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In
political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as ...
, a constitutional crisis is a problem or conflict in the function of a government that the
political constitution
political constitution
or other fundamental governing law is perceived to be unable to resolve. There are several variations to this definition. For instance, one describes it as the crisis that arises out of the failure, or at least a strong risk of failure, of a constitution to perform its central functions. The crisis may arise from a variety of possible causes. For example, a government may want to pass a law contrary to its constitution; the constitution may fail to provide a clear answer for a specific situation; the constitution may be clear but it may be politically infeasible to follow it; the government institutions themselves may falter or fail to live up to what the law prescribes them to be; or officials in the government may justify avoiding dealing with a serious problem based on narrow interpretations of the law. Specific examples include the South African
Coloured vote constitutional crisis The Coloured vote constitutional crisis, also known as the Coloured vote case, was a constitutional crisis In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that ...
in the 1950s, the secession of the southern U.S. states in 1860 and 1861, the controversial dismissal of the Australian Federal government in 1975 and the 2007 Ukrainian crisis. Constitutional crises may arise from conflicts between different branches of government, conflicts between central and local governments, or simply conflicts among various factions within society. In the course of government, the crisis results when one or more of the parties to a political dispute willfully chooses to violate a law of the
constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...

constitution
; or to flout an unwritten constitutional convention; or to dispute the correct, legal interpretation of the violated constitutional law or of the flouted political custom. This was demonstrated by the so-called
XYZ Affair The XYZ Affair was a political and diplomatic episode in 1797 and 1798, early in the presidency of John Adams The presidency of John Adams, began on March 4, 1797, when John Adams was United States presidential inauguration, inaugurated as t ...
, which involved the bribery of French officials by a contingent of American commissioners who were sent to preserve peace between
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
and the United States. The incident was published in the American press and created a foreign policy crisis, which precipitated the passage of the
Alien and Sedition Acts The Alien and Sedition Acts were four laws passed by the Federalist The term ''federalist'' describes several political beliefs around the world. It may also refer to the concept of parties, whose members or supporters called themselves ''Fede ...
. Opposition to these acts in the form of the
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions were political statements drafted in 1798 and 1799 in which the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures took the position that the federal Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional. The resolutions argued th ...
cited that they violated freedom of speech and exhorted states to refuse their enforcement since they violated the Constitution. Moreover, if the crisis arises because the constitution is legally ambiguous, the ultimate resolution usually establishes the legal precedent to resolve future crises of constitutional administration. Such was the case in the United States presidential succession of
John Tyler John Tyler (March 29, 1790January 18, 1862) was the 10th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona ( ...

John Tyler
, which established that a successor to the presidency assumes the office without any limitation. Politically, a constitutional crisis can lead to administrative paralysis and eventual collapse of the government, the loss of
political legitimacy In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decis ...
, or to
civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publis ...
. A constitutional crisis is distinct from a
rebellion Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an established authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behavio ...
, which occurs when political factions ''outside'' a government challenge the government's sovereignty, as in a ''
coup d'état A coup d'état (; French for "blow of state"), often shortened to coup in English, (also known as an overthrow) is a seizure and removal of a government and its powers. Typically, it is an illegal, unconstitutional seizure of power by a politic ...
'' or a
revolution In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, suc ...

revolution
led by the military or by civilians.


Africa


Democratic Republic of the Congo

*The
Congo Crisis The Congo Crisis (french: Crise congolaise, link=no) was a period of Crisis, political upheaval and war, conflict in the Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville), Republic of the Congo (today the Democratic Republic of the Congo) between 1960 a ...
. President
Joseph Kasavubu Joseph Kasa-Vubu, alternatively Joseph Kasavubu, ( – 24 March 1969) was a Congolese politician who served as the first President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (then Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville), Republic of the Congo) from 19 ...
and Prime Minister
Patrice Lumumba Patrice Émery Lumumba (; alternatively styled Patrice Hemery Lumumba; 2 July 1925 – 17 January 1961) was a Congolese politician and independence leader who served as the first Prime Minister of the independent Democratic Republic of the Con ...

Patrice Lumumba
attempted to dismiss each other in September 1960. General
Mobutu Sese Seko Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu Wa Za Banga (; born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu; 14 October 1930 – 7 September 1997) was a Congolese politician and military officer who was the President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate titl ...
deposed both in a coup later that month, then restored Kasavubu as president.


Egypt

*Egypt experienced a constitutional crisis when
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a chief executive officer ...
Hosni Mubarak Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak, (4 May 1928 – 25 February 2020) was an Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth president of Egypt The president of Egypt is the executive head of state A head of state ...
was removed in the Egyptian Revolution. The country was left without a president until President
Mohamed Morsi Mohamed Mohamed Morsi Eissa Al-AyyatThe spellings of his first and last names vary. survey of 14 news organizations plus Wikipedia in July 2012
was elected and then again when Morsi was arrested by the
Egyptian Armed Forces The Egyptian Armed Forces ( arz, القُوّات المُسَلَّحَة المِصْرِيَّة) are the state military organisation responsible for the defense of the Egypt, Arab Republic of Egypt. They consist of the Egyptian Army, Egypti ...
in a 2013 coup d'etat until President
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi Abdel Fattah Saeed Hussein Khalil el-Sisi; (born 19 November 1954) is an Egyptian politician who is the List of presidents of Egypt, sixth and current President of Egypt, former Director of Military Intelligence and Reconnaissance (Egypt), M ...

Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
took office.


Malawi

* A constitutional crisis occurred in Malawi in 2012 with regard to the succession of
Bingu wa Mutharika Bingu wa Mutharika (; born Brightson Webster Ryson Thom; 24 February 1934 – 5 April 2012) was a Malawian politician and economist who was President of Malawi The president of the Republic of Malawi ( ny, Mtsogoleri wa Dziko la Malawi) ...
. The President and Vice-President were from different parties which led to deliberations over who the rightful successor would be and the
constitutional crisis In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such ...
. Vice-President
Joyce Banda Joyce Hilda Banda (née Ntila; born 12 April 1950) is a Malawian politician who was the List of heads of state of Malawi, President of Malawi from 7 April 2012 to 31 May 2014. Banda took office as President following the sudden death of Preside ...
eventually succeeded wa Mutharika.


Republic of The Gambia

* Following the victory of
Adama Barrow Adama Barrow (born 15 February 1965) is a Gambian politician and real estate developer who is the third and current President of the Gambia The president of the Republic of The Gambia is the head of state and head of government of The Gambia ...
in the
2016 presidential election This national electoral calendar for 2016 lists the national/Federation, federal direct elections that were held in 2016 in all List of sovereign states, sovereign states and their Dependent territory, dependent territories. By-elections are e ...
,
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a chief executive officer ...
Yahya Jammeh Yahya Abdul-Aziz Jemus Junkung Jammeh (born 25 May 1965) is a Gambian politician and former military officer who was the leader of The Gambia The Gambia (), officially the Republic of The Gambia, is a country in West Africa. It is the sm ...

Yahya Jammeh
rejected the results and refused to step down. On 17 January, Jammeh declared a 90-day state of emergency in an attempt to extend his term of office.
Senegal Senegal (; french: link=no, Sénégal; Wolof language, Wolof: ''Senegaal''; Arabic language, Arabic: السنغال ''As-Sinighal''), officially the Republic of Senegal (french: link=no, République du Sénégal; Wolof language, Wolof: ''Réew ...

Senegal
ese,
Ghana Ghana (), officially the Republic of Ghana, is a country in West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of . The defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and as well as .Paul R. ...

Ghana
ian and
Nigeria Nigeria (), officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of . The defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and as we ...

Nigeria
n forces entered
the Gambia The Gambia (), officially the Republic of The Gambia, is a country in West Africa. It is the smallest country within mainland AfricaHoare, Ben. (2002) ''The Kingfisher A-Z Encyclopedia'', Kingfisher Publications. p. 11. . and is surrounded by ...
on 19 January to enforce the election results. On 21 January, Jammeh stepped down and left the country.


Rhodesia

* Amid demands from
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ir ...

British
politicians to enfranchise the black majority population as a condition for independence, the white minority government of
Ian Smith Ian Douglas Smith (8 April 1919 – 20 November 2007) was a Rhodesian Rhodesia (, ), officially from 1970 the Republic of Rhodesia, was an unrecognised state in Southern Africa Southern Africa is the southernmost region of ...
unilaterally declared independence in 1965. The UK rejected the declaration and continued to claim sovereignty over Rhodesia until a framework for independence and black enfranchisement was negotiated in the 1979
Lancaster House Agreement The Lancaster House Agreement, signed on 21 December 1979, declared a ceasefire, ending the Rhodesian Bush War The Rhodesian Bush War—also called the Second Chimurenga as well as the Zimbabwe War of Liberation—was a civil conflict ...
.


South Africa

* The
Coloured vote constitutional crisis The Coloured vote constitutional crisis, also known as the Coloured vote case, was a constitutional crisis In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that ...
(1951–55): The National Party government disputed a
Supreme Court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of just ...
decision overturning its
Separate Representation of Voters Act The Separate Representation of Voters Act No. 46 was introduced in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd ...
to disenfranchise
Coloured Coloureds ( af, Kleurlinge or , ) are a multiracial people, multiracial ethnic group Indigenous peoples of Africa, native to Southern Africa who have ancestry from more than one of the various populations inhabiting the region, including Khoi ...
voters in the
Cape Province The Province of the Cape of Good Hope ( af, Provinsie Kaap die Goeie Hoop), commonly referred to as the Cape Province ( af, Kaapprovinsie) and colloquially as The Cape ( af, Die Kaap), was a province A province is almost always an administra ...
. Its attempt to reverse the decision in an ''ad hoc'' court was also overturned, after which the party used reforms to the
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...
to pass the measure legally.


Asia


Iran

*
Mohammed Reza Pahlavi ) , birth_date = , birth_place = , death_date = , death_place = , resting_place = , resting_place_coordinates = , nationality = , other_names = , years_active = , notable ...
's 1953 dismissal of Prime Minister
Mohammed Mossadegh Mohammad Mosaddegh ( fa, محمد مصدق, ; 16 June 1882 – 5 March 1967) was an Iranian politician who served as the 35th Prime Minister of Iran The Prime Minister of Iran was a political post in Iran (Name of Iran, Persia) that had exis ...
and Mossadegh's subsequent refusal to quit the office


Malaysia

*
1966 Sarawak constitutional crisis The 1966 Sarawak constitutional crisis took place in the state of Sarawak Sarawak (; ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...
started by a group of politicians who were dissatisfied towards
Stephen Kalong Ningkan Tan Sri Datuk Amar Stephen Kalong Ningkan (1920–1997) was the first Chief Minister of Sarawak The Ketua Menteri Sarawak or Chief Minister of Sarawak is the head of government in the Malaysian state of Sarawak. The Federal Constitution (Ar ...

Stephen Kalong Ningkan
's leadership as chief minister. Ningkan was later removed from the chief minister post by the Governor of Sarawak in June 1966. * The 1983 Malaysian constitutional crisis saw
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
Mahathir Malay styles and titles#Tun, Tun Physician, Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad ( ms, محضير بن محمد, label=Jawi alphabet, Jawi, script=arab, italic=unset; ; born Mahathir a/l Iskandar Kutty; 10 July 1925) is a Malaysian politician, statesma ...

Mahathir
pushing forward an amendment of Article 66 of the Federal Constitution, which set the time limit of the Malaysian monarch to veto a law within 30 days. The proposals generated a great deal of controversy between the government and the monarchy, of which the former had to launch a public campaign to pressure the monarchy to assent to the amendments. * The
1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis The 1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis (also known as the 1988 judicial crisis) was a series of events that began with United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) party elections in 1987 and ended with the suspension and the eventual removal ...
was a series of events that began with the
United Malays National Organisation The United Malays National Organisation (Malay language, Malay: ''Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu''; Jawi alphabet, Jawi: ڤرتوبوهن‌ كبڠساءن ملايو برساتو), abbreviated UMNO (Jawi alphabet, Jawi: امنو; ) or l ...
(UMNO) party elections in 1987 and ended with the suspension and the eventual removal of
Lord President of the Supreme CourtThe title of Lord President of the Supreme Court was formerly the title of the head of the judiciary in Malaysia, until 1994 when the office was renamed " Chief Justice of the Federal Court". The Lord President was head of the highest court in Mala ...
Tun TUN or tun may refer to: Biology * Tun shells, large sea snails of the family ''Tonnidae The Tonnidae are a family (biology), family of medium-sized to very large sea snails, known as the tun shells. These are marine invertebrates, marine gast ...

Tun
Salleh Abas Mohamed Salleh bin Abas ( Jawi: محمد صالح بن عباس; ‎25 August 1929 – 16 January 2021) was a lord president of the Federal (later Supreme) Court of Malaysia. He was dismissed from his post during the 1988 Malaysian constituti ...
from his seat. * The
1993 amendments to the Constitution of Malaysia The 1993 amendments to the Constitution of Malaysia was passed by the Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or ...
(by some interpretations a constitutional crisis) involved the limitation of monarchs'
legal immunity Legal immunity, or immunity from prosecution, is a legal status wherein an individual or entity cannot be held liable for a violation of the law, in order to facilitate societal aims that outweigh the value of imposing liability in such cases. Su ...
in Malaysia. Prime Minister
Mahathir bin Mohamad Tun Dr. Doctor is an academic title that originates from the Latin word of the same spelling and meaning. The word is originally an agentive noun of the Latin verb 'to teach'. It has been used as an academic title in Europe since t ...

Mahathir bin Mohamad
successfully amended the constitution to make the monarchies more accountable to their actions. *The
2009 Perak constitutional crisis The 2009 Perak constitutional crisis was a political dispute in Malaysia regarding the legitimacy of the Perak state government formed in February 2009. It began when three Pakatan Rakyat state legislators defected, causing a collapse of the state ...
occurred in the Malaysian state of
Perak Perak () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Co ...

Perak
when party defections caused the state ruling coalition,
Pakatan Rakyat The Pakatan Rakyat or PR (''People's Pact / People's Alliance'') was an informal Malaysian political coalition and successor to Barisan Alternatif (BA). The political coalition was formed by the Parti Keadilan Rakyat, People's Justice Party (PKR ...
, to lose its majority in the state assembly. The
Sultan of Perak The Sultan of Perak is one of the oldest hereditary seats among the Malay states The monarchies of Malaysia refer to the constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of mona ...
refused to dissolve the state assembly when requested and dismissed the
Menteri Besar In Malaysia, the Menteri Besar (Jawi script, Jawi:منتري بسر; literally "First Minister") is the head of government of each of nine states of Malaysia, states in Malaysia with hereditary rulers. For four states without a monarch, the title ...
(Chief Minister) in the absence of a
no confidence A motion of no confidence, vote of no confidence, or no confidence motion, sometimes in the reverse as a motion of confidence or vote of confidence, is a statement or vote about whether a person in a Authority, position of responsibility (govern ...
vote. * The 2020 Malaysian constitutional crisis was a series of events that began when Prime Minister
Mahathir Mohamad Malay styles and titles#Tun, Tun Physician, Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad ( ms, محضير بن محمد, label=Jawi alphabet, Jawi, script=arab, italic=unset; ; born Mahathir a/l Iskandar Kutty; 10 July 1925) is a Malaysian politician, statesma ...
and associates attempted to replace his coalition partners and form a unity government supported by opposition parties.


Pakistan

*Supreme Court Chief Justice
Sajjad Ali Shah Syed Sajjad Ali Shah ( ur, سید سجاد علی شاہ) was a Pakistani judge who served as the 13th Chief Justice of Pakistan The chief justice of Pakistan (Urdu: ) (Initialism, initials as CJP) is the head of the court system of Pakist ...
clashed repeatedly with Prime Minister
Nawaz Sharif Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif ( ur, ; born 25 December 1949) is a Pakistani businessman and politician who served as the prime minister of Pakistan A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that is not a Product (mat ...

Nawaz Sharif
in late 1997, accusing him of undermining the court's independence. After Ali Shah suspended a constitutional amendment that prevented dismissal of the prime minister, Sharif ordered President
Farooq Leghari Farooq Ahmad Khan Leghari International Phonetic Alphabet chart for English dialects, (English IPA: fɑrukʰ æɦmæd ləɡhərɪ̈) (Baloch language, Balochi, ur, ; 29 May 194020 October 2010), was a Pakistani politician who served as the e ...
to appoint a new chief justice. When Leghari refused, Sharif considered
impeach Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) ...
ing him, but backed down after a warning from the armed forces. Faced with a choice of accepting Sharif's demands or dismissing him, Leghari resigned. Ali Shah resigned shortly afterward, establishing Sharif's dominance.


Thailand

*The
2005–2006 Thai political crisis In 2005 and 2006, a series of events occurred in Thailand as a result of an unrest with Thaksin Shinawatra that was supported by Sondhi Limthongkul and his coalitions. It led a military coup that concluded in the overthrow of the Thai Rak Thai gov ...
. In March 2006, 60 seats of the
National Assembly of Thailand The National Assembly of Thailand (Abbreviation, Abrv: NAT; th, รัฐสภา, , ) is the bicameral Legislature, legislative branch of the Government of Thailand, government of Thailand. It convenes in the Sappaya-Sapasathan, Dusit Distric ...
could not be elected, and Prime Minister
Thaksin Shinawatra Thaksin Shinawatra ( th, ทักษิณ ชินวัตร; ; ; Chinese language, Chinese: 丘達新; cnr, Taksin Šinavatra; born 26 July 1949) is a Thai businessman, politician and visiting professor. He served in the Royal Thai Poli ...
refused to resign. The judicial system did not lead up to Supreme Court as the top arbitrator so there were inconsistent rulings from the civil, criminal, administrative, and constitutional Courts. *The
2008 Thai political crisis Beginning in 2008, there was worsening conflict between the People's Alliance for Democracy (PAD) and the People's Power Party (Thailand), People's Power Party (PPP) governments of Prime Ministers Samak Sundaravej and Somchai Wongsawat. It was a ...
.


Sri Lanka

*On the 26th of October 2018, President
Maithripala Sirisena Pallewatte Gamaralalage Maithripala Yapa Sirisena ( si, පල්ලෙවත්‍ත ගමරාළලාගේ මෛත්‍රීපාල යාපා සිරිසේන; ta, பல்லேவத்த கமராளலாகே ...

Maithripala Sirisena
appointed former President
Mahinda Rajapaksa Percy Mahinda Rajapaksa ( si, මහින්ද රාජපක්ෂ, ta, மஹிந்த ராஜபக்ஷ; born 18 November 1945) is a Sri Lankan politician serving as Prime Minister of Sri Lanka since 2019, and previously from 2004 ...

Mahinda Rajapaksa
as Prime Minister and dismissed incumbent Prime Minister
Ranil Wickremesinghe Ranil Wickremesinghe ( si, රනිල් වික්‍රමසිංහ, ta, ரணில் விக்கிரமசிங்க; born 24 March 1949) is a Politics of Sri Lanka, Sri Lankan politician and a Member of Parliament from the ...

Ranil Wickremesinghe
. Ranil Wickremesing refused to accept the dismissal while stating that it was unconstitutional and undemocratic.


Europe


Austria

* The self-elimination of the Austrian Parliament in 1933, when all three speakers of the
National CouncilNational Council may refer to: Conservation * National Council for Science and the Environment, a US-based non-profit organization which has a mission to improve the scientific basis for environmental decisionmaking * National Council for the Cons ...
resigned.
Engelbert Dollfuss Engelbert Dollfuss (german: Engelbert Dollfuß, ; 4 October 1892 – 25 July 1934) was an Austrian politician who served as Chancellor of Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republ ...

Engelbert Dollfuss
stated the parliament had eliminated itself and could rule by decree. This was a step towards the one-party fascist state, the
Federal State of Austria The Federal State of Austria ( de-AT, Bundesstaat Österreich; colloquial Colloquialism or colloquial language is the style (sociolinguistics), linguistic style used for casual (informal) communication. It is the most common functional style ...

Federal State of Austria
.


Belgium

*The
Royal Question The Royal Question (french: Question royale, nl, Koningskwestie) was a major political crisis A crisis (plural: "crises"; adjectival form: "critical") is any event or period that will lead, or may lead, to an unstable and dangerous situation ...
over the status of king
Leopold III Leopold III can refer to: *Leopold III, Margrave of Austria Saint Leopold III (german: Luitpold, 1073 – 15 November 1136), known as Leopold the Good, was the March of Austria, Margrave of Austria from 1095 to his death in 1136. He was a member ...

Leopold III
began when he acted against ministerial advice during the 1940 Nazi invasion and refused to join the government in exile. Deported to Germany before Belgium's 1944 liberation, Leopold's return was narrowly approved in a 1950 referendum but a subsequent general strike prompted him to abdicate the following year. *In 1990,
King Baudouin Baudouin (; 7 September 1930 – 31 July 1993) was King of the Belgians from 1951 until his death in 1993. He was the last Belgian king to be sovereign of the Belgian Congo, Congo. He was the elder son of King Leopold III (1901–1983) and his ...
refused routine Royal Assent to the law on
abortion in Belgium Abortion in Belgium was fully legalised on 4 April 1990. Abortion is legal until 12 weeks after conception (14 weeks after the last menstrual period) it is required for women to receive counselling at least six days prior to the abortion and to che ...
. The issue was resolved by (constitutionally but controversially) having Baudouin temporarily declared incapable of reigning, the Council of Ministers giving assent as provided for in the
Belgian Constitution The Constitution of Belgium ( nl, Belgische Grondwet, french: Constitution belge, german: Verfassung Belgiens) dates back to 1831. Since then Belgium has been a parliamentary monarchy that applies the principles of ministerial responsibility for ...
, and Baudouin declared capable again.


Denmark

*The
Easter Crisis of 1920 The Easter Crisis ( da, Påskekrisen) was a constitutional crisis in Denmark around Easter in 1920. It was a significant event in the development of constitutional monarchy in Denmark. It began with the dismissal of the elected government by the re ...
, when
King Christian X Christian X ( da, Christian Carl Frederik Albert Alexander Vilhelm; 26 September 1870 – 20 April 1947) was List of Danish monarchs, King of Denmark from 1912 to 1947, and the only List of rulers of Iceland, King of Iceland in the form of ...

King Christian X
of
Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), hu ...

Denmark
dismissed the country's cabinet.


England

*The 1215 Barons' revolt against the rule of
King John King John may refer to: Rulers * John, King of England (1166–1216) * John I of Jerusalem (c. 1170–1237) * John Balliol, King of Scotland (c. 1249–1314) * John I of France (15–20 November 1316) * John II of France (1319–1364) * John I of A ...

King John
, which led to the
Magna Carta (Medieval Latin for "Great Charter of Freedoms"), commonly called (also ''Magna Charta''; "Great Charter"), is a Royal charter, royal charter of rights agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, Berkshire, Windsor, on ...

Magna Carta
. Immediately, John repudiated Magna Carta, leading to the
First Barons' War The First Barons' War (1215–1217) was a civil war in the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of ...
. *The
English Reformation The English Reformation took place in 16th-century England when the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church. These events were, in part, associated with the wider European Protestant Reformati ...
:
Pope Clement VII Pope Clement VII (; ; born Giulio de' Medici; 26 May 1478 – 25 September 1534) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion bapt ...
's refusal to
annul Annulment is a legal procedure Procedural law, adjective law, in some jurisdictions referred to as remedial law, or rules of court comprises the rules by which a court A court is any person or institution, often as a government ...
King
Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England from 22 April 1509 until his death in 1547. Henry is best known for Wives of Henry VIII, his six marriages, including his efforts to have his first marriage (to Catherine of Aragon ...
's first marriage with
Catherine of Aragon Catherine of Aragon (; 16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536) was Queen of England as the first wife of King Henry VIII from their marriage on 11 June 1509 until their annulment on 23 May 1533. She was previously Princess of Wales as the ...

Catherine of Aragon
impeded the king's efforts to produce a male heir. Henry repudiated the Pope's ecclesiastical authority within
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
and required all officials to recognize him as
Supreme Head of the Church of England The title of Supreme Head of the Church of England was created in 1531 for King Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of Eng ...
, allowing him to divorce Catherine and marry
Anne Boleyn Anne Boleyn (; 1501 – 19 May 1536) was Queen of England from 1533 to 1536 as the second wife of King Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of En ...

Anne Boleyn
. *
King Charles I of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg, Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen re ...

King Charles I
's insistence on the
Divine Right of Kings In European Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. It is the M ...
, manifest in his
Personal Rule The Personal Rule (also known as the Eleven Years' Tyranny) was the period from 1629 to 1640, when King Charles I of England Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the ...
from 1629 to 1640, and leading directly to the
Wars of the Three Kingdoms The Wars of the Three Kingdoms, sometimes known as the British Civil Wars, were an intertwined series of conflicts that took place between 1639 and 1653 in the kingdoms of England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country tha ...
. *The
Glorious Revolution The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 ( ga, An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; gd, Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; cy, Chwyldro Gogoneddus), the invasion also known as the ''Glorieuze Overtocht'' or Glorious Crossing by the Dutch, was the deposition of ...
of 1688–89: The flight of from the country left no king in his place to rule England or Scotland or to summon a
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...

Parliament
. When and jointly replaced him there was therefore no legally recognised Parliament to legitimise their irregular succession to the throne. This led to the
Crown and Parliament Recognition Act 1689 The Crown and Parliament Recognition Act 1689 (2 Will & Mary c 1) was an Act of the Parliament of England The Parliament of England was the legislature A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * ...
.


Estonia

*The early 1930s political crisis in
Estonia Estonia ( et, Eesti ), officially the Republic of Estonia ( et, Eesti Vabariik, links=no), is a country in northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Sweden ...

Estonia
as two constitutional reforms had been rejected by the electorate and only the third referendum in 1933 succeeded in replacing the
parliamentary republic A parliamentary republic is a republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and med ...
with the
presidential republic A presidential system, or single executive system, is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Liter ...
. The succeeding constitutional reform was proposed by the
Vaps Movement Vaps Movement, ( et, Eesti Vabadussõjalaste Keskliit, later ''Eesti Vabadussõjalaste Liit'', ''vabadussõjalased'', or colloquially ''vapsid'', a single member of this movement was called ''vaps'') the Union of Participants in the Estonian War o ...
, who were however kept from power by the
self-coup A self-coup, also called autocoup (from the Spanish ''autogolpe''), is a form of coup d'état A coup d'état (; French for "blow of state"), often shortened to coup in English, (also known as an overthrow) is a seizure and removal of a gover ...
of
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
Konstantin Päts Konstantin Päts (; – 18 January 1956) was the most influential politician of Interwar period, interwar Estonia, and served five times as the country's Prime Minister of Estonia, head of government. He was one of the first Estonians to become ...

Konstantin Päts
, who was supported by the
Riigikogu The Riigikogu (; from ''riigi-'', of the state, and ''kogu'', assembly) is the unicameral parliament of Estonia. All important state-related questions pass through the Riigikogu. In addition to approving legislation, the Riigikogu appoints high ...

Riigikogu
.


France

*The Brittany Affair of 1765: The king's court in
Brittany Brittany (; french: link=no, Bretagne ; br, Breizh, or ; Gallo: ''Bertaèyn'' ) is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to ...
forbade collection of taxes to which the provincial
Estates Estate or The Estate may refer to: Law * Estate (law), a term in common law for a person's property, entitlements and obligations * Estates of the realm, a broad social category in the histories of certain countries. ** The Estates, representative ...
did not consent. After King
Louis XV Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved (french: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774. He succeeded his great-grandfather Louis XIV at the age of five. Until he reached ...

Louis XV
annulled the court's decree, most of its members resigned. The chief prosecutor, , was accused of writing letters denouncing the king's action and charged with treason. A court convened to try La Chalotais reached no conclusion due to questions of jurisdiction and the weakness of the evidence. The king then transferred the case to his own council, further inflaming fears of absolutism to the point that he was obligated to release La Chalotais and yield to the provincial authorities. *The
16 May 1877 crisis The 16 May 1877 crisis (french: link=no, Crise du seize mai) was a constitutional crisis in the French Third Republic concerning the distribution of power between the French Presidential elections under the Third Republic, president and the leg ...
: President
Patrice de Mac-Mahon Marie Edme Patrice Maurice de MacMahon, marquis de MacMahon, duc de Magenta (; 13 June 1808 – 17 October 1893) was a French general and politician, with the distinction of Marshal of France. He served as Chief of State of France from 1873 to 1 ...

Patrice de Mac-Mahon
dismissed Prime Minister
Jules Simon Jules François Simon (; 31 December 1814 – 8 June 1896) was a French statesman and philosopher, and one of the leaders of the Moderate Republicans (France), Moderate Republicans in the Third French Republic. Biography Simon was born at Lorien ...

Jules Simon
and named
Albert de Broglie Jacques-Victor-Albert, 4th duc de Broglie (; 13 June 182119 January 1901) was a French monarchist Monarchism is the advocacy of the system of monarchy A monarchy is a form of government A government is the syst ...
to replace him. The
National Assembly In politics, a national assembly is either a unicameral In government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media L ...
refused to recognize the new government and a crisis, which ended with the dissolution of the Assembly and new elections, ensued.


Germany

* In the
Weimar Republic The Weimar Republic (german: Weimarer Republik ) was the German state from 1918 to 1933 when it functioned as a federal constitutional republic. The state was officially named the German Reich (german: Deutsches Reich, link=no, label=none), ...
, for several years the country was governed with the help of
enabling act An enabling act is a piece of legislation by which a legislative body grants an entity which depends on it (for authorization or Legitimacy (family law), legitimacy) the power to take certain actions. For example, enabling acts often establish go ...
s and emergency decrees. The crisis became dramatic in 1932, when the
Nazi Party The Nazi Party, officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (german: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP), was a far-right Far-right politics, also referred to as the extreme right or right-wing extremism, ...
and
Communist Party of Germany The Communist Party of Germany (german: Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, , KPD ) was a major political party in the Weimar Republic The Weimar Republic (german: Weimarer Republik ) was the German state from 1918 to 1933 when it fun ...

Communist Party of Germany
had together a majority in the
Reichstag is a German word generally meaning parliament, more directly translated as ''Diet (assembly), Diet of the Realm'' or ''National diet'', or more loosely as ''Imperial Diet''. It may refer to: Buildings and places is the god specific German word ...
. Any government, installed by the
Reich President ''Reich'' (; , English: ''Riche'') is a German language, German word whose meaning is analogous to the meaning of the English word "realm". The terms ' (literally the "realm of an emperor") and ' (literally the "realm of a king") are respectivel ...
, was likely to be dismissed by the parliament. The crisis ended in a Nazi and conservative coalition government and then
Nazi dictatorship Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was ...

Nazi dictatorship
. The
Weimar Constitution The Constitution of the German Reich (german: Die Verfassung des Deutschen Reichs), usually known as the Weimar Constitution (''Weimarer Verfassung''), was the constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A princ ...

Weimar Constitution
was not abolished, but weakened to the point of irrelevance. * In 1962
Spiegel affair The ''Spiegel'' affair of 1962 (german: link=no, Spiegel-Affäre) was a political scandal in West Germany. It stemmed from the publication of an article in ''Der Spiegel,'' West Germany's weekly political magazine, about the nation's defense f ...
,
Franz Josef Strauss Franz Josef Strauss ( ; 6 September 1915 – 3 October 1988) was a German politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the pro ...
, Federal Minister of Defense, tried to repress media freedom with governmental resources and accused ''
Der Spiegel ''Der Spiegel'' (, lit. ''"The Mirror"'') is a German weekly news magazine A news magazine is a typed, printed, and published magazine A magazine is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publicatio ...

Der Spiegel
'' employees of treason after an article exposed the
Fibag scandal The Fibag scandal was in 1961/1962 a German German(s) may refer to: * Germany (of or related to) **Germania (historical use) * Germans, citizens of Germany, people of German ancestry, or native speakers of the German language ** For citizens of G ...
. In 1966,
Federal Constitutional Court of Germany The Federal Constitutional Court (german: Bundesverfassungsgericht; abbreviated: ') is the supreme court, supreme constitutional court for the Germany, Federal Republic of Germany, established by the constitution or Basic Law for the Federal ...
issued a groundbreaking ruling concerning freedom of the press. The incident caused the first mass demonstrations and public protests and helped Germany remove many authoritarian features still retained following the end of World War II, marking a turning point in Germany values as ordinary people rejected authoritarian outlook in favor of democratic values.


Malta

* The 1981 election, when, due to a quirk in that country's
Single Transferable Vote Single transferable vote (STV) is a type of ranked preferential electoral system An electoral system or voting system is a set of rules that determine how elections and Referendum, referendums are conducted and how their results are de ...
system, the party winning more than half the votes won fewer than half the seats in parliament.


Order of Malta

* In December 2016
Matthew Festing Robert Matthew Festing Order of Saint John (chartered 1888), GCStJ Order of the British Empire, OBE Efficiency Decoration, TD Deputy Lieutenant, DL (30 November 1949 – 12 November 2021) was an English Roman Catholic official who was the Grand ...
, Grand Master of the
Order of Malta The Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM), officially the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta ( it, Sovrano Militare Ordine Ospedaliero di San Giovanni di Gerusalemme di Rodi e di Malta; ...
, dismissed its Grand Chancellor
Albrecht von Boeselager Albrecht Freiherr von Boeselager (born 4 October 1949) is a Germany, German lawyer and forester and a member of the Sovereign Council of the Order of Malta, Sovereign Council of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. He served as Grand Hospitaller ...
for allowing the distribution of contraceptives in violation of the Catholic Church's policy. Boeslanger protested that the dismissal was irregular under the Order's constitution and appealed to
Pope Francis Pope Francis ( la, Franciscus; it, Francesco; es, link=, Francisco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio, 17 December 1936) is the head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State since 2013. Francis is the first pope to be a member ...

Pope Francis
. Francis ordered an investigation of the dispute, then demanded and received Festing's resignation. The Order elected
Giacomo dalla Torre del Tempio di Sanguinetto Fra' Giacomo dalla Torre del Tempio di Sanguinetto (9 December 1944 – 29 April 2020) was the Prince and 80th Grand Master of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta The Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM), officially the Sovere ...
as Festing's successor on a program of constitutional reform and promoting religious obedience.


Norway

*
Impeachment Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) ...
of prime minister Selmer's cabinet in 1883/1884 regarding the king's right to veto changes to the constitution, and establishment of an ad-hoc parliamentary practice until amended to the constitution in 2007. *
Dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden in 1905 The dissolution of the union ( nb, Unionsoppløsningen; nn, Unionsoppløysinga; Landsmål: ''Unionsoppløysingi''; sv, Unionsupplösningen) between the kingdoms of Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official ...


Rome

*
Caesar's Civil War Caesar's Civil War (49–45 BC) was one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run through public In public r ...

Caesar's Civil War
: In 50 BC the ordered
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened ...

Julius Caesar
, a popular military general and territorial governor, to disband his army and return to
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
after he invaded Gaul and
Britain Britain usually refers to: * United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United ...
. Rather than comply, Caesar with a legion of his army intending to confront the government. The Senate retreated before his advance, allowing him to establish a dictatorship that set the template for the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
.


Russia

*The constitutional crisis of 1993: a conflict between
Russian President The President of the Russian Federation ( rus, Президент Российской Федерации, Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii), is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (pl ...
Boris Yeltsin Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin ( rus, links=no, Борис Николаевич Ельцин, a=ru-Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin.ogg, p=bɐˈrʲis nʲɪkɐˈlaɪvʲɪtɕ ˈjelʲtsɨn; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Russian and former Soviet ...

Boris Yeltsin
and the Russian Supreme Soviet led by
Ruslan Khasbulatov Ruslan Imranovich Khasbulatov (russian: link=no, Русла́н Имранович Хасбула́тов, ce, Хасбола́ти Имра́ни кIант Руслан) (born November 22, 1942) is a Russian economist and politician and the f ...
. It emerged due to disagreements regarding the demarcation of political authority. Russian leaders agreed to hold a that would determine whether the presidency or the parliament would be the dominant institution in the Russian political system. The parliament temporarily reneged on its commitment to a referendum and it prompted Yeltsin to issue a decree giving the president more authority. This was met with resistance even from among figures within the executive department such as Yurii Shokov, chair of the president's
Security Council The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, sec ...
and
Aleksandr Rutskoy Alexander Vladimirovich Rutskoy (russian: Александр Владимирович Руцкой; born 16 September 1947) is a Russian politician and a former Soviet military officer, Major General of Aviation (1991). He served as the only Vic ...
, Yeltsin's Vice President. Anticipating impeachment, Yeltsin dissolved the parliament on September 21, 1993 and called for fresh elections. The president did not have the constitutional authority to do this and the
Constitutional Court A constitutional court is a high court High court usually refers to the superior court In common law systems, a superior court is a court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Ad ...
promptly ruled that the decree was unconstitutional. This resulted to ten days of street fighting between the police, pro-parliamentary demonstrators, and groups loyal to the president. Aleksandr Rutskoy was sworn as the acting President of Russia for a few days. The crisis ended after a military siege of the White House (Moscow), Russian White House, which claimed 187 lives.


Scotland

This covers the Kingdom of Scotland, which became part of the Kingdom of Great Britain after 1707. For constitutional crises since then, see #Constitutional Crises in the United Kingdom, United Kingdom below. * The death of three-year-old Margaret of Scotland (Maid of Norway), Queen Margaret in 1290 prompted a succession dispute involving Competitors for the Crown of Scotland, thirteen claimants. The interim Guardians of Scotland asked King Edward I of England to arbitrate the dispute. Edward pursued his own interest in establishing lordship over Scotland by selecting claimant John Balliol in return for an oath of fealty. Scottish nobles rejected Edward's control, leading to the Wars of Scottish Independence and a 10-year vacancy of the throne.


Spain

*The 2017–18 Spanish constitutional crisis saw the Government of Spain and the Generalitat of Catalonia clashing over the latter's planning of an 2017 Catalan independence referendum, independence referendum on 1 October 2017, leading to the Catalan government openly defying instructions from the Spanish Constitutional Court and in state prosecutors filling criminal charges on Catalan leading officials for rebellion, disobedience, misusing public funds and making deliberately unlawful decisions. General strikes and tense demonstrations took place during these weeks. On 27 October, the Parliament of Catalonia tried to found a Catalan republic with a Catalan declaration of independence, unilateral declaration of independence. At the same time, the Senate of Spain, Senate approved the application of Constitution of Spain#Article 155, Article 155 of the Constitution of Spain, Constitution, which led to the cessation of the Catalan Government, the dissolution of parliament, the call for 2017 Catalan regional election, elections for 21 December and the direct rule over Catalonia. The Supreme Court of Spain, Supreme Court imprisoned a large part of the Puigdemont executive, the Carme Forcadell, Speaker of the Parliament and the two leaders of the two major independentists civil associations, as well as the flight to Belgium, Switzerland, Germany and Scotland of President Puigdemont, four regional ex-regional ministers and two political leaders. For July 2018, the direct rule ended and the prisoners are still in preventive jail in Catalan prisons.


Ukraine

* The 2020–2021 Ukrainian constitutional crisis, 2020-2021 Ukrainian constitutional crisis started when the Constitutional Court of Ukraine ruled much of Ukraine's 2014 anti-Corruption in Ukraine, corruption reform to be unconstitutional. Following the decision, President of Ukraine, President Volodymyr Zelensky warned that if parliament did not restore these anti-corruption laws, foreign aid, loans and a Visa-free travel for Ukrainians to the EU, visa-free travel to the European Union were at risk. Governor Kyrylo Shevchenko of the National Bank of Ukraine reported that Ukraine will not receive the scheduled $700 million IMF load before the end of 2020 because of the issue. IMF assessment teams had not visited Ukraine for eight months, which is necessary for further IMF loan tranches to be released. The European Union (EU) issued a statement that that stated the court’s decision called “into question a number of international commitments which Ukraine assumed in relation to its international partners, including the EU.”Ukraine sours on President Volodymyr Zelenskiy as challenges mount for former comedian
NBC News (22 November 2020)
Following the start of the crisis, the Verkhovna Rada re-enacted some of the quashed legislation, while President Volodymyr Zelensky repeatedly attempted to suspend the Court's President Oleksandr Tupytskyi and to remove some of the judges from the Court by decree; all these decrees where ruled as unconstitutional by the Court itself.


United Kingdom

*The regency crisis of 1788: A new Parliament of Great Britain, Parliament convened while George III of the United Kingdom, King George III was unable, due to illness, to charge it with its responsibilities or assent to any bills. Parliament nonetheless submitted an irregular bill that provided for George IV, George, Prince of Wales, to act as regent, and the Lord Chancellor Baron Thurlow affixed the royal seal to it without the king's signature. This precedent was repeated in 1811 after the king again fell ill. *The House of Lords's rejection of the 1909 People's Budget, a proposal by Chancellor of the Exchequer David Lloyd George and President of the Board of Trade Winston Churchill entailing Liberal welfare reforms, welfare reforms funded by taxes on Land ownership in the United Kingdom, landowners. This caused a two-year impasse, which ended after the Liberal Party (UK), Liberal Party won the January 1910 United Kingdom general election, January 1910 general election and the House of Lords ratified the law. However, the impasse resumed when Prime Minister H. H. Asquith introduced the Parliament Act 1911, Parliament Act permanently removing the House of Lord's veto over money bills and sharply limiting its veto over Public and private bills, public bills, which the House of Lords blocked after the December 1910 United Kingdom general election, December 1910 general election ended in a hung parliament. George V, King George V finally forced the House to ratify the law by threatening to end the its Conservative majority by appointing hundreds of new Peerages in the United Kingdom, peerages. *The 1936 Edward VIII abdication crisis, when Edward VIII of the United Kingdom, King Edward VIII proposed to marry divorcee Wallis Simpson against the advice of his ministers. This was unacceptable to the leaders of the United Kingdom and the Dominions because Simpson was twice divorced and the Church of England, which Edward nominally served as the head of, forbid remarriage of divorcees if their spouses were still alive. Rather than ending their relationship the King chose to abdicate and his brother assumed the throne as George VI, King George VI. *The 2019 British prorogation controversy in October 2019, where the Government of the United Kingdom, Government of Conservative Prime Minister Boris Johnson advised Queen Elizabeth II to prorogue the Parliament of the United Kingdom, British Parliament for five weeks. The decision was taken during contentious parliamentary debate over the Brexit, United Kingdom's impending withdrawal from the European Union. In the unanimous R (Miller) v The Prime Minister and Cherry v Advocate General for Scotland, ''R (Miller) v The Prime Minister'' and ''Cherry v Advocate General for Scotland'' decisions, the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom unanimously found the prorogation to be illegal as preventing the ability of Parliament to carry out its constitutional functions without reasonable justification.


North America


Canada

*In the King–Byng Affair of 1926, Governor General of Canada, Governor General Viscount Byng of Vimy refused the request of Prime Minister of Canada, Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King to dissolution of parliament, dissolve Parliament and call new elections after King had, months before, refused to resign. Instead, Byng dismissed King and appointed Arthur Meighen as Prime Minister, after which Meighen found himself unable to retain confidence (politics), confidence, triggering his own resignation and the 1926 Canadian federal election, 1926 federal election. Reaction to the affair was reflected in the Balfour Declaration of 1926, the resulting separation of British Dominions, Dominion Governors General from the British government, and the Statute of Westminster 1931 that made each realm of the Crown independent. *The 1936 Edward VIII abdication crisis, when Edward VIII of the United Kingdom, King Edward VIII proposed to marry divorcee Wallis Simpson against the advice of his ministers. *The 1982 patriation of the British North America Act was contentious, as there were conflicting opinions from the Government of Canada, federal government, provincial governments, and Supreme Court of Canada, Supreme Court over what exactly the procedure was whereby Canada could request a constitutional amendment from the United Kingdom. The Supreme Court's decision in the Quebec Veto Reference found that Quebec did not have a veto on patriation, and the process was legitimate and binding. The National Assembly of Quebec symbolically refuses to ratify the Constitution Act, 1982, Constitution Act in its current form. *The 2008–2009 Canadian parliamentary dispute, in which Liberal Party of Canada, Liberal, New Democratic Party, New Democratic, and Bloc Québécois Members of Parliament attempted to have a Motion of no confidence, vote of non-confidence against the Conservative Party of Canada, Conservative government and replace it with a coalition government, was unprecedented in the Canadian constitutional system, as formal party-based co-operation was rare. Stephen Harper, Prime Minister Stephen Harper controversially advised Governor General Michaëlle Jean to Prorogation in Canada, prorogue Parliament. The coalition effort subsequently fell apart, leaving the key questions around the dispute unanswered.


Honduras

*The 2009 Honduran constitutional crisis saw President Manuel Zelaya attempting to hold a non-binding referendum which National Congress of Honduras, Congress and the Supreme Court of Honduras, Supreme Court deemed unconstitutional. The Armed Forces of Honduras, Honduran Armed Forces, following orders from the Supreme Court, arrested President Zelaya.


United States

*The Nullification Crisis of 1832, in which South Carolina declared that it would not permit collection of the federally ratified Tariff of Abominations, Tariffs of 1828 and Tariff of 1832, 1832. It based its resistance on the Nullification (U.S. Constitution), legal theory of nullification, which held that the Constitution of the United States, U.S. Constitution was a Compact theory, voluntary compact between U.S. state, states and that they therefore have the right of interposition against Law of the United States, federal law they deem Constitutionality, unconstitutional. The United States Congress eventually passed the Force Bill to authorize President Andrew Jackson to use military force in South Carolina to enforce federal laws, as well as a Tariff of 1833, revised tariff law with lower rates. *In 1841 presidential duties passed to Vice President
John Tyler John Tyler (March 29, 1790January 18, 1862) was the 10th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona ( ...

John Tyler
upon the death of President William Henry Harrison. The Constitution was unclear as to whether Tyler should assume the office of President of the United States, President or merely execute the duties of the vacant office. Tyler insisted that politicians recognize him as President and returned, unopened, all mail addressed to the "Vice President of the United States, Vice President" or "Acting president of the United States, Acting President." Despite opposition from some Whig Party (United States), Whig members of Congress, including John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay, both houses passed a resolution confirming Tyler's position. This precedent would govern presidential succession until it was codified in the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Twenty-fifth Amendment. *After the Democratic Party fractured into sectional factions the Republican Party (United States), Republican nominee Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 presidential election with 40 percent of the nationwide vote but with almost no votes from the South, in some states not even appearing on the ballot. Eleven Slave states and free states, Southern slave states who feared Lincoln would outlaw Slavery in the United States, slavery in the Western United States, Western territories responded by Secession, seceding from the Union (American Civil War), Union and forming the Confederate States of America. The Federal government of the United States, federal government refused to recognize the secession and the American Civil War began after Confederate forces fired on and captured Battle of Fort Sumter, Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina. The war, which would be the deadliest military conflict in American history, ended after four years with the complete collapse of the Confederacy and the reincorporation of the states back into the Union under Reconstruction era, Reconstruction. *1876 United States presidential election, 1876 presidential election: Republican Party (United States), Republicans and Democratic Party (United States), Democrats disputed voting results in three states. An ''ad hoc'' Electoral Commission (United States), Electoral Commission, created by United States Congress, Congress, voted along party lines in favor of Republican candidate Rutherford B. Hayes, in exchange for withdrawing federal troops from the South and ending Reconstruction. *The 1952 steel strike: President Harry S. Truman nationalized the country's steel industry on the basis of his Inherent powers (United States), inherent powers in order to prevent a strike by the United Steelworkers that would impede the Korean War. This action reopened the "Great Debate" of 1950–51 regarding the extent of Truman's authority to counter the spread of communism. The Supreme Court of the United States, Supreme Court annulled Truman's order in ''Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer'', holding that presidential actions must proceed from constitutional or legislative authority. Truman used the threat of a second nationalization to push steel workers and management to an agreement. *In the Watergate scandal (1972–1974), President Richard Nixon and his staff Obstruction of justice, obstructed investigations into their political activities. Nixon resigned, under threat of Impeachment process against Richard Nixon, impeachment, after the release of an Nixon tapes, audio tape showing that he had personally approved the obstruction. Congressional moves to restrain presidential authority continued for years afterward.


Oceania


Australia

*The 1936 Edward VIII abdication crisis, when Edward VIII of the United Kingdom, King Edward VIII proposed to marry divorcee Wallis Simpson against the advice of his ministers. *The 1975 Australian constitutional crisis saw the Prime Minister of Australia, Prime Minister Gough Whitlam and his government dismissed by the nation's Governor-General of Australia, Governor-General John Kerr (governor-general), Sir John Kerr, in response to a prolonged budget deadlock in Parliament of Australia, Parliament. Whitlam's Australian Labor Party, Labor government had the confidence of the lower house, the Australian House of Representatives, House of Representatives. In the Australian Constitution, the Australian Senate, Senate has equal powers with the House of Representatives, except it may not initiate or amend a supply bill. It can, however, reject or defer consideration of such a bill, and that is what it did on this occasion. The Constitution permits the Governor-General to dismiss the government if they cannot command the Confidence (politics), confidence of Parliament and will not call an election. Though the government lacked the confidence of the Senate, they commanded the confidence of the lower house, where government is formed and confidence motions introduced. Whitlam also stated his intention to call an election, but Kerr nonetheless dismissed him without prior warning and installed Malcolm Fraser as Prime Minister, despite Fraser's inability to command the confidence of either house of Parliament. After Fraser's Liberal Party of Australia, Liberal government passed several important appropriations bills Kerr declared a Double dissolution, double dissolution of Parliament and the 1975 Australian federal election, 1975 federal election, which Fraser won in a landslide. *In 2017, the 2017 Australian parliamentary eligibility crisis, eligibility of a number of Australian parliamentarians to sit in the Parliament of Australia was called into question because of their actual or possible dual citizenship. The issue arises from section 44 of the Constitution of Australia, which prohibits members of either house of the Parliament from having allegiance to a foreign power. Several MPs resigned in anticipation of being ruled ineligible, and five more were forced to resign after being ruled ineligible by the High Court of Australia, including National Party of Australia, National Party leader and Deputy Prime Minister of Australia, Deputy Prime Minister Barnaby Joyce. This became an ongoing political event referred to variously as a "constitutional crisis" or the "citizenship crisis".


Fiji

*In the 1977 Fijian constitutional crisis, Fiji constitutional crisis of 1977, the winning party in a general election failed to name a government due to internal conflicts. The Governor-General of Fiji, Governor-General intervened, appointing a prime minister from the opposition party.


New Zealand

*The 1936 Edward VIII abdication crisis, when Edward VIII of the United Kingdom, King Edward VIII proposed to marry divorcee Wallis Simpson against the advice of his ministers. *The New Zealand constitutional crisis, 1984, New Zealand constitutional crisis of 1984 was caused by Prime Minister of New Zealand, Prime Minister Rob Muldoon, Sir Rob Muldoon's refusal to devalue the New Zealand dollar as per the instructions of the Prime Minister-elect, David Lange. The outgoing cabinet rebelled against Muldoon, who relented. The crisis led to the passage of the Constitution Act 1986 (NZ), Constitution Act, which patriated the constitution from the United Kingdom.


Papua New Guinea

*The 2011–2012 Papua New Guinean constitutional crisis, Papua New Guinean constitutional crisis of 2011–2012 was caused by a disagreement, involving every branch of government including the Supreme Court of Papua New Guinea, Supreme Court, as to who the legitimate Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea, Prime Minister was. Specifically, whether Prime Minister Michael Somare's dismissal by the Speaker of the National Parliament of Papua New Guinea, National Parliament while he was in hospital had been lawful. After ten months, the crisis was resolved peacefully by 2012 Papua New Guinean general election, a general election.


Samoa

* The April 2021 Samoan general election resulted in legal challenges and a 2021 Samoan constitutional crisis, crisis.


Tuvalu

*The Tuvaluan constitutional crisis, Tuvaluan constitutional crisis of 2013 occurred when Prime Minister Willy Telavi sought to continue governing after having lost his parliamentary majority. He deferred allowing Parliament to sit, and his ally Speaker Kamuta Latasi did not allow a motion of no confidence to be tabled when it finally did sit. The Opposition accused the government of acting unconstitutionally, and Governor General of Tuvalu, Governor General Sir Iakoba Italeli intervened, removing the Prime Minister from office so that Parliament could decide who should form the government. Telavi sought in vain to ask the monarchy of Tuvalu, Queen of Tuvalu, Elizabeth II, to remove the Governor General. Parliament elected Opposition Leader Enele Sopoaga to the premiership.


South America


Chile

*1973 Chilean coup d'état: Accusing Salvador Allende's government of increasing authoritarianism, the Supreme Court of Chile, Supreme Court, Comptroller General of Chile, Comptroller General and Chamber of Deputies declared him out of order, and the Chamber urged the military to put an end to constitutional breaches. The military deposed Allende a few weeks later and abolished the constitution.


Peru

*Peruvian Constitutional Crisis of 1992: President Alberto Fujimori, with the support of the armed forces, dissolved the Congress after it rejected his proposal for stronger action against Shining Path and Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement, MRTA. Then, he called for elections for a Democratic Constitutional Congress to write the 1993 Peruvian Constitution. Until the new constitution was written, he ruled by decree.


Venezuela

*2017 Venezuelan constitutional crisis: The constitutional chamber of the Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Venezuela), Supreme Tribunal of Justice ruled that the country's legislature, the National Assembly (Venezuela), National Assembly, was operating in contempt of the constitution due to prior rulings that some members had been improperly elected, and assumed legislative power for itself. Politicians opposed to the government of President Nicolás Maduro, as well as Maduro's Prosecutor General, denounced the ruling for undermining the constitutional order, and the Tribunal rescinded it the following day. Maduro summoned a Constituent Assembly, nominally to draft a new constitution, but in practice to assert his authority against that of the National Assembly. As of 2021 the crisis remains unresolved, with National Assembly President Juan Guaidó claiming the presidency in opposition to Maduro.


See also

* Cabinet crisis


References

{{Authority control Constitutional crises, Constitutional law