HOME

TheInfoList




A constable is a person holding a particular office, most commonly in criminal
law enforcement 'Law enforcement'' is the activity of some members of government who act in an organized manner to enforce the law by discovering, deterrence (legal), deterring, rehabilitation (penology), rehabilitating, or punishment, punishing people who viol ...

law enforcement
. The office of constable can vary significantly in different jurisdictions. A constable is commonly the rank of an officer within the
police The police are a Law enforcement organization, constituted body of Law enforcement officer, persons empowered by a State (polity), state, with the aim to law enforcement, enforce the law, to ensure the safety, health and possessions of citize ...

police
. Other people may be granted powers of a constable without holding this title.


Etymology

Historically, the title comes from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
''
comes stabuli ''Comes'' ( ), plural ''comites'' ( ), is the Latin word for "companion", either individually or as a member of a collective denominated a "'' comitatus''", especially the suite of a magnate, being in some instances sufficiently large and/or form ...
'' ( attendant to the
stable A stable is a building in which livestock Livestock are the domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and car ...
s, literally ''count of the stable'') and originated from the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
; originally, the constable was the officer responsible for keeping the horses of a
lord Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power (social and political), power over others, acting as a master, a chief, or a ruler. The appellation can also denote certain persons who hold a title of the Peera ...

lord
or
monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role tha ...

monarch
.p103, Bruce, Alistair, ''Keepers of the Kingdom'' (Cassell, 2002), Constable
Encyclopædia Britannica online
The title was imported to the
monarchies A monarchy is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legisl ...
of
medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
Europe, and in many countries developed into a high
military rank Military ranks are a system of hierarchy, hierarchical relationships, within an armed forces, police, intelligence agencies or other institutions organized along military lines. The military rank system defines dominance, authority, and respon ...
and great officer of State (e.g. the
Constable of France 300px, 2 October 1369: Charles V of France presents the sword to the Constable ; miniature by The Grand Constable of France (french: Grand Connétable de France, from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic lang ...
, in French ''Connétable de France'', who was the commander-in-chief of all royal armed forces (second to the king) until prime minister
Cardinal Richelieu Armand Jean du Plessis, Duke of Richelieu Duke of Richelieu was a title of French nobility. It was created on 26 November 1629 for Cardinal Richelieu, Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu (known as Cardinal Richelieu) who, as a Roman Catholic cl ...
abolished the charge in 1627). Most constables in modern jurisdictions are
law enforcement 'Law enforcement'' is the activity of some members of government who act in an organized manner to enforce the law by discovering, deterrence (legal), deterring, rehabilitation (penology), rehabilitating, or punishment, punishing people who viol ...

law enforcement
officers; in the United Kingdom, the
Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations, generally known simply as the Commonwealth, is a political association of 54 member states, almost all of which are former territories A territory is an administrative division, usually an area that is under the ...

Commonwealth of Nations
and some Continental European countries, a constable is the lowest rank of
police The police are a Law enforcement organization, constituted body of Law enforcement officer, persons empowered by a State (polity), state, with the aim to law enforcement, enforce the law, to ensure the safety, health and possessions of citize ...

police
officer (it is also, when preceded by the term ''sworn'', used to describe any police officer with arrest and other powers), while in the United States a constable is generally an elected
peace officer A law enforcement officer (LEO), or peace officer in North American English, is a public-sector The public sector (also called the state sector) is the part of the economy composed of both public services and public enterprises. Public sectors ...
with lesser jurisdiction than a
sheriff A sheriff is a government official, with varying duties, existing in some countries with historical ties to England where the office originated. There is an analogous although independently developed office in Iceland that is commonly translated ...

sheriff
. However, in the
Channel Islands The Channel Islands ( nrf, Îles d'la Manche; french: îles Anglo-Normandes or ''îles de la Manche'') are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island ...

Channel Islands
a constable is an elected office-holder at the
parish A parish is a territorial entity in many Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ ( ...
level. Historically, a constable could also refer to a
castellan A castellan is the title used in Medieval Europe for an appointed official, a governor of a castle and its surrounding territory referred to as the castellany. The title of ''governor'' is retained in the English prison system, as a remnant of ...
, the officer charged with the defense of a castle. Even today, there is a
Constable of the Tower of London The Constable of the Tower is the most senior appointment at the Tower of London. In the Middle Ages a constable A constable is a person holding a particular office, most commonly in criminal Police, law enforcement. The office of constable can v ...
. An equivalent position is that of
marshal Marshal is a term used in several official titles in various branches of society A society is a group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, label. T ...

marshal
, which derives from
Old High German Old High German (OHG, german: Althochdeutsch, German abbr. ) is the earliest stage of the German language German ( Standard High German: , ) is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Euro ...
''marah'' (horse) and ''schalh'' (servant), and originally meant "stable keeper", which has a similar etymology.


Usage by country and region


Australia

In Australia, as in the United Kingdom, constable is the lowest rank in most
police The police are a Law enforcement organization, constituted body of Law enforcement officer, persons empowered by a State (polity), state, with the aim to law enforcement, enforce the law, to ensure the safety, health and possessions of citize ...

police
services. It is often categorised into the following from lowest to highest: probationary constable, constable, constable first class, senior constable, leading senior constable. These variations depend on the individual state/territory police force in question. ''Senior constable'' generally refers to a police officer of the rank above constable and is denoted by way of two chevrons/stripes. The
New South Wales Police Force The New South Wales Police Force (NSW Police Force; previously the New South Wales Police Service and New South Wales Police) is the primary law enforcement agency of the state of New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a Sta ...
has three grades of senior constable, namely senior constable (two chevrons), incremental senior constable (two chevrons and a horizontal bar) and leading senior constable (two chevrons and two horizontal bars). A senior constable is senior to a constable but junior to an incremental senior constable. promotion to senior constable can occur after a minimum of five years service, one year as a probationary constable in addition to four years as constable and then upon passing probity checks and an exam. Incremental senior constable is attained after ten years of service automatically. One is appointed the rank of leading senior constable on a qualification basis but must have a minimum of seven years service amongst other criteria in order to be eligible. Leading senior constable is a specialist position of which there are limited allocated numbers within any section/unit or local area command. If an officer is transferred to another duty type or station, the officer is then relieved of the position of leading senior constable. It is primarily a position for field training officers who oversee the training and development of inexperienced probationary constables or constables. Within Victoria Police, a senior constable is the rank above a constable while above a senior constable is a leading senior constable. When first introduced into Victoria Police, the leading senior constable was a classification not a rank, somewhat like "detective". Leading senior constables were appointed specifically to assist in the training and mentoring of more junior members. The last round of wage negotiations however saw leading senior constable become a rank in its own right, one that a lot of members will pass on their way from constable to sergeant though it is not strictly necessary and is permissible to be promoted to sergeant direct from senior constable. The general form of address for both senior constable and leading senior constable is "senior" and this is acceptable even in courts.


Canada

In Canada, as in the United Kingdom, constable is the lowest rank with most law enforcement services, including the
Royal Canadian Mounted Police The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP; french: Gendarmerie royale du Canada; french: GRC, label=none), often known as the Mounties, are the federal and national police service of Canada, providing law enforcement at the federal level. The ...

Royal Canadian Mounted Police
. In Newfoundland the provincial police are the
Royal Newfoundland Constabulary The Royal Newfoundland Constabulary (RNC) is the state police#Canada, provincial police service for the Provinces and territories of Canada, province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The primary function of the RNC is to enforce provincial laws, the ...

Royal Newfoundland Constabulary
whereby all officers are addressed by the term "constable". In addition, the chief officers of some
municipal A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ...
police services in Canada, notably
Vancouver Police Department The Vancouver Police Department (VPD) (french: Service de police de Vancouver) is the police force for the City of Vancouver in British Columbia, Canada. It is one of several police departments within the Greater Vancouver, Metro Vancouver Area an ...
, carry the title of
chief constable
chief constable
In
Canadian French Canadian French (french: français canadien) is the French language French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin ...
, constable is translated to ''agent'', except in the Royal Canadian Mounted Police where it is translated as ''
gendarme Wrong info! --> A vedette of the French ''Gendarmerie Maritime'' in La Rochelle harbour A gendarmerie () is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily ...

gendarme
''.) Appointments can further be separated into: *
Special constablesA special constable or special police constable (SC or SPC) is generally an auxiliary or part-time law enforcement officer. Many police departments are complemented by a Special Constabulary which are referred to as special constables or informally ...

Special constables
** RCMP special constables are appointed for specific skills, for example, aboriginal language skills. They are
peace officers A law enforcement officer (LEO), or peace officer in North American English, is a public-sector employee Employment is a relationship between two party (law), parties, usually based on employment contract, contract where work is paid for, whe ...

peace officers
under the ''Royal Canadian Mounted Police Act''. ** Outside of the RCMP, special constables are not police officers but are appointed to serve certain law enforcement functions. For example, SPCA agents or court/jail officers. * Auxiliary constables, or reserve constables, are volunteers with a policing agency. They generally only have peace officer status when engaged in specific authorized tasks only. * Provincial civil constables (in
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital ...

Nova Scotia
) deal with matters of a civil nature.


Denmark

Within the
Danish Defence Danish Defence ( da, Forsvaret, fo, Danska verjan, kl, Illersuisut) is the unified armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typica ...
, constables are the lowest rank group. The ranks of , and are used for professional enlisted soldiers, sailors and airmen. However, is only used within the army, as both the navy and air force use a
specialist
specialist
rank instead.


Finland

In the Finnish Police, the lowest rank of
police The police are a Law enforcement organization, constituted body of Law enforcement officer, persons empowered by a State (polity), state, with the aim to law enforcement, enforce the law, to ensure the safety, health and possessions of citize ...

police
officer is called ''nuorempi konstaapeli'', translated into English as (junior) constable. The next rank is ''vanhempi konstaapeli'' or senior constable. The next highest rank (equivalent to a police
sergeant Sergeant ( ; abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the word or phrase; ...

sergeant
in the English-speaking world) is ''ylikonstaapeli'' (''yli-'' "leading"), literally "over-constable".


Hong Kong

The
Hong Kong Police Force The Hong Kong Police Force (HKPF) is the primary law enforcement File:CBP female officers going aboard a ship.jpg, upU.S. Customs and Border Protection officers boarding a ship 'Law enforcement'' is the activity of some members of governmen ...
have two ranks for constables: * Senior constable—lead officer in a beat patrol; SPCs wear a single chevron on their shoulder above their unique identification (UI) number. * Constable—officer in a beat patrol; PCs wear no insignia other than the unique identification (UI) number. Senior Constable is not a rank – it is merely a designation for officers who have served for 18 years.


India

Police constable (abbreviated PC) is the lowest police rank in India, followed by head constable. General
law and order In modern politics, law and order, also known as tough on crime and the War on Crime, is demands for a strict criminal justice 350px, United States criminal justice system flowchart. Criminal justice is the delivery of justice Justice, on ...
being a state subject in India, each state government recruits police constables. A police constable has no shoulder insignia, while a head constable has one strip or one chevron, depending upon the state.Since each state has its own police force, the uniforms and insignia of the police vary, though the rank structure is the same. The Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) under the Ministry of Home Affairs of Government of India also maintain the same ranks as state police even though their jurisdiction varies considerably. The constables recruited to CAPF have to do duty all over India. Nearly all the police constables wear khaki-coloured uniforms which indicate that he/she is a police personnel. Generally there are three types of constables in India depending upon unit/wing/branch/section they are attached to. Civil police constable is attached to
Police Station , Moscow Oblast, Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, largest country in the world, c ...

Police Station
, Traffic police constable for control of road traffic, Armed police constables are attached to armed unit of police. The type of constables are based on nature of duties. The Indian police constables do wide range of duties like patrol, beat system, crime detection, escort of prisoners and VIP's, guarding vital offices and installations, vehicle traffic control on roads,riot control,assisting civil administration during disasters , epidemic, elections and other tasks. Generally police constable does his duty in his jurisdiction area but can be assigned anywhere by his superiors depending on situation or need. The duty hours of Indian police constables are erratic manytimes without weekly off or leave. Police recruitment is done based on written test, physical and medical tests. After appointment all police constables have to undergo compulsory training, duration of training may vary from nine months to one year depending on state. The training and duty of police is physically and mentally strenuous in India. All senior officers are
Indian Police Service The Indian Police Service (IPS), ( hi, भारतीय पुलिस सेवा : ISO 15919, ISO: ''Bhāratīya Pulisa Sēvā'' ) is a civil service under the All India Services. It replaced the Indian Imperial Police in 1948, a year aft ...
officers appointed through civil services exam.


Norway

In the
Norwegian Police Service The Norwegian Police Service ( no, Politi- og lensmannsetaten) is the Norway, Norwegian national civilian police agency. It consists of a central National Police Directorate (Norway), National Police Directorate, seven specialty agencies and li ...
the rank "politikonstabel" was until 2003 the lowest rank in the police, the next ranks being "politioverkonstabel", "politibetjent", "politiførstebetjent", "politioverbetjent" and "politistasjonssjef", "lensmann" or "sysselmannsoverbetjent" (all officially translated as chief superintendent). In 2003, the ranks "politikonstabel", "politioverkonstabel" and "politibetjent" were renamed "politibetjent 1", "politibetjent 2" and "politibetjent 3", where "politibetjent 1" is the entry-level rank for a policeman and most junior rank of the police service. All ranks higher than chief superintendent are commissioned ranks, known simply as "higher ranks," and traditionally required a law degree. The Norwegian Police Service has an integrated prosecution service in which the police lawyers, who all hold higher ranks, require the law degree " candidatus/candidata juris" or "Master of Laws" (''master i rettsvitenskap''), awarded after 5 or 6 years of law studies. Following reforms of the police, a law degree is no longer required by law for all higher ranks, although only lawyers can act as prosecutors and supervise criminal investigations, for which reason it is still common for those holding higher ranks to be lawyers. The entry-level rank for a lawyer, Junior Police Prosecutor, outranks the most senior rank for a policeman, Chief Superintendent, as the former is the most junior of the "higher ranks" whereas the latter is the most senior of the "lower ranks." The fire brigades (all municipal) still use "konstabel" as in "brannkonstabel" (fire-constable).


Pakistan

In
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
, constable and head constable are, respectively, the lowest and second lowest ranks in police force. The police constables in
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
do wide range of duties like patrol, crime detection, escort of prisoners and VIP's, vehicle traffic control on roads, riot control, assisting civil administration during disasters , epidemic, elections and other tasks.


Singapore

In
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bor ...

Singapore
, a police constable (abbreviated to PC) is the lowest rank in the
Singapore Police Force Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula The Malay Penin ...
. The rank of Special Constable exists, but is centralised under the
Volunteer Special Constabulary The Volunteer Special Constabulary (VSC) is an important component of the Singapore Police Force, contributing more than seventy years of volunteer service to the nation. The VSC officers are imbued with equal powers of a regular police officer to ...
in Singapore.


Sri Lanka

In
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකාව, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO ()), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is ...

Sri Lanka
, the
Sri Lanka Police (The one who lives by the Dhamma is protected by the Dhamma itself) , mission = , formedyear = , preceding1 = Ceylon Police Force (1866–1972) , dissolved = , superseding = , employees = 76 ...
has the rank of "Police Constable" with four classes.


United Kingdom

In the modern times, there are two main definitions of a constable in the United Kingdom: *The lowest rank of a police force. *A legal term for an officer with the powers of a police officer. The latter usage is mainly used in formal contexts, including legislation such as the
Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 The Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (PACE) (1984 c. 60) is an Act of Parliament Acts of parliament, sometimes referred to as primary legislation, are texts of law passed by the Legislature, legislative body of a jurisdiction (often a parliam ...
. By this definition, all police officers are constables, even those that do not hold the actual rank of constable. Thus the head of most police forces is a , volunteer officers of any rank are known as
special constablesA special constable or special police constable (SC or SPC) is generally an auxiliary or part-time law enforcement officer. Many police departments are complemented by a Special Constabulary which are referred to as special constables or informally ...
and some police forces have the word "Constabulary" in their name. Within the police itself, there are three
eponymous An eponym is a person, place, or thing after whom or which someone or something is, or is believed to be, named. The adjectives derived from eponym include ''eponymous'' and ''eponymic''. Word usage The term ''eponym'' functions in multiple r ...
offices bearing the legal power of constable: Police Constable, Detective Constable and Special Constable. The former two of these are paid, mostly full-time positions, while those holding the role of Special Constable volunteer their time unpaid and do so around their normal working commitments. The ranks of Police Constable and Detective Constable are often abbreviated in everyday use to PC and DC respectively. From 1919 when they were first recruited in the UK, female police officers were distinguished from their male counterparts by the prefix 'woman' before their rank (WPC or WDC). This was officially discontinued in 1999, although is still sometimes used informally by members of the public.


Constable

Constable is the first rank, one rank below a sergeant and five ranks below chief superintendent in all
police forces The police are a constituted body of persons A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic Logic ...
in the United Kingdom. Within the
British Police British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, and the Crown dependenc ...
, all
police officer officer in Hamburg en, Hamburgian(s) , timezone1 = Central European Time, CET , utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = Central European Summer Time, CEST , utc_offset1_DST ...

police officer
s are sworn in as and hold the basic powers of a constable. Upon being sworn in, each officer starts at the rank of constable and is required to undergo a two-year
probationary period In a workplace setting, probation (or probationary period) is a status given to new employee Employment is a relationship between two party (law), parties, usually based on employment contract, contract where work is paid for, where one party ...
. Upon successful completion, constables can remain at their current rank, specialise in
criminal investigations In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a State (polity), state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition,Farmer, Lindsay: "Crime, defin ...
or one of many other specialist units, or apply for promotion to
sergeant Sergeant ( ; abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the word or phrase; ...
, the first supervisory rank. Constables wear an epaulette attached to the
uniform A uniform is a variety of clothing A kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes region Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel, and attire) are items worn on the body. Typically, clothing is made of fabrics or textiles, but over ti ...
, displaying their
collar number A collar number, also known as a shoulder number, force identification number (FIN) or occasionally as force number (although this can also refer to the ID number of a force itself), identifies police officers, police community support officers ...
(also called a shoulder number). Within
Greater London Greater London is an Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England, administrative area governed by the Greater London Authority, and a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of England that covers the bulk of the same area ...

Greater London
's
Metropolitan Police The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS), formerly and still commonly known as the Metropolitan Police (and informally as the Met Police, the Met, Scotland Yard, or the Yard), is the territorial police force A territorial police force is a poli ...
, all constables and sergeants display a divisional identifier, as well as an individual number. A new probationary constable within a county police force is paid an annual salary of either £21,402 or £24,780 (dependent on entry route), with this rising to £27,030 after training, reaching a ceiling level of £41,130. Constables within the
Metropolitan Police Service The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS), formerly and still commonly known as the Metropolitan Police and informally as the Met Police, the Met, Scotland Yard, or the Yard, is the territorial police force responsible for law enforcement in the ...
and
City of London Police The City of London Police is the territorial police forceA territorial police force is a police The police are a Law enforcement organization, constituted body of Law enforcement officer, persons empowered by a State (polity), state, with th ...
are paid an additional London weighting allowance which is currently set at £2,277. The first female constables were employed by railway constabularies during World War I with for example the North East Railway Police swearing in four in late 1917 The term Woman Police Constable was used across British forces.


Detective Constable

The rank of detective constable (DC) is a special type but not senior to that of a uniformed constable; the '
detective A detective is an investigator, usually a member of a law enforcement agency A law enforcement agency (LEA), in North American English, is any government agency responsible for the enforcement of the laws. Outside North America No ...

detective
' prefix identifies the officer as having undertaken and passed the National Investigators' Examination.


Special Constable

From 1673 to 1831, a
special constable A special constable or special police constable (SC or SPC) is generally an auxiliary or part-time law enforcement officer. Many police departments are complemented by a Special Constabulary The Special Constabulary is the part-time volunteer se ...
was a citizen who was appointed to act as constable on special occasions, such as to quell a riot. In 1831 this evolved to a permanent volunteer police force. Special constables generally had powers within a designated area. However, legislation changed to give them identical powers as constables that are no longer regional but are enforceable across England and Wales.


War Reserve Constable

During World War II, there was an additional volunteer War Reserve Police introduced in 1939, consisting at its height in 1944 of 17,000 War Reserve constables (or WRC, War Reserve Police Constable, WRPC). The rank of WRC/WRPC was dissolved on 31 December 1948, and most of these were then recruited for service as regular or special constables.


Head constable

Head constable is a title for a police sergeant in some Commonwealth police forces. It was also previously a senior rank in the
Royal Irish Constabulary The Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC, ga, Constáblacht Ríoga na hÉireann; simply called the Irish Constabulary 1836–67) was the police force in Ireland from 1822 until 1922, when the country was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain an ...
, with authority lying somewhere between the ranks of Inspector and Superintendent in later British and Irish police forces.


Legislation

Legislation existed to appoint constables, but often did not direct how such bodies should operate and what organisational form they should take. The
Police Act 1964 The Police Act 1964 (1964 c.48) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings ...
standardised arrangements through establishing wider geographical police forces, which merged many constabularies. The Police Act 1964 gave direction on the organisational form of police forces, the appointment of officers and disciplinary matters; in the broadest sense it provided a statutory governance framework. The Act established the 'tripartite' model of policing, which formed police authorities. This established a three-way balance of power between the Authority's Chairman, the Chief Constable and the Home Secretary. This arrangement varied within London for the Metropolitan Police and the City of London Police. The Police Act 1964 was superseded by the Police Act 1996, which contained similar provisions. Further legislation was introduced for the British Transport Police and the Civil Nuclear Constabulary that was similar in defining their organisational form and embedding governance arrangements.


Constables outside police forces

Legislation exists allowing constables to be appointed for specific roles, enjoying the full powers and privileges of a constable while carrying out their duty. #
Environment Agency The Environment Agency (EA) is a non-departmental public body In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Teleg ...
Water bailiff A water bailiff is a law-enforcement officer responsible for the policing of bodies of water, such as a river, lake or coast. The position has existed in many jurisdictions throughout history. Scotland In Scotland, under the Salmon and Freshwater ...
s, who check fishing permits and enforce some wildlife laws. #
Her Majesty's Prison Service Her Majesty's Prison Service (HMPS) is a part of Her Majesty's Prison and Probation Service (formerly the National Offender Management Service), which is the part of Her Majesty's Government The Government of the United Kingdom, domestica ...
prison officers (only those employed by the state, not private employees contracted to operate in prisons). #
National Crime Agency The National Crime Agency (NCA) is a national law enforcement agency in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' an ...

National Crime Agency
(formerly SOCA) Investigators can be designated with the powers of a constable (as well as those of an Immigration Officer and Customs Officer). Ports, tunnels,
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...
and
Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a university city and the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' ...
Universities,
Epping Forest Epping Forest is a area of ancient woodland between Epping, Essex, Epping in Essex to the north, and Forest Gate in Greater London to the south, straddling the border between London and Essex. It is a former royal forest, and is managed by th ...
, Anglican cathedrals ( Cathedral constables), and markets can also appoint constables to police on their land. These are often referred to as 'private police forces/constabularies'. Local authorities can appoint constables to enforce local by-laws, as seen in a number of London boroughs.


Channel Islands

In
Jersey Jersey ( , ; nrf, label=Jèrriais, Jèrri ), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (french: Bailliage de Jersey, links=no; Jèrriais: ''Bailliage dé Jèrri''), is an island and self-governing Crown dependencies, Crown Dependency near the coa ...

Jersey
and
Guernsey Guernsey (; Guernésiais Guernésiais, also known as ''Dgèrnésiais'', Guernsey French, and Guernsey Norman French, is the variety of the spoken in . It is sometimes known on the island simply as "". As one of the , it has its roots in , ...

Guernsey
, the elected heads of the
Parish A parish is a territorial entity in many Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ ( ...
es (''paroisse(s)'' in French) are titled "constables" (''connétable(s)'' in French). The constables are entitled each to carry a silver-tipped baton of office. In Jersey, each
parish A parish is a territorial entity in many Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ ( ...

parish
elects a constable for a three-year mandate to run the parish and also represent the parish in the legislature, the
States of Jersey The States Assembly (french: Assemblée des États; Jèrriais: ) is the parliament of the Crown dependencies, British Crown dependency of Jersey. The origins of the legislature of Jersey lie in the system of self-government according to Norman l ...
. The constable presides over the Roads Committee, the Conseil Paroissial (Parish Council, the only exception being St. Helier) and Parish Assemblies. The twelve constables also collectively sit as the Comité des Connétables (Committee of Constables). The constable is the titular head of the
Honorary Police There is an Honorary Police ( French: Police Honorifique) force in each of the twelve parishes of Jersey The parishes of Jersey ( Jerriais: ) are the civil and religious administrative districts of Jersey Jersey ( , ; nrf, label= Jèrri ...
. With the Roads Inspectors, Roads Committee and other officers, the constable of each parish also carries out the '' visites du branchage'' twice a year. In Guernsey, each
parish A parish is a territorial entity in many Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ ( ...

parish
elects two constables, the senior constable and the junior constable. Persons elected generally serve a year as junior and then senior constable. The senior constable presides over the Douzaine (Dozen) that runs the parish. The constables are responsible for enforcing the ''brancage'' (summer hedge-cutting) and also have the power to declare any parishioner
insane Insanity, madness, and craziness are terms that describe a spectrum A spectrum (plural ''spectra'' or ''spectrums'') is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary, without gaps, across a Continuum (theory), co ...
.


United States

In the United States, there is no consistent use of the office of constable throughout the states, and use may even vary within a state. A constable may be an official responsible for
service of process Service of process is the procedure by which a party to a lawsuit gives an appropriate notice of initial legal action to another party (such as a defendant), court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, wit ...
: such as
summons A summons (also known in England and Wales as a claim form and in the Australian state of New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a mo ...
es and
subpoena A subpoena (; also subpœna, supenna or subpena) or witness summons is a writ issued by a government agency, most often a court, to compel testimony by a witness or production of evidence under a penalty for failure. There are two common types of ...
s for people to appear in court in criminal and/or civil matters. On the other hand, they can be fully empowered
law enforcement 'Law enforcement'' is the activity of some members of government who act in an organized manner to enforce the law by discovering, deterrence (legal), deterring, rehabilitation (penology), rehabilitating, or punishment, punishing people who viol ...

law enforcement
officers. Constables may also have additional specialized duties unique to the office. In some states, a constable may be appointed by the governor or a judge or magistrate of the court which he or she serves; in others the constable is an elected or appointed position at the state or local level of local government. Their jurisdiction can vary from statewide to county/parish and local township boundaries based on the state's laws. The office developed from its British counterpart during the colonial period. Prior to the modernization of law enforcement which took place in the middle 19th century, local law enforcement was performed by constables and
watchmen ''Watchmen'' is an American comic book Limited series (comics), maxiseries by the British creative team of writer Alan Moore, artist Dave Gibbons and colorist John Higgins (comics), John Higgins. It was published monthly by DC Comics in 1986 an ...
. Constables were appointed or elected at the local level for specific terms and, like their UK counterparts the
parish constableA parish constable, also known as a petty constable, was a law enforcement officer, usually unpaid and part-time, serving a parish A parish is a territorial entity in many Christianity, Christian denominations, constituting a division within a di ...
, were not paid and did not wear a uniform. However, they were often paid a fee by the courts for each
writ In , a writ (Anglo-Saxon ''gewrit'', Latin ''breve'') is a formal written order issued by a body with administrative or judicial ; in modern usage, this body is generally a . , s, s, and are common types of writ, but many forms exist and have ...

writ
served and warrant executed. Following the example of the British
Metropolitan Police The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS), formerly and still commonly known as the Metropolitan Police (and informally as the Met Police, the Met, Scotland Yard, or the Yard), is the territorial police force A territorial police force is a poli ...
established in 1829, the states gradually enacted laws to permit municipalities to establish police departments. This differed from the UK in that the old system was not uniformly abolished in every state. Often the enacting legislation of the state conferred a police officer with the powers of a constable, the most important of these powers being the
common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law Case law is the collection of past legal decisions written by courts and similar tribunal A tribunal, generally, is any person or institution with authority ...
power of arrest. Police and constables exist concurrently in many jurisdictions. Perhaps because of this, the title "constable" is not used for police of any rank. The lowest rank in a police organization would be officer, deputy, patrolman, trooper, and historically,
private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two decades from the charts. Both "In Pri ...
, depending on the particular organization. In many states, constables do not conduct patrols or preventive policing activities. In such states the office is relatively obscure to its citizens. A constable may be assisted by deputy constables as sworn officers or constable's officers as civil staff, usually as process servers. In some states, villages or towns, an office with similar duties is
marshal Marshal is a term used in several official titles in various branches of society A society is a group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, label. T ...

marshal
.


Historical usage


Medieval Armenia and Georgia

The titles of ''
sparapet ''Sparapet'' ( hy, սպարապետ) was a hereditary title of supreme commander of the armed forces in ancient and medieval Armenia Armenia (; hy, Հայաստան, translit=Hayastan, ), officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocke ...
'' and ''
spaspet''Spaspet'' ( ka, სპასპეტი) was a feudal office in Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country located at the intersection of Eastern Eur ...
'', derived from the ancient Iranian ''
spahbod ''Spāhbed'' (also spelled ''spahbod'' and ''spahbad'') is a Middle Persian title meaning "army chief" used chiefly in the Sasanian Empire. Originally there was a single ''spāhbed'', called the , who functioned as the generalissimo of the Sasan ...
'', were used to designate the supreme commander of the armed forces in the medieval kingdoms of Armenia and Georgia, respectively.


Byzantine Empire

The position of constable originated from the
Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...

Roman Empire
; by the 5th century AD the Count of the Stable ( la, comes stabuli) was responsible for the keeping of
horse The horse (''Equus ferus caballus'') is a domesticated Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to ...

horse
s at the imperial court. The West European term "constable" itself was adopted, via the
Normans The Normans (Norman Norman or Normans may refer to: Ethnic and cultural identity * The Normans The Normans (Norman language, Norman: ''Normaunds''; french: Normands; la, Nortmanni/Normanni) were inhabitants of the early medieval Duchy of N ...

Normans
, as '' konostaulos'' in the Komnenian and Palaiologan periods, when it became a high military office of dignity. Late Roman administrative titles were used by
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
in developing his empire; the position of Constable, along with the similar office of
Marshal Marshal is a term used in several official titles in various branches of society A society is a group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, label. T ...

Marshal
, spread throughout the emerging states of Western Europe during this period. In most medieval nations, the constable was the highest-ranking officer of the army, and was responsible for the overseeing of
martial law Martial law is the temporary imposition of direct military control of normal civil functions or suspension of civil law by a government, especially in response to a temporary emergency where civil forces are overwhelmed, or in an military occ ...
.p172, Slater, Stephen, ''The Complete Book of Heraldry'' (Lorenz, 2002),


China

Village A village is a clustered human settlement In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena ...
-level Chinese officialsknown as ''tingzhang''Chinese: t , s , ''tíngzhǎng''. during the
QinQin may refer to: Dynasties and states * Qin (state) (秦), a major state during the Zhou Dynasty of ancient China * Qin dynasty (秦), founded by the Qin state in 221 BC and ended in 206 BC * Daqin (大秦), ancient Chinese name for the Roman Empi ...

Qin
and
Han Han may refer to: Ethnic groups * Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on ...

Han
dynasties A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or affinity (by marriage or other relationship). Th ...
, ''lizheng'',Chinese: , ''lǐzhèng''. during the and Tang, ''baozheng''Chinese: , ''bǎozhèng''. during the
Song A song is a musical composition Musical composition can refer to an piece or work of , either or , the of a musical piece or to the process of creating or writing a new piece of music. People who create new compositions are called s ...
, and ''
dibao ''Dibao'' (''ti-pao''),; also romanization of Chinese, romanized as ''tepao''. sometimes called headmen or constables,Bernhardt, Kathryn ''et al.'' Civil Law in Qing and Republican China', p. 117. Stanford University Press, 1999. . Accessed 4 Nov ...
'' and ''shoubao'' during the
Qing The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last imperial dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n.''" Oxford University Press Oxford Univers ...
are sometimes translated constable for their functions of reporting crimes and administering local justice, although they also served as tax agents and
notaries A notary is a person authorised to perform acts in legal affairs, in particular witnessing signatures on documents. The form that the notarial profession takes varies with local legal systems. The Worshipful Company of Scriveners use an old Engli ...
.


France

The Constable of France (''Connétable de France''), under the
French monarchy The monarchs of the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de France, french: link=no, Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe. It was among the most powerful s ...
, was the First Officer of the Crown of France and was originally responsible for commanding the
army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-based military branch Military branch ...

army
. His symbol of office was a longsword held by a hand issuing out of a cloud, a reference to the constable's duty of carrying the king's sword during a coronation ceremony. Some constables were prominent military commanders in the medieval period, such as
Bertrand du Guesclin Bertrand du Guesclin (c. 1320 – 13 July 1380), nicknamed "The Eagle of Brittany" or "The Black Dog of Brocéliande", was a Breton Breton most often refers to: *anything associated with Brittany Brittany (; french: link=no, Bretagne ; br ...

Bertrand du Guesclin
who served from 1370 to 1380.


United Kingdom

The office of the constable was introduced in England following the
Norman Conquest of 1066 The Norman Conquest (or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army made up of Normans, Duchy of Brittany, Bretons, County of Flanders, Flemish, and men from other Kingdom of France, French provinces, all ...
and was responsible for the keeping and maintenance of the king's armaments and those of the villages as a measure of protecting individual settlements throughout the country. Some authorities place the origins of constables in England earlier, attributing the creation of the office during the reign of King Alfred (871, A.D.). The office of Lord High Constable, one of the
Great Officers of State In the United Kingdom, the Great Officers of State are traditional ministers of The Crown who either inherit their positions or are appointed to exercise certain largely ceremonial functions or to operate as members of the government. This cite ...
, was established in the kingdoms of
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
and
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...
during the reigns of (1135–1154) and
King David David (; ) (traditional spelling), , ''Dāwūd''; grc-koi, Δαυΐδ, Dauíd; la, Davidus, David; gez , ዳዊት, ''Dawit''; xcl, Դաւիթ, ''Dawitʿ''; cu, Давíдъ, ''Davidŭ''; possibly meaning "beloved one". is described in th ...

King David
(1124–1154) respectively, and was responsible for the command of the army. The term was also used at the local level within the
feudal system Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the disco ...
however, describing an officer appointed to keep order. One of the first descriptions of one of the legal duties of a constable, that of the collation of
evidence Evidence for a proposition In logic and linguistics, a proposition is the meaning of a declarative sentence (linguistics), sentence. In philosophy, "Meaning (philosophy), meaning" is understood to be a non-linguistic entity which is shared by a ...

evidence
, comes from
Bracton . The photo shows Windsor Castle Windsor Castle is a List of British royal residences, royal residence at Windsor, Berkshire, Windsor in the English county of Berkshire. It is strongly associated with the Kingdom of England, English and succ ...
, a jurist writing between 1220 and 1250:
In whatever way they come and on whatever day, it is the duty of the constable to enroll everything in order, for he has record as to the things he sees; but he cannot judge, because there is no judgment at the
Tower A tower is a tall structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rul ...

Tower
, since there the third element of a judicial proceeding is lacking, namely a judge and jurisdiction. He has record as to matters of fact, not matters of judgment and law.
In Bracton's time, anyone seeing a "misdeed" was empowered to make an arrest. The role of the constable in Bracton's description was as the "eyes and ears" of the court, finding evidence and recording facts on which judges could make a ruling. By extension, the constable was also the "strong arm" of the court (i.e., of the
common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law Case law is the collection of past legal decisions written by courts and similar tribunal A tribunal, generally, is any person or institution with authority ...
), marking the basic role of the constable that continues into the present day. In 1285, King
Edward I of England Edward I (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots ( la, Malleus Scotorum), was King of England This list of kings and queens of the begins with , who initially ruled , one of th ...

Edward I of England
passed the
Statute of WinchesterThe Statute of Winchester of 1285 (13 Edw. I, St. 2; Law French: '), also known as the Statute of Winton, was a statute enacted by King Edward I of England Edward I (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the ...
, with provisions which "constituted two constables in every
hundred 100 or one hundred (Roman numerals, Roman numeral: C) is the natural number following 99 (number), 99 and preceding 101 (number), 101. In medieval contexts, it may be described as the short hundred or five 20 (number), score in order to differenti ...
to prevent
default Default may refer to: Law * Default (law), the failure to do something required by law ** Default (finance) In finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. It ...
s in towns and highways".p276-7, Markham, Sir Frank, ''History of Milton Keynes and District'', vol.1 (1973), Records of their narrower area successors,
parish A parish is a territorial entity in many Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ ( ...
constables, appear in the early 17th century in the records of
Buckinghamshire Buckinghamshire (), abbreviated Bucks, is a ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of Eng ...

Buckinghamshire
; traditionally they were elected by the , but from 1617 onwards were typically appointed by
justices of the peace A justice of the peace (JP) is a judicial officer A judicial officer is a person with the responsibilities and powers to facilitate, arbitrate, preside over, and make decisions and directions in regard to the application of the law. Judicial ...
(magistrates) in each county. The system of policing by unpaid parish constables continued in England until the 19th century; in the
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
metropolitan area it started to be ended by the creation of the
Metropolitan Police The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS), formerly and still commonly known as the Metropolitan Police (and informally as the Met Police, the Met, Scotland Yard, or the Yard), is the territorial police force A territorial police force is a poli ...
by the
Metropolitan Police Act 1829 The Metropolitan Police Act 1829 (10 Geo.4, c.44) was an Act of Parliament Acts of parliament, sometimes referred to as primary legislation, are texts of law passed by the Legislature, legislative body of a jurisdiction (often a parliament or coun ...
and completely ended by the
Metropolitan Police Act 1839The Metropolitan Police Act 1839 (2 & 3 Vict c 47) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the Parliamentary sovereignty in the United Kingdom, supreme Legislature, legislative body of the Unit ...
. Outside London, the mandatory introduction of county police forces by the
County and Borough Police Act 1856The County and Borough Police Act 1856 or The Police Act 1856 (19 & 20 Vict c 69) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the Parliamentary sovereignty in the United Kingdom, supreme Legislatu ...
after nearly 20 years of the permissive
County Police Act 1839 The County Police Act 1839 (2 & 3 Vict c 93) (also known as the Rural Police Act or the Rural Constabularies Act) was an Act of Parliament, Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It was one of the Police Acts 1839 to 1893. The Act enabled Jus ...
, finally ended parish constables. After 1856, all areas of England and Wales were covered by a police force. The lowest rank of the police forces and constabularies is "constable", and most outside London are headed by a . The unique office of 'Parks Constable' was first created when Liverpool Corporation Act 1921 (Section 221) allowed for their appointment; although a body of constables had previously policed the parks whom were attested as special constables. Specific legislation for the
Royal Parks of London The Royal Parks of London are lands originally owned by the monarchy of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarc ...

Royal Parks of London
continued the unique office of 'Parks Constable'. However, the Royal Parks Constabulary was disbanded in 2001. The
Kew Constabulary The Kew Constabulary (formerly the Royal Botanic Gardens Constabulary) is a small, specialised constabularyConstabulary may have several definitions: *A civil, non-paramilitary (police) force consisting of police officers called constables. This i ...
are sworn in under the same legislation and remain as the holders of the office of Parks Constable. Whilst some local authorities have parks constabularies, their officers are attested as constables, not parks constables.


Other European nations

The position of hereditary constable persists in some current or former
monarchies A monarchy is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legisl ...
of Europe. The position of
Lord High Constable of Scotland The Lord High Constable is a hereditary, now ceremonial, office of Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island ...
is hereditary in the family of the
Earl of Erroll Earl of Erroll is a title in the Peerage of Scotland A peerage is a legal system historically comprising various hereditary titles (and sometimes Life peer, non-hereditary titles) in a number of countries, and composed of assorted noble ranks. ...
. There is also a hereditary constable of
Navarre Navarre (; es, Navarra ; eu, Nafarroa ), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre ( es, Comunidad Foral de Navarra, links=no ; eu, Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea, links=no ), is a Fuero, foral autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous co ...

Navarre
in Spain; this position is presently held by the
Duke of Alba Duke of Alba de Tormes ( es, Duque de Alba de Tormes), commonly known as Duke of Alba, is a title of Spanish nobility that is accompanied by the dignity of Grandee of Spain. In 1472, the title of ''Count of Alba de Tormes'', inherited by Garc ...
. Historically, many other hereditary constables existed as officers of state in former monarchies. Examples are the
Constable of Castile Constable of Castile ( es, Condestable de Castilla) was a title created by John I of Castile, John I, King of Crown of Castile, Castile in 1382, to substitute the title ''Alférez Mayor del Reino''. The constable was the second person in power in ...
(''Condestable de Castilla'') and the
Constable of PortugalConstable of Portugal ( pt, Condestável de Portugal) was an office created by King Ferdinand I of Portugal in 1382, to substitute the High Standard-bearer ('' Alferes-Mor'') as the head of the Portuguese Military. It was also referred as the Const ...
(''Condestável do Reino'').


See also

*
Marshal Marshal is a term used in several official titles in various branches of society A society is a group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, label. T ...

Marshal
*
Policing in the United Kingdom Law enforcement in the United Kingdom is organised separately in each of the legal systems of the United Kingdom: England and Wales England and Wales () is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the Unit ...
*
Policing in the United States Law enforcement in the United States is one of three major components of the criminal justice system of the United States, along with List of courts of the United States, courts and corrections. Although each component operates semi-independently ...
*
Sheriff A sheriff is a government official, with varying duties, existing in some countries with historical ties to England where the office originated. There is an analogous although independently developed office in Iceland that is commonly translated ...

Sheriff
*
Individuals with powers of arrest The power of arrest is a mandate given by a central authority that allows an individual to remove a criminal's (or suspected criminal's) liberty. The power of arrest can also be used to protect a person, or persons from harm or to protect damage to ...
*
Police The police are a Law enforcement organization, constituted body of Law enforcement officer, persons empowered by a State (polity), state, with the aim to law enforcement, enforce the law, to ensure the safety, health and possessions of citize ...

Police
*
Chief of police A chief of police is the title given to an appointed official or an elected one in the command hierarchy, chain of command of a police department, particularly in North America. A chief of police may also be known as a police chief or sometimes jus ...
*
Highway patrol A highway patrol is either a police The police are a Law enforcement organization, constituted body of Law enforcement officer, persons empowered by a State (polity), state, with the aim to law enforcement, enforce the law, to ensure the safe ...

Highway patrol
*
Constable of Chester The Constable of Chester was a mediaeval hereditary office appointed by the Earl of Chester, Count Palatine, within his princely quasi-autonomous County Palatine of Chester. The functions of the Constable are unclear, possibly they related to the cu ...


Notes


References

{{Reflist, 30em


External links

*
Patrick Colquhoun Image:Patrick Colquhoun.jpg, Patrick Colquhoun Patrick Colquhoun ( ; 14 March 1745 – 25 April 1820) was a Scotland, Scottish merchant, statistician, magistrate, and founder of the first regular preventive police force in England, the River Thame ...

Patrick Colquhoun

''A Treatise on the Functions and Duties of a Constable.''
London: W. Bulmer and Co., 1803. *
François Hotman François Hotman (23 August 1524 – 12 February 1590) was a France, French Protestant lawyer and writer, associated with the legal humanists and with the monarchomaques, who struggled against absolute monarchy. His first name is often written 'Fra ...

François Hotman
, "Of the Constable and Peers of France," ''Franco-Gallia: Or, An Account of the Ancient Free State of France, and Most Other Parts of Europe, Before the Loss of Their Liberties.''
574 Year 574 ( DLXXIV) was a common year starting on MondayA common year starting on Monday is any non-leap year A leap year (also known as an intercalary year or bissextile year) is a calendar year that contains an additional day (or, in the cas ...
2nd ed. 1721 English translation from the original Latin.
Project Gutenberg Project Gutenberg (PG) is a volunteer Volunteering is a voluntary act of an individual or group freely giving time and labour for community service. Many volunteers are specifically trained in the areas they work, such as medicine, educati ...
e-tex
# 17894
*Provincial civil constables in Canada
CMPSNS.com
Law enforcement occupations Law enforcement occupations in the United Kingdom Law enforcement titles Legal professions Police ranks Police ranks of Sri Lanka Police ranks in the United Kingdom Sheriffs Constables