocks as the minerals calcite and aragonite (most notably as limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate rock, carbonate sediment ...

calcium carbonate
to strengthen and protect the organism. This is deposited by the polyps and by the coenosarc, the living tissue that connects them. The polyps sit in cup-shaped depressions in the skeleton known as corallites. Colonies of stony coral are very variable in appearance; a single species may adopt an encrusting, plate-like, bushy, columnar or massive solid structure, the various forms often being linked to different types of habitat, with variations in light level and water movement being significant. The body of the polyp may be roughly compared in a structure to a wikt:sac, sac, the wall of which is composed of two layers of cell (biology), cells. The outer layer is known technically as the germ layer, ectoderm, the inner layer as the germ layer, endoderm. Between ectoderm and endoderm is a supporting layer of gelatinous substance termed mesogloea, mesoglea, secreted by the cell layers of the body wall. The mesoglea can contain endoskeleton, skeletal elements derived from cells cell migration, migrated from ectoderm. The sac-like body built up in this way is attached to a hard surface, which in hard corals are cup-shaped depressions in the skeleton known as corallites. At the center of the upper end of the sac lies the only opening called the mouth, surrounded by a circle of
tentacle with 2 tentacles and 8 arms In zoology Zoology ()The pronunciation of zoology as is typically regarded as nonstandard, though it is not uncommon. is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the anatomy, structure, emb ...
s which resemble glove fingers. The tentacles are organ (anatomy), organs which serve both for the tactile sense and for the capture of food. Polyps extend their tentacles, particularly at night, often containing coiled stinging cells (cnidocytes) which pierce, poison and firmly hold living prey paralysing or killing them. Polyp prey includes plankton such as copepods and fish larvae. Longitudinal muscular fibers formed from the cells of the ectoderm allow tentacles to contract to convey the food to the mouth. Similarly, circularly disposed muscular fibres formed from the endoderm permit tentacles to be protracted or thrust out once they are contracted. In both stony and soft corals, the polyps can be retracted by contracting muscle fibres, with stony corals relying on their hard skeleton and cnidocytes for defence. Soft corals generally secrete terpenoid toxins to ward off predators. In most corals, the tentacles are retracted by day and spread out at night to catch plankton and other small organisms. Shallow water species of both stony and soft corals can be zooxanthellate, the corals supplementing their plankton diet with the products of photosynthesis produced by these Symbiosis, symbionts. The polyps interconnect by a complex and well-developed system of gastrovascular canals, allowing significant sharing of nutrients and symbionts. The external form of the polyp varies greatly. The column may be long and slender, or may be so short in the vertical direction that the body becomes disk-like. The tentacles may number many hundreds or may be very few, in rare cases only one or two. They may be simple and unbranched, or feathery in pattern. The mouth may be level with the surface of the peristome, or may be projecting and trumpet-shaped.

Soft corals

Soft corals have no solid exoskeleton as such. However, their tissues are often reinforced by small supportive elements known as "sclerites" made of calcium carbonate. The polyps of soft corals have eight-fold symmetry. Soft corals vary considerably in form, and most are colonial. A few soft corals are stolonate, but the polyps of most are connected by sheets of tissue called coenosarc, and in some species these sheets are thick and the polyps deeply embedded in them. Some soft corals encrust other sea objects or form lobes. Others are tree-like or whip-like and chem a central axial skeleton embedded at its base in the matrix of the supporting branch. These branches are composed either of a fibrous protein called gorgonin or of a calcified material.

Stony corals

The polyps of stony corals have six-fold symmetry. In stony corals the polyps are cylindrical and taper to a point, but in soft corals they are pinnate with side branches known as pinnules. In some tropical species these are reduced to mere stubs and in some, they are fused to give a paddle-like appearance. Coral skeletons are biocomposites (mineral + organics) of calcium carbonate, in the form of calcite or aragonite. In scleractinian corals, "centers of calcification" and fibers are clearly distinct structures differing with respect to both morphology and chemical compositions of the crystalline units. The organic matrices extracted from diverse species are acidic, and comprise proteins, sulphated sugars and lipids; they are species specific. The soluble organic matrices of the skeletons allow to differentiate zooxanthellae and non-zooxanthellae specimens.



Polyps feed on a variety of small organisms, from microscopic zooplankton to small fish. The polyp's tentacles immobilize or kill prey using stinging cells called nematocysts. These cells carry venom which they rapidly release in response to contact with another organism. A dormant nematocyst discharges in response to nearby prey touching the trigger (Cnidocil). A flap (Operculum (animal), operculum) opens and its stinging apparatus fires the barb into the prey. The venom is injected through the hollow filament to immobilise the prey; the tentacles then manoeuvre the prey into the stomach. Once the prey is digested the stomach reopens allowing the elimination of waste products and the beginning of the next hunting cycle.

Intracellular symbionts

Many corals, as well as other cnidarian groups such as sea anemones form a symbiotic relationship with a class of dinoflagellate algae, zooxanthellae of the genus ''Symbiodinium'', which can form as much as 30% of the tissue of a polyp. Typically, each polyp harbors one species of alga, and coral species show a preference for ''Symbiodinium''. Young corals are not born with zooxanthellae, but acquire the algae from the surrounding environment, including the water column and local sediment. The main benefit of the zooxanthellae is their ability to photosynthesize which supplies corals with the products of photosynthesis, including glucose, glycerol, and amino acids, which the corals can use for energy. Zooxanthellae also benefit corals by aiding in calcification, for the coral skeleton, and waste removal. In addition to the soft tissue, microbiomes are also found in the coral's mucus and (in stony corals) the skeleton, with the latter showing the greatest microbial richness. The zooxanthellae benefit from a safe place to live and consume the polyp's carbon dioxide, phosphate and nitrogenous waste. Stressed corals will eject their zooxanthellae, a process that is becoming increasingly common due to strain placed on coral by rising ocean temperatures. Mass ejections are known as coral bleaching because the algae contribute to coral coloration; some colors, however, are due to host coral pigments, such as green fluorescent proteins (GFPs). Ejection increases the polyp's chance of surviving short-term stress and if the stress subsides they can regain algae, possibly of a different species, at a later time. If the stressful conditions persist, the polyp eventually dies. Zooxanthellae are located within the coral cytoplasm and due to the algae's photosynthetic activity the internal pH of the coral can be raised; this behavior indicates that the zooxanthellae are responsible to some extent for the metabolism of their host corals.


Corals can be both Gonochorism, gonochoristic (unisexual) and Hermaphroditism, hermaphroditic, each of which can reproduce sexually and asexually. Reproduction also allows coral to settle in new areas. Reproduction is coordinated by chemical communication.


Corals predominantly reproduce sexual reproduction, sexually. About 25% of hermatypic corals (stony corals) form single sex (gonochoristic) colonies, while the rest are hermaphroditic.


About 75% of all hermatypic corals "broadcast spawn" by releasing
gamete A gamete ( /ˈɡæmiːt/; from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the follo ...
s—egg (biology), eggs and sperm—into the water to spread offspring. The gametes fertilize at the water's surface to form a microscopic larva called a planula, typically pink and elliptical in shape. A typical coral colony forms several thousand larvae per year to overcome the odds against formation of a new colony. Reproductive synchrony, Synchronous spawning is very typical on the coral reef, and often, even when multiple species are present, all corals spawn on the same night. This synchrony is essential so male and female gametes can meet. Corals rely on environmental cues, varying from species to species, to determine the proper time to release gametes into the water. The cues involve temperature change, Lunar phase, lunar cycle, day length, and possibly chemical signalling. Synchronous spawning may form hybrids and is perhaps involved in coral speciation. The immediate cue is most often sunset, which cues the release. The spawning event can be visually dramatic, clouding the usually clear water with gametes.


Brooding species are most often ahermatypic (not reef-building) in areas of high current or wave action. Brooders release only sperm, which is negatively buoyant, sinking on to the waiting egg carriers who harbor unfertilized eggs for weeks. Synchronous spawning events sometimes occur even with these species. After fertilization, the corals release planula that are ready to settle.


The time from spawning to larval settlement is usually two to three days, but can occur immediately or up to two months. Broadcast-spawned planula larvae develop at the water's surface before descending to seek a hard surface on the benthos to which they can attach and begin a new colony. The larvae often need a biological cue to induce settlement such as specific crustose coralline algae species or microbial biofilms. High failure rates afflict many stages of this process, and even though thousands of eggs are released by each colony, few new colonies form. During settlement, larvae are inhibited by physical barriers such as sediment, as well as chemical (allelopathic) barriers. The larvae metamorphose into a single polyp and eventually develops into a juvenile and then adult by asexual budding and growth.


Within a coral head, the genetically identical polyps reproduce asexual reproduction, asexually, either by budding (gemmation) or by dividing, whether longitudinally or transversely. Budding involves splitting a smaller polyp from an adult. As the new polyp grows, it forms :Image:Coral polyp.jpg, its body parts. The distance between the new and adult polyps grows, and with it, the coenosarc (the common body of the colony). Budding can be intratentacular, from its oral discs, producing same-sized polyps within the ring of tentacles, or extratentacular, from its base, producing a smaller polyp. Division forms two polyps that each become as large as the original. Longitudinal division begins when a polyp broadens and then divides its coelenteron (body), effectively splitting along its length. The mouth divides and new tentacles form. The two polyps thus created then generate their missing body parts and exoskeleton. Transversal division occurs when polyps and the exoskeleton divide transversally into two parts. This means one has the basal disc (bottom) and the other has the oral disc (top); the new polyps must separately generate the missing pieces. Asexual reproduction offers the benefits of high reproductive rate, delaying senescence, and replacement of dead modules, as well as geographical distribution.

Colony division

Whole colonies can reproduce asexually, forming two colonies with the same genotype. The possible mechanisms include fission, bailout and fragmentation. Fission occurs in some corals, especially among the family Fungiidae, where the colony splits into two or more colonies during early developmental stages. Bailout occurs when a single polyp abandons the colony and settles on a different substrate to create a new colony. Fragmentation involves individuals broken from the colony during storms or other disruptions. The separated individuals can start new colonies.

Coral microbiome

Coral holobiont

Reef-building corals are well-studied holobionts that include the coral itself together with its symbiont zooxanthellae (photosynthetic dinoflagellates), as well as its associated bacteria and viruses.Knowlton, N. and Rohwer, F. (2003) "Multispecies microbial mutualisms on coral reefs: the host as a habitat". ''The American Naturalist'', 162(S4): S51-S62. . Co-evolutionary patterns exist for coral microbial communities and coral phylogeny.


Many corals in the order Scleractinia are Hermatypic coral, hermatypic, meaning that they are involved in building reefs. Most such corals obtain some of their energy from zooxanthellae in the genus ''Symbiodinium''. These are symbiosis, symbiotic photosynthetic dinoflagellates which require sunlight; reef-forming corals are therefore found mainly in shallow water. They secrete calcium carbonate to form hard skeletons that become the framework of the reef. However, not all reef-building corals in shallow water contain zooxanthellae, and some deep water species, living at depths to which light cannot penetrate, form reefs but do not harbour the symbionts. File:Hertshoon.jpg, left, Staghorn coral (''Acropora cervicornis'') is an important hermatypic coral from the Caribbean There are various types of shallow-water coral reef, including fringing reefs, barrier reefs and atolls; most occur in tropical and subtropical seas. They are very slow-growing, adding perhaps one centimetre (0.4 in) in height each year. The Great Barrier Reef is thought to have been laid down about two million years ago. Over time, corals fragment and die, sand and rubble accumulates between the corals, and the shells of clams and other molluscs decay to form a gradually evolving calcium carbonate structure. Coral reefs are extremely diverse marine ecosystems hosting over 4,000 species of fish, massive numbers of cnidarians, Mollusca, molluscs, crustaceans, and many other animals.


Corals first appeared in the Cambrian about . Fossils are extremely rare until the Ordovician period, 100 million years later, when Rugosa, rugose and tabulate corals became widespread. Paleozoic corals often contained numerous endobiotic symbionts. Tabulate corals occur in limestones and calcareous shales of the Ordovician and Silurian periods, and often form low cushions or branching masses of calcite alongside rugose corals. Their numbers began to decline during the middle of the Silurian period, and they became extinct at the end of the Permian period, . Rugose or horn corals became dominant by the middle of the Silurian period, and became extinct early in the Triassic period. The rugose corals existed in solitary and colonial forms, and were also composed of calcite. File:Syringoporid.jpg, Tabulate coral (a syringoporid); Boone limestone (Lower Carboniferous) near Hiwasse, Arkansas, scale bar is 2.0 cm File:AuloporaDevonianSilicaShale.jpg, Tabulate coral ''Aulopora'' from the Devonian period File:RugosaOrdovician.jpg, Solitary rugose coral (''Grewingkia'') in three views; Ordovician, southeastern Indiana The currently ubiquitous Scleractinia, stony corals filled the niche vacated by the extinct rugose and tabulate species. Their fossils are found in small numbers in rocks from the Triassic period, and become common in the Jurassic and later periods. The skeletons of stony corals are composed of a form of calcium carbonate known as aragonite. Although they are geologically younger than the tabulate and rugose corals, the aragonite of their skeletons is less readily preserved, and their fossil record is accordingly less complete. At certain times in the geological past, corals were very abundant. Like modern corals, these ancestors built reefs, some of which ended as great structures in sedimentary rocks. Fossils of fellow reef-dwellers algae, sponges, and the remains of many Echinoderm, echinoids, brachiopods, bivalves, gastropods, and trilobites appear along with coral fossils. This makes some corals useful index fossils. Coral fossils are not restricted to reef remnants, and many solitary fossils are found elsewhere, such as ''Cyclocyathus'', which occurs in England's Gault clay formation.



Coral reefs are under stress around the world. In particular, coral mining, agricultural runoff, agricultural and urban runoff, pollution (organic and inorganic), overfishing, blast fishing, disease, and the digging of canals and access into islands and bays are localized threats to coral ecosystems. Broader threats are sea temperature rise, sea level rise and pH changes from ocean acidification, all associated with greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 16% of the world's reefs died as a result of increased water temperature. Approximately 10% of the world's coral reefs are dead. About 60% of the world's reefs are at risk due to human-related activities. The threat to reef health is particularly strong in Southeast Asia, where 80% of reefs are endangered species, endangered. Over 50% of the world's coral reefs may be destroyed by 2030; as a result, most nations protect them through environmental laws. In the Caribbean and tropical Pacific, direct contact between ~40–70% of common seaweeds and coral causes bleaching and death to the coral via transfer of lipid-soluble metabolites. Seaweed and algae proliferate given adequate nutrients and limited grazing by herbivores such as parrotfish. Water temperature changes of more than 1–2 °C (1.8–3.6 °F) or salinity changes can kill some species of coral. Under such environmental stresses, corals expel their Symbiodinium; without them coral tissues reveal the white of their skeletons, an event known as coral bleaching. Submarine springs found along the coast of Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula produce water with a naturally low pH (relatively high acidity) providing conditions similar to those expected to become widespread as the oceans absorb carbon dioxide. Surveys discovered multiple species of live coral that appeared to tolerate the acidity. The colonies were small and patchily distributed, and had not formed structurally complex reefs such as those that compose the nearby Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System.


Marine Protected Areas, Biosphere reserves, marine parks, national monuments world heritage status, Fisheries management, fishery management and habitat (ecology), habitat protection can protect reefs from anthropogenic damage. Many governments now prohibit removal of coral from reefs, and inform coastal residents about reef protection and ecology. While local action such as habitat restoration and herbivore protection can reduce local damage, the longer-term threats of acidification, temperature change and sea-level rise remain a challenge. Protecting networks of diverse and healthy reefs, not only climate Refugium (population biology), refugia, helps ensure the greatest chance of genetic diversity, which is critical for coral to adapt to new climates. A variety of conservation methods applied across marine and terrestrial threatened ecosystems makes coral adaption more likely and effective. To eliminate destruction of corals in their indigenous regions, projects have been started to grow corals in non-tropical countries.

Coral Health

To assess the threat level of coral, scientists developed a coral imbalance ratio, Log(Average abundance of disease associated taxa / Average abundance of healthy associated taxa). The lower the ratio the healthier the microbial community is. This ratio was developed after the microbial mucus of coral was collected and studied.

Relation to humans

Local economies near major coral reefs benefit from an abundance of fish and other marine creatures as a food source. Reefs also provide recreational scuba diving and snorkeling tourism. These activities can damage coral but international projects such as Green Fins that encourage dive and snorkel centres to follow a Code of Conduct have been proven to mitigate these risks.


Corals' many colors give it appeal for necklaces and other jewelry. Intensely red coral is prized as a gemstone. Sometimes called fire coral, it is not the same as fire coral. Red coral is very rare because of overharvesting. In general, it is inadvisable to give coral as gifts since they are in decline from stressors like climate change, pollution, and unsustainable fishing. Always considered a precious mineral, "the Chinese have long associated red coral with auspiciousness and longevity because of its color and its resemblance to deer antlers (so by association, virtue, long life, and high rank". It reached its height of popularity during the Manchu or Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) when it was almost exclusively reserved for the emperor's use either in the form of coral beads (often combined with pearls) for court jewelry or as decorative Penjing (decorative miniature mineral trees). Coral was known as ''shanhu'' in Chinese. The "early-modern 'coral network' [began in] the Mediterranean Sea [and found its way] to Qing China via the English East India Company". There were strict rules regarding its use in a code established by the Qianlong Emperor in 1759.


Image:ViennaDioscoridesCoral.jpg, left, upDepiction of coral in the Juliana Anicia Codex, a 6th-century copy of Dioscorides' ''De Materia Medica''. The facing page states that coral can be used to treat ulcers. In medicine, chemical compounds from corals can potentially be used to treat cancer, AIDS, pain, and for other therapeutic uses. Coral skeletons, e.g. ''Isididae'' are also used for bone grafting in humans. Coral Calx, known as Praval Bhasma in Sanskrit, is widely used in traditional system of Ayurveda, Indian medicine as a supplement in the treatment of a variety of bone metabolic disorders associated with calcium deficiency. In classical times ingestion of pulverized coral, which consists mainly of the weak base
calcium carbonate Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula Ca CO3. It is a common substance found in rocks as the minerals calcite and aragonite (most notably as limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate rock, carbonate sediment ...

calcium carbonate
, was recommended for calming stomach ulcers by Galen and Dioscorides.


Coral reefs in places such as the East African coast are used as a source of building material. Ancient (fossil) coral limestone, notably including the Coral Rag Formation of the hills around Oxford (England), was once used as a building stone, and can be seen in some of the oldest buildings in that city including the Saxon tower of St Michael at the Northgate, St. George's Tower of Oxford Castle, and the medieval walls of the city.

Shoreline protection

Healthy coral reefs absorb 97 percent of a wave's energy, which buffers shorelines from currents, waves, and storms, helping to prevent loss of life and property damage. Coastlines protected by coral reefs are also more stable in terms of erosion than those without.

Local economies

Coastal communities near coral reefs rely heavily on them. Worldwide, more than 500 million people depend on coral reefs for food, income, coastal protection, and more. The total economic value of coral reef services in the United States - including fisheries, tourism, and coastal protection - is more than $3.4 billion a year.

Climate research

Annual growth bands in some corals, such as the deep sea bamboo corals (''Isididae''), may be among the first signs of the effects of ocean acidification on marine life. The growth rings allow Geology, geologists to construct year-by-year chronologies, a form of incremental dating, which underlie high-resolution records of past paleoclimatology, climatic and paleoecology, environmental changes using geochemistry, geochemical techniques. Certain species form communities called microatolls, which are colonies whose top is dead and mostly above the water line, but whose perimeter is mostly submerged and alive. Average tide level limits their height. By analyzing the various growth morphologies, microatolls offer a low resolution record of sea level change. Fossilized microatolls can also be dated using Radiocarbon dating. Such methods can help to reconstruct Holocene sea levels. Increasing sea temperatures in tropical regions (~1 degree C) the last century have caused major coral bleaching, death, and therefore shrinking coral populations since although they are able to adapt and acclimate, it is uncertain if this evolutionary process will happen quickly enough to prevent major reduction of their numbers. Though coral have large sexually-reproducing populations, their evolution can be slowed by abundant
asexual reproduction Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction that does not involve the fusion of gametes or change in the number of chromosomes. The offspring that arise by asexual reproduction from either unicellular or multicellular organisms inherit the ful ...
. Gene flow is variable among coral species. According to the biogeography of coral species gene flow cannot be counted on as a dependable source of adaptation as they are very stationary organisms. Also, coral longevity might factor into their adaptivity. However, adaptation to climate change has been demonstrated in many cases. These are usually due to a shift in coral and zooxanthellae genotypes. These shifts in allele frequency have progressed toward more tolerant types of zooxanthellae. Scientists found that a certain scleractinian zooxanthella is becoming more common where sea temperature is high. Symbionts able to tolerate warmer water seem to photosynthesise more slowly, implying an evolutionary trade-off. In the Gulf of Mexico, where sea temperatures are rising, cold-sensitive Staghorn coral, staghorn and elkhorn coral have shifted in location. Not only have the symbionts and specific species been shown to shift, but there seems to be a certain growth rate favorable to selection. Slower-growing but more heat-tolerant corals have become more common. The changes in temperature and acclimation are complex. Some reefs in current shadows represent a refugium location that will help them adjust to the disparity in the environment even if eventually the temperatures may rise more quickly there than in other locations. This vicariance, separation of populations by climatic barriers causes a realized niche to shrink greatly in comparison to the old fundamental niche.


Corals are shallow, colonial organisms that integrate oxygen and trace elements into their skeletal aragonite (Polymorphism (materials science), polymorph of calcite) crystalline structures as they grow. Geochemical anomalies within the crystalline structures of corals represent functions of temperature, salinity and oxygen isotopic composition. Such geochemical analysis can help with climate modeling. The δ18O, ratio of oxygen-18 to oxygen-16 (δ18O), for example, is a proxy for temperature.

= Strontium/calcium ratio anomaly

= Time can be attributed to coral geochemistry anomalies by correlating strontium/calcium minimums with sea surface temperature, sea surface temperature (SST) maximums to data collected fro

= Oxygen isotope anomaly

= The comparison of coral strontium/calcium minimums with sea surface temperature maximums, data recorded fro
time can be correlated to coral strontium/calcium and Δ18O, δ18O variations. To confirm accuracy of the annual relationship between Sr/Ca and Δ18O, δ18O variations, a perceptible association to annual coral growth rings confirms the age conversion. Geochronology is established by the blending of Sr/Ca data, growth rings, and Stable isotope ratio, stable isotope data. El Nino-Southern Oscillation, El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is directly related to climate fluctuations that influence coral Δ18O, δ18O ratio from local salinity variations associated with the position of the South Pacific convergence zone, South Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ) and can be used for El Niño Southern Oscillation, ENSO modeling.

= Sea surface temperature and sea surface salinity

= The global moisture budget is primarily being influenced by tropical sea surface temperatures from the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The Southern Hemisphere has a unique meteorological feature positioned in the southwestern Pacific Basin called the South Pacific convergence zone, South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), which contains a perennial position within the Southern Hemisphere. During El Niño Southern Oscillation, ENSO warm periods, the South Pacific convergence zone, SPCZ reverses orientation extending from the equator down south through Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Fiji and towards the French Polynesian islands, Polynesian Islands; and due east towards South America affecting geochemistry of corals in tropical regions. Geochemical analysis of skeletal coral can be linked to sea surface salinity (SSS) and sea surface temperature (SST), fro
El Nino 3.4 SSTA
data, of tropical oceans to seawater Δ18O, δ18O ratio anomalies from corals. El Niño Southern Oscillation, ENSO phenomenon can be related to variations in sea surface salinity (SSS) and sea surface temperature, sea surface temperature (SST) that can help model tropical climate activities.

= Limited climate research on current species

= Climate research on live coral species is limited to a few studied species. Studying ''Porites'' coral provides a stable foundation for geochemical interpretations that is much simpler to physically extract data in comparison to ''Platygyra'' species where the complexity of ''Platygyra'' species skeletal structure creates difficulty when physically sampled, which happens to be one of the only multidecadal living coral records used for coral paleoclimate modeling.


The saltwater fishkeeping hobby has expanded, over recent years, to include Reef aquarium, reef tanks, fish tanks that include large amounts of live rock on which coral is allowed to grow and spread. These tanks are either kept in a natural-like state, with algae (sometimes in the form of an algae scrubber) and a deep sand bed providing filtration, or as "show tanks", with the rock kept largely bare of the algae and microfauna that would normally populate it, in order to appear neat and clean. The most popular kind of coral kept is soft coral, especially zoanthids and mushroom corals, which are especially easy to grow and propagate in a wide variety of conditions, because they originate in enclosed parts of reefs where water conditions vary and lighting may be less reliable and direct.Coral Reefs
. Marinebio.org. Retrieved on 2016-06-13.
More serious fishkeepers may keep small polyp stony coral, which is from open, brightly lit reef conditions and therefore much more demanding, while large polyp stony coral is a sort of compromise between the two.


Aquaculture of coral, Coral aquaculture, also known as ''coral farming'' or ''coral gardening'', is the cultivation of corals for commercial purposes or coral reef restoration. Aquaculture is showing promise as a potentially effective tool for restoring coral reefs, which have been declining around the world. The process bypasses the early growth stages of corals when they are most at risk of dying. Coral fragments known as "seeds" are grown in nurseries then replanted on the reef. Coral is farmed by coral farmers who live locally to the reefs and farm for reef Conservation movement, conservation or for income. It is also farmed by scientists for research, by businesses for the supply of the live and ornamental coral trade and by private aquarium hobbyists.


''Further images: commons:Coral reefs and commons:Corals'' File:Mushroom Coral (Fungia) Top Macro 91.JPG, ''Fungia'' sp. skeleton File:Eusmilia fastigiata large.jpg, Polyps of ''Eusmilia fastigiata'' File:Dendrogyra cylindrus (pillar coral) (San Salvador Island, Bahamas) 1 (15513345363).jpg, Pillar coral, ''Dendrogyra cylindricus'' File:Brain coral.jpg, Brain coral, ''Diploria labyrinthiformis'' File:Brain coral spawning.jpg, Brain coral spawning File:Stony coral spawning 3.jpg, Brain coral releasing eggs File:EilatFringingReef.jpg, Fringing coral reef off the coast of Eilat, Israel.

See also

*Keystone species



* * * * * * * * * * *

External links

Coral Reefs
The Ocean Portal by the Smithsonian Institution * NOAA
Coral Reef Conservation Program
Coral Reef Biology
* NOAA Office for Coastal Management
Fast Facts - Coral Reefs
* NOAA Ocean Service Education
* {{Authority control Anthozoa Coral reefs,