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A consultant (from la, consultare "to deliberate") is a
professional A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns a living from a specified professional activity. The term also describes the standards of education and training that prepare members of the profession with the particular knowled ...
(also known as ''expert'', ''specialist'', see variations of meaning below) who provides advice and further purposeful activities in an area of specialization.


Definition and distinction

Consultant
Peter Block Peter Block (born 1939) is an American author, consultant, and speaker in the areas of organization development Organization development (OD) is the study and implementation of practices, systems, and techniques that affect organizational chang ...
defines a consultant as "someone who has influence over an individual, group, or organization, but who has no direct authority to implement changes". He contrasts this with a ''surrogate manager'', who is a person who "acts on behalf of, or in place of, a manager". The key difference is that a consultant never makes decisions for the individual or group, whereas a surrogate manager does make decisions. Consultancy UK defines the role as providing "professional or expert advice in a particular field of science or business to either an organisation or individual".Consultancy.uk
What is a consultant?
accessed 29 June 2021
The
Harvard Business School Harvard Business School (HBS) is the graduate Graduate refers to someone who has been the subject of a graduation, namely, someone who has completed the requirements of an academic degree. Education * Graduate, an alumnus * Graduate diploma, ...
provides a more specific definition of a consultant as someone who advises on "how to modify, proceed in, or streamline a given
process A process is a series or set of activities that interact to produce a result; it may occur once-only or be recurrent or periodic. Things called a process include: Business and management *Business process A business process, business method or ...

process
within a specialized field". In his book, ''The Consulting Bible'', Alan Weiss defines that "When we onsultantswalk away from a client, the client's conditions should be better than it was before we arrived or we've failed." There is no legal protection given to the job title 'consultant'.


Subject-matter expert (SME) vs. consultant

According to ''Institute of Management Consultants USA,'' "The value of a consultant s compared to a Subject-matter expert (SME)is to be able to correctly diagnose and effectively transform an often ill-defined problem and apply information, resources and processes to create a workable and usable solution. Some experts are good consultants and vice versa, some are neither, few are both." Another differentiation perspective would be that a consultant sells advice, but an expert sells his expertise; or of Consultants vs. Coaches or SMEs vs. Team Leaders.


Contractor vs. Consultant

The consultant is in a role of sharing her or his knowledge and advice, whereas the contractor builds something for the client.


Consultants' view of a consultant

A study found that business consultants maintain a very humble approach in their partnership with the client and believe that the ultimate goal is to make the customer move forward. Further, consultants are conscious in amount of control and discretion which comes from the customer and understand that criticism of their role is part of the work and sometimes even justified.


Role of a consultant

The role of consultant outside the medical sphere (where the term is used specifically for a grade of doctor) can fall under one of two general categories: * Internal consultant: someone who is employed by and operates within a client-organization (maybe as part of an ''internal consultancy unit''); or * External consultant: someone who is employed externally to the client (either by a
consulting firmA consulting firm or simply consultancy is a professional service firm A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Legal personality, legal or a mixt ...
or some other agency) whose expertise is provided as part of a contract for a fee or rate.


Business case for hiring a consultant

Traditionally, by hiring a consultant, clients have access to deeper levels of expertise than would be financially feasible for them to retain in-house on a long-term basis. Moreover, clients can control their expenditures on consulting services by only purchasing as much services from the outside consultant as desired. Additionally, consultants are key persons with specific domain-skills in creating strategies, (e.g. ), leadership coaching, interim management (also called ''consultant manager''), etc. Another business-case is that a consultant can save the company money: for example, a specialist tax-consultant who saves the company 20% on its taxes, and only charges 10% in fees, enables the company to net a 10% savings. In the
UK government ga, Rialtas na Ríochta Aontaithe sco, Govrenment o the Unitit Kinrick , image = HM Government logo.svg , image_size=220px, date_established = , state = United Kingdom , address = 10 Downing Street, London , leader_title = Prime Minister ...
sector, since 2010 the
Cabinet Office The Cabinet Office is a department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and admini ...

Cabinet Office
has required government departments to implement spending controls which restrict the appointment of consultants and temporary staff in order to reduce consultancy expenditure and ensure that the use of consultants offers
value for money In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goo ...
.National Audit Office
Use of consultants and temporary staff
HC 603, published 13 January 2013, accessed 29 June 2021
Government guidance requires information on all spend on consultancy and professional services valued at £100,000 or above (excluding recoverable
VAT A value-added tax (VAT), known in some countries as a goods and services tax (GST), is a type of tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law, a legal ...
), and/or of a duration of three months or longer, to be submitted to the Cabinet Office. A National Audit Office report published in 2015 recommended that all UK government departments adopt a "strategic plan" to assess their current skills and expected "skill gaps", so that their future need for consultants and temporary staff could be better predicted.


Delivery of service

Consultants provide their advice to their clients in a variety of forms. Reports and presentations are often used. Advice can be general (high degree of quality of communication) and also domain-focused. However, in some specialized fields, the consultant may develop customized software or other products for the client. Depending on the nature (also named mandate or
statement of work A statement of work (SOW) is a document routinely employed in the field of project management Project management is the process of leading the work of a team to achieve goals and meet success criteria at a specified time. The primary challenge of ...
or assignment) of the consulting services and the wishes of the client, the advice from the consultant may be made public, by placing the report or presentation online, or the advice may be kept confidential (under a
Non-disclosure agreement#REDIRECT Non-disclosure agreement A non-disclosure agreement (NDA), also known as a confidentiality agreement (CA), confidential disclosure agreement (CDA), proprietary information agreement (PIA) or secrecy agreement (SA), is a legal contract o ...
or within the clients-company), and only given to the senior executives of the organization.


Employment status and career distinction

Consultants work for (consulting) firms or as freelance contractors. A consultant differs from a temporary worker insofar as she or he has, as detailed above, a highly specialized career and domain knowledge. This could be true for a temporary worker too, however, for example a medical consultant is unlikely to suddenly become a hotel receptionist, whereas a temporary worker might change domains and branches more frequently. Furthermore, a consultant usually signs a service-type employee contract (known as
fixed-termA fixed-term contract is a contractual relationship between an employee and an employer that lasts for a specified period. These contracts are usually regulated by countries' labor laws, to ensure that employers still fulfill basic labour rights rega ...
, full-time, part-time), whereas a temporary worker will only be offered a temporary (and scope limited) contract or a work-results type contract (e. g. in Germany a specific type of contract called ''Werksvertrag'') to fulfill or create a specific work. Additionally, a temporary worker might be directed and managed by a client, whereas a consultant is employed by a company (or self) and provides services for a client. The consultant may not be provided work-related instruments or tools, but only the necessary infrastructure and accesses the consultant needs to fulfill the statement of work, e. g. access to internal IT networks or client-side laboratory. Moreover, a consultant might engage in multi-project services ( matrix organization) for the client or for internal projects/activities at the employer firm. The consultant's career path is usually not at the client's side, however the consultant will very likely be introduced into the client's organizational program or project structure. Novel collaborations of expert-contractors or ''independent consultants'' especially in
ICT ICT may refer to: Science and technology * Information and communications technology * Image Constraint Token, in video processing * Immunochromatographic test, a rapid immunoassay used to detect diseases such as anthrax * In-circuit test, in el ...
sector exist, e.g.
ThoughtWorks ThoughtWorks is a privately owned, global technology company with 48 offices in 17 countries. It provides software design and delivery, and tools and consulting services. The company is closely associated with the movement for agile software devel ...
.


Consulting scope

A consultant's activity can last anywhere from an hourly consultation, to a one-day service, three months, 12 months or more. For complex projects, a longer period is needed for the consultant to analyze, resolve the root cause, get to know the stakeholders and organizational-situation, etc. Usually the engagement has set legal boundaries under given law to avoid (specifically for freelance-contractors) the problem of
false self-employmentFalse self-employment is a situation in which somebody registered as self-employed, a freelancer, or a Temporary work, temp is de facto an employee carrying out a professional activity under the authority and subordination of another company. Such fa ...
(see also
Umbrella company An umbrella company is a company that employs agency contractors who work on temporary contract assignments, usually through a recruitment agency in the United Kingdom. Recruitment agencies prefer to issue contracts to a limited company as the ag ...
). The person at client location is sometimes called a ''Resident''. By spending time at the client's organization, the consultant is able to observe work processes, interview workers, managers, executives, board members, or other individuals, and study how the organization operates to provide hers or his services. In some settings, a consultant is signing a specific contract and is hired as an interim manager or executive with advanced authority or shared responsibility or decision making of client-side activities, filling a vacant position which could and cannot be filled with an internal candidate. This is often the case by the client-organization due to other constraints, such as corporate compliance and HR-processes, which lead to prolonged hiring paths beyond six months, which is often inacceptable for leadership roles.


Work location

Though most of the research and analysis occurs at the consultants' offices (sometimes called back-office) or
home-office Home office Small office/home office (or single office/home office; sometimes short SOHO) refers to the category of business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling Product (busines ...
s (in case of COVID-19 see also
Telecommuting Telecommuting, also called remote working, telework, teleworking, working from home (WFH), mobile work, remote job, work from anywhere (WFA), and flexible workplace, is a employment, work arrangement in which employees do not commuting, commute ...
), in the case of smaller consulting firms, consultants typically work at the site of the client for at least some of the time. The governing factor on where a consultant works tends to be the amount of interaction required with other employees of the client. If a
management consultant Management consulting is the practice of helping organizations to improve their performance management, performance. Organizations may draw upon the services of management consultants for a number of reasons, including gaining external (and presumab ...
is providing advice to a software firm that is struggling with employee morale,
absenteeismAbsenteeism is a habitual pattern of absence from a duty A duty (from "due" meaning "that which is owing"; fro, deu, did, past participle of ''devoir''; la, debere, debitum, whence "debt") is a commitment or expectation to perform some action i ...
and issues with managers and senior engineers leaving the firm, the consultant will probably spend a good deal of time at the client's office, interviewing staff, engineers, managers and executives, and observing work processes. On the other hand, a legal consultant asked to provide advice on a specific
property law Property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depending on the nature of the property, an owner of property may have the right to , alter, , , ...
issue might only have a few meetings at the client's office, and conduct the majority of his work at the consultant's office and in legal libraries. Similarly, the growth of online, highly skilled consultant
marketplaces A market, or marketplace, is a location where people regularly go to gather for the purchase and sale of provisions, livestock, and other goods. In different parts of the world, a market place may be described as a '' souk'' (from the Ara ...
has begun to grow. Additionally, the on-going COVID-19 pandemic is fueling the need for staff to work from home (remotely) and to develop or evolve excellent online-work skills to continue business or operations.


In-house consulting

Also known as ''ICUs - Internal Consulting Units'', which are departments or specialists groups created by or maintained by usually larger companies for their own consulting service needs along the business chain. ''ICUs'' might be internal or own-run businesses.


Success factors of consulting

The following qualities are found to be helpful for a successful consulting career.


Accenture success factors

From Accenture blog, one of the main IT consultancies in the world, the following factors play an important role: * A service-oriented mindset * Sharing of great work * Seizing of opportunities * Setting of goals, seeking of advice and taking time to reflect


77 Keywords Consulting success factors

According to ''77 Keywords Consulting'', a foundational references on consulting, the following factors are important: * ''Choice of consultant:'' Factors that matter: subject matter competency, appearance and social skills, and knowledge transfer capabilities * ''Cooperation and delegation of tasks'': The consultant works along-side other employees and needs clear scope and guidance of activities (mutual skill; needs client organizational setting too) * ''Continuity of consultancy'': Avoidance of frequent changes of consultation activity to increase costs transparency, trust, etc.


''Bronnenmayer's'' success factors

Bronnenmayer et al. investigated, by applying a
structural equation model Structural equation modeling (SEM) includes a diverse set of mathematical models, computer algorithms, and statistical methods that fit networks of constructs to data. SEM includes confirmatory factor analysis In statistics Statistics is t ...
, and due to little empirical research, the management consulting's success factors from a client perspective. It is found that Consultant Expertise, Intensity of Collaboration and Common Vision have strongest performance impact on success. # Common Vision # Intensity of Collaboration # Trust # Project Management # Consultant Expertise # Provided Resources # Top Management Support


Sindermann and Sawyer success factors

Sindermann and Sawyer conclude in their book ''The Scientist as Consultant'', that a cientificconsultant is successful, if she or he has "achieved a viable mix of technical proficiency and business skills" with "technical proficiency" meaning excellence in competence, credibility, effective networking with colleagues, and ability to negotiate.


Hartel's 10 Golden Rules

According to management consultant Dirk Hartel, the following ten objectives or rules are key to a successful consulting career: # Customer first - Especially the meaning of being available (time) for customer needs # Appearance - Understanding of self-image and dress for the job # Determined friendliness - Having concrete mindset and goals, but being diplomatic too # Punctuality - Leading time management, starting and finishing on time, being prepared # Engagement and productivity - Supporting, being pro-active, etc. # Critical questioning - Nobody is born a consultant; asking the right questions is a key skill # Feedback - Request regular feedback, asking for critique rather than waiting for it # Acceptance of hierarchies - Professional navigation in client organization, knowing authority-levels, being respectful and being confidential with customer information # Stakeholder behavior - Study and understanding of client behavior and culture; inspiring stakeholders with presentations, etc. # Being courageous - Consulting-life is challenging, never lose trust in yourself, but also reflect and lead a positive and good life


Consulting challenges


Distinctness

Consultants are often outsiders to the client organization. On one hand, this means their work methods, expertise, behaviors, etc. differ from the client-employees and organizational, and is exactly what the client needs, however it can also be a considerable disadvantage for a successful engagement and may lead to a less intimate cooperation with the client's business.


Domain

Next to general challenges, domain-specific challenges for consultants exist. In
palliative medicine Palliative care (derived from the Latin root ''palliare, or'' "to cloak") is an interdisciplinary medical caregiving approach aimed at optimizing quality of life and mitigating suffering among people with serious, complex illness. Within the publ ...
consulting, emotions, beliefs, sensitive topics, difficulty communicating and prognosis interpretation, or patients expectations despite critical illness are some of the challenges faced by the consultant.


Ethical conflict (manipulation)

According to Kelman, "One danger is that he counselordoes not recognize the control that he is exercising over the client's behavior. The other is that he is so convinced that he is doing good for the client that he does not realize the client that he does not see the double-edged nature of the control he is exercising." A consultant therefore needs to be aware and in control of her or his manipulative influences in particular couseling settings.


Expectations (customer)

Hartel mentions several challenges that are based on the types of consultants, including a consultant in a short-term role, as integrator, as driver, as project manager or methodology guru, know-how expert, or as scapegoat. In case of ''consultant as integrator'', the consultant has the challenging task to resolve, negotiate, facilitate, mediate political situations in companies to move forward, such as different opinions, critical characters (persons), difficult relationships or interfaces, goal conflicts, power games, etc. In case of ''consultant as scapegoat'', the consultant, who is external to the company, is the one to announce difficult company decisions such as layoffs or reorganizations, but it is important that the consultant acts professional and competent, not just as "
Rambo Rambo is a surname with Norwegian (Vestfold) and Swedish origins. It possibly originated with '':wikt:ramn#Old Swedish, ramn'' + '':wikt:bo#Swedish, bo'', meaning "raven's nest". It has variants in French (''Rambeau'' and ''Rimbaud'') and German ('' ...
in suit".


Organizational

Consultants may face several organizational challenges, e. g. internal consultants are faced with the paradoxes to maintain a good balance between knowing the internal company structure and at the same time staying neutral and objective, keeping a marginal position between the client and the provided service. Further, depending on the hiring company's understanding how to work with a consultant, the consultant might be seen as disruption to the inhouse employees status.


Other general challenges

General issues faced by a consultant can be stress, productivity issues with meetings, general "technostresses", high-paced and changing business environments and situations, etc.


Stakeholder management

In case of corporate and industrial consultants, the role is further challenged to act and become the "translator of information" from various different client-company cultures and procedures (processes) and between her or his employer-side team, managers and leadership team. What is an important goal to the current client is usually not similar for any other client due to multiple variations in company size, history, product, program, organizational structure, leadership, etc. Hence the consultant must be excellent in sensing and communicating between different layers in the organization and further across it, while maintaining authenticity, integrity and trustworthiness with all parties involved.


Taxation and legal status

Independent consultants (contractors or freelancer) usually need to fulfil taxation requirements given by laws, specifically challenging employment status to avoid 'disguised' employment. Compared to contracting, consulting can be seen as being "in business in your own right", not controlled by your client, etc. placing a consultant "well outside" of e. g. IR35. Alan Weiss provides 20 "factors" for consultants in the US (IRS), which are similar in other countries, to avoid or understand in terms of their business activity. Amongst those, the consultant is not supposed to be instructed by the client, should not receive similar training as employees, has the right to sub-contract, should not be integrated into the organizational structure, etc. to avoid legal-status and taxation issues.


Qualifications

There is no single qualification to becoming a consultant, other than those laid down in relation to medical, psychological and engineering personnel who have attained this level-degree in it or professional licenses, such as
Chartered Engineer Regulation and licensure in engineering is established by various jurisdictions of the world to encourage public welfare, safety, well-being and other interests of the general public and to define the licensure process through which an engineer bec ...
. Consultants may hold
undergraduate degree An undergraduate degree (also called first degree or simply degree) is a colloquial term for an academic degree An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, usual ...
s,
graduate degree Postgraduate education (graduate education in North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, u ...
s,
professional degree A professional degree, formerly known in the US as a first professional degree, is a degree that prepares someone to work in a particular profession A Profession is a disciplined group of individuals who adhere to ethical standards and who hol ...
s or
professional designation Professional certification, trade certification, or professional designation, often called simply ''certification'' or ''qualification'', is a designation earned by a person to assure qualification to perform a job or task. Not all certifications ...
s pertaining to their field(s) of expertise. In some fields, a consultant may be required to hold certain professional licenses (e.g., a
civil engineer A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering Civil engineering is a professional engineering Regulation and licensure in engineering is established by various jurisdictions of the world to encourage public welfare, safety, w ...
providing consulting on a bridge project may have to be a
professional engineer Regulation and licensure in engineering is established by various jurisdictions of the world to encourage public welfare, safety, well-being and other interests of the general public and to define the licensure Licensure means a restricted practi ...
). In other types of consulting, there may be no specific qualification requirements. A legal consultant may have to be a member of the bar or hold a law degree. An accounting consultant may have to have an accounting designation, such as
Chartered Accountant Chartered accountants were the first accountant An accountant is a practitioner of accounting Accounting or Accountancy is the measurement, processing, and communication of financial and non financial information about economic entity ...
status. Some individuals become consultants after a lengthy and distinguished career as an executive or political leader or employee, so their lengthy and exposed experience may be their main asset.


Accreditation

Various accreditation bodies for consultants exist today: *
AACSB The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, also known as AACSB International, is an American professional organization A professional association (also called a professional body, professional organization, or professional societ ...
- Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business * - Association of MBAs *CIMC - Chartered Institute of Management Consultants (US) * CMI - Chartered Management Institute (UK) **IC - Institute of Consulting (UK) *
EFMDThe European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) is an international not-for-profit association, based in Brussels, Belgium. Europe's largest network association in the field of management development, it has over 890 member organizations fr ...
- European Foundation for Management Development (
EQUIS The EFMD Quality Improvement System (EQUIS) is a school accreditation Educational accreditation is a quality assurance process under which services and operations of educational institutions or programs are evaluated and verified by an external b ...
) * FEANI - European federation of professional engineers * Institute of Management Consultants (IMC USA) * International Federation of Consulting Engineers (FIDIC) *The International Council of Management Consulting Institutes (ICMCI)


Code of Ethics

Accredited associates in all field (incl. medical) can be bound by a
Code of Ethics Ethical codes are adopted by organizations to assist members in understanding the difference between right Rights are law, legal, social, or ethics, ethical principles of Liberty, freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental nor ...
or
Code of Conduct A code of conduct is a set of rules outlining the norms Norm, the Norm or NORM may refer to: In academic disciplines * Norm (geology), an estimate of the idealised mineral content of a rock * Norm (philosophy), a standard in normative ethics ...
. Ethics in the field of business consulting and organizations is still a subject under research. A thorough discussion of ethics in the field of consultation is given in Lippitt & Lippitt (see also 2nd edition in English). Here the authors mention several guidelines and definitions including Shay, the Association of Consulting Management Engineers (1966), American Society for Training and Development (1977), Academy of Management (1976) and conclude their own codex with the following attributes (see below). Additionally, the authors mention the difficulty in applying the codex and scenarios of how to track adherence and how to judge violations in accordance with other bodies, such as APA (
American Psychological Association The American Psychological Association (APA) is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologist A psychologist is a professional A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns a living from a speci ...
) and CSPEC (or CSCE) (Committee on Scientific and Professional Ethics) and conclude that "The most important aspect in the formulation of a code of conduct however, is the recognition of a fundamental moral standard. Only then is compliance with the rules guaranteed."


Guidelines

For management consultancy services,
ISO 20700 ISO 20700 ''Guidelines for management consultancy services'' it's a standard developed for use as a guideline for people or organizations for the effective management of management consulting services. The standard was developed by ISO project co ...
standard has been available since 2017.


Consulting domains

There exist various forms, types and areas or industries of consultants. The following list provides some examples:


Business (general)

*
Business transformation In management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization an ...
consultants - Specialists in assisting business stakeholders to align the strategy and objectives to their business operations. * Human resources (HR) consultants - Specialists who provide expertise around employment practice and people management. * Interim managers - Often independent consultants who act as interim executives (any CxO) with
decision-making In psychology Psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in ...
power under corporate policies or statutes. They may sit on specially constituted boards or committees. * Process consultants - Specialists in the design or improvement of e.g. operational processes in specific sectors, e.g. medical industry * Marketing consultants - Advisors around areas of
product development In business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit." Having a busines ...
and related marketing matters including
marketing strategy Marketing strategy is a process that can allow an organization to concentrate its limited resources on the greatest opportunities to increase sales and achieve a sustainable competitive advantage In business, a competitive advantage is the attrib ...
. * Public-relations (PR) consultants - Experts with
public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English; American and British ...
matters external to a client organization and are often engaged on a semi-permanent basis by larger organizations to provide input and guidance. * Performance consultants - Consultants who focus on the execution of an initiative or overall performance of their client. * Sales consultants - Professionals who focus on all levels of sales and marketing for the improvement of sales ROI, moving share from competition, etc. * Strategy consultants (more generally known as Management consultants) - Professionals working on the development of and improvement to organizational strategy alongside
senior management Senior management, executive management, upper management, or a management is generally individuals at the highest level of management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization An organization, or organisation ...
in many industries. * Financial consultant - Providing financial advice and services to clients (individuals, small companies, large corporations, financial institutions, etc.) * Project Management Professionals (PMP) and related (e.g. ''Program Management Professional, Risk Management Professionals)'' - Certified experts in project planning, execution and management.


Technology

*
Engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more speciali ...

Engineering
consultants - Engineering-Specialists (certified or years of experience) providing services such as design, supervision, execution, repair, operation, maintenance, technology, creation of drawings and specifications, etc. in various fields such as chemical, aerospace, automotive, etc. * Information-technology (IT) consultants - Experts in Computer-technology disciplines such as computer hardware,
software engineering Software engineering is the systematic application of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The d ...
, or
networks Network and networking may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * Network (1976 film), ''Network'' (1976 film), a 1976 American film * Network (2019 film), ''Network'' (2019 film), an Indian film * Network (album), ''Network'' (album), a 2004 ...
.


Construction

* - Specialists in building and constructions, e.g.
Skyscraper A skyscraper is a tall continuously habitable building having multiple floors. Modern sources currently define skyscrapers as being at least 100 metres or 150 metres in height, though there is no universally accepted definition. Skyscrapers ar ...

Skyscraper
s, Bridges (
Structural engineer Structural engineers analyze, design, plan, and research structural components and structural system The term structural system or structural frame in structural engineering refers to the load-resisting sub-system of a building or object. The ...
), etc. * Property consultant - Advisor in property investments, buying/selling, etc.


Other areas

*
Educational consultantAn Educational Consultant (EC) is a consultant A consultant (from la, consultare "to deliberate") is a professional A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified professional activity. The term ...
s - Assist students or parents in making educational decisions and giving advice in various issues, such as tuition, fees, visas, and enrolling in higher education. * Immigration consultants - Help with the legal procedures of immigration from one country to another. * Consultant (medical) - the most senior grade of hospital doctor in the United Kingdom.


Law and politics

*
Notary A notary is a person authorised to perform acts in legal affairs, in particular witnessing signatures on documents. The form that the notarial profession takes varies with local legal systems. A notary, while a legal professional, is distin ...
* Political advisors * Solicitors


Types of consultants

*
Archaeological Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote ...

Archaeological
consultant *
Architectural Architecture (Latin ''architectura ''Architectura: Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Baukunst'' is a biannual peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the wo ...

Architectural
consultant * Biotechnology consultant *
Cloud In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol consisting of a visible mass of minute liquid drop (liquid), droplets, ice crystals, frozen crystals, or other particulates, particles suspended in the atmosphere of a planetary body or similar space. Wate ...

Cloud
consultant *
Consultant (medicine) In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefe ...
* Consultant pharmacist *
Creative consultant Creative consultant is a credit that has – particularly in the past – been given to screenwriters who have script doctor, consulted on a movie screenplay. Those given this credit in the television field work closely with an executive producer an ...
* Consulting psychology *
Design A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specification in the form of a prototype A prototype is an early sample, mode ...

Design
consultant *
Diversity Diversity, diversify, or diverse may refer to: Business *Diversity (business) The "business case for diversity" stems from the progression of the models of diversity within the workplace since the 1960s. The original model for diversity was situ ...
consultant *
Digital Digital usually refers to something using discrete digits, often binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of electronics The field of electronics is a branch of physics and electr ...
consultant *
Educational consultantAn Educational Consultant (EC) is a consultant A consultant (from la, consultare "to deliberate") is a professional A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified professional activity. The term ...
* Elevator consultant * Employment consultant * Environmental consultant * Faculty consultant * Financial consultant * Franchise consultant * Foreclosure consultant *
Heritage Heritage may refer to: History and society * In history History (from Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the invention of writing systems are conside ...
consultant *
Hospitality Hospitality is the relationship between a guest and a host, wherein the host receives the guest with some amount of goodwill, including the reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers. Louis, chevalier de Jaucourt describes ...

Hospitality
consultant * Human resources consultant * Image consultant * Immigration consultant *
Independent contractor Employment is the relationship between two parties Image:'Hip, Hip, Hurrah! Artist Festival at Skagen', by Peder Severin Krøyer (1888) Demisted with DXO PhotoLab Clearview; cropped away black border edge.jpg, 300px, ''Hip, Hip, Hurrah!'' ...
* Innovation consultant * Interim managers * Information technology consultant *
Lactation consultant A lactation consultant is a health professional who specializes in the clinical management of breastfeeding. The International Board of Lactation Consultant Examiners (IBLCE) certifies lactation consultants who meet its criteria and have passed its ...
*
Legal nurse consultantA legal nurse consultant is a registered nurse who uses expertise as a health care provider and specialized training to consult on medical-related legal cases. Legal nurse consultants assist Lawyer, attorneys in reading medical records and understand ...
* Loss control consultant *
Lighting Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visual perception, perceived by the human eye. Visible light is usua ...

Lighting
consultant *
Magic consultant This is a list of magicians/illusionists, prestidigitators, mentalists, escapologists, and other practitioners of stage magic. For the list of supernatural magicians, see List of occultists. Magicians are listed by the most common name used in ...
*
Management consultant Management consulting is the practice of helping organization An organization, or organisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in Hi ...
* Market entry consultant * Media consultant * Medical practice consultant * Museum consultant * Performance consulting, Performance consultant * Political consulting, Political consultant * Process consultant * Professional engineering, Professional engineering consultant * Public relations consultant * Sales consultant * Statistical consultant * Supply-chain consultant * Tax advisor * Theatre consultant * Trial consulting, Trial consultant * Urban planner


List of notable (management) consultants

* Alan Weiss (entrepreneur) * Arthur E. Andersen (Accenture) * Bill Bain (consultant), Bill Bain (Bain & Company) * Edwin G. Booz, James L. Allen, Carl L. Hamilton * Bruce Henderson (founder of BCG) * Clayton M. Christensen, Clay Christensen * Frederick Gluck, Fred Gluck * Gary Hamel *George Gallup (Gallup Inc.) * Henry Mintzberg *James O. McKinsey * Michael Porter *
Peter Block Peter Block (born 1939) is an American author, consultant, and speaker in the areas of organization development Organization development (OD) is the study and implementation of practices, systems, and techniques that affect organizational chang ...
Further prominent ''thinkers'' are also listed in the Strategy, Strategy portal.


See also

*Adviser *Business school *Contingent workforce *Interim management *''House of Lies'' (a comedy television series about management consultants) *IRS Reclassification *IR35 (UK) *Management consulting *Permatemp *Political consulting *Project management *Procurement *Public consultation *
Umbrella company An umbrella company is a company that employs agency contractors who work on temporary contract assignments, usually through a recruitment agency in the United Kingdom. Recruitment agencies prefer to issue contracts to a limited company as the ag ...


References


Further reading

*Nissen, Volker, ed. ''Advances in Consulting Research: Recent Findings and Practical Cases''. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2019. Print. *CMI - Management Consulting Journal * CMC - Management Consulting Journal *Treichler, Christoph. “Consulting Industry and Market Trends: A Two-Sided View.” ''Contributions to Management Science''. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2019. 253–272. Print.
Journal of Business and Management

Journal of Management Studies
by Stephan Hartmann of Roland Berger (company), Roland Berger Switzerland, 2021
Management Review Quarterly
*Marsh, Sheila. ''The Feminine in Management Consulting''. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2009. Print. *McKinsey & Company, McKinsey]
Quarterly Magazine
*Seebacher, Uwe G. ''Template-Based Management: A Guide for an Efficient and Impactful Professional Practice''. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2021. Print.
Strategy+business
by PricewaterhouseCoopers, PwC *Roland Berger'
Think:Act
Magazine *Susskind, Richard, and Daniel Susskind. ''The Future of the Professions: How Technology Will Transform the Work of Human Experts''. Oxford University Press, 2015. Print. *Kipping, Matthias, and Timothy Clark, eds. ''The Oxford Handbook of Management Consulting''. London, England: Oxford University Press, 2013. Print. *Tata Consultancy Services, TCS
Management Journal Perspectives
*Weiss, A. (2016). ''Million dollar consulting: The professional's guide to growing a practice, fifth edition'' (5th ed.). McGraw-Hill Education. {{Authority control Consultants, * Consulting occupations, *