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This is a list of political conspiracies. In a political context, a
conspiracy A conspiracy, also known as a plot, is a secret plan or agreement between persons (called conspirers or conspirators) for an unlawful or harmful purpose, such as murder Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification ...

conspiracy
refers to a group of people united in the goal of damaging, usurping, or overthrowing an established political power. Typically, the final goal is to gain power through a revolutionary
coup d'état A coup d'état (; French for "blow of state"), often shortened to coup in English, (also known as an overthrow) is a seizure and removal of a government and its powers. Typically, it is an illegal, unconstitutional seizure of power by a politic ...
or through
assassination Assassination is the act of murder, deliberately killing a prominent or important person, such as heads of state, head of government, heads of government, politicians, Monarchy, royalty, celebrity, celebrities, journalists, or CEOs. An assassin ...

assassination
. A conspiracy can also be used for infiltration of the governing system.


List

* 1971 BCE - Apophis Kush Alliance against Egypt as attested to in the second Kamose stele * 399 BCE –
Conspiracy of Cinadon The conspiracy of Cinadon was an attempted coup d'état A coup d'état (; French for "blow of state"), often shortened to coup in English, (also known as an overthrow) is a seizure and removal of a government and its powers. Typically, it is ...
to overthrow the government of ancient Sparta to grant rights to helots and poorer Spartans * 63 BCE -
First Catilinarian conspiracy In the history of the Roman Republic, the first Catilinarian conspiracy was a plot to murder the consuls of 65 BC, Lucius Manlius Torquatus and Lucius Aurelius Cotta. Supposedly, Catiline intended to seize power following an electoral dispute, ...
and the
Second Catilinarian conspiracy The second Catilinarian conspiracy, also known simply as the Catiline conspiracy, was a plot, devised by the Roman senator Lucius Sergius Catilina (or Catiline), with the help of a group of fellow aristocrats Aristocracy ( grc-gre, ἀρισ ...
* 44 BCE -
Liberatores Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people ...
plot
assassination of Julius Caesar Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancien ...
to restore
Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run through public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an indiv ...
* 65 CE -
Pisonian conspiracy The conspiracy A conspiracy, also known as a plot, is a secret plan or agreement between persons (called conspirers or conspirators) for an unlawful or harmful purpose, such as murder or treason Treason is the crime of attacking a Sovere ...
against
Nero Nero ( ; full name: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December AD 37 – 9 June AD 68) was the fifth emperor of Rome. He was Adoption in Ancient Rome, adopted by the Roman emperor Claudius at the age of 13 and s ...

Nero
* 1478
Pazzi conspiracy The Pazzi conspiracy ( it, Congiura dei Pazzi, italic=no) was a plot by members of the Pazzi family and others to displace the Medici family as rulers of Renaissance Florence. On 26 April 1478 there was an attempt to assassinate Lorenzo de' ...

Pazzi conspiracy
, a plot by
Pope Sixtus IV Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of memb ...

Pope Sixtus IV
and the
Pazzi family The Pazzi were a noble Florentine Florentine most commonly refers to: * a person or thing from Florence, a city in Italy * the Florentine dialect Florentine may also refer to: Places * Florentin, Tel Aviv, a neighborhood in the southern ...
to depose the
House of Medici The House of Medici ( , ) was an Italian banking family and political dynasty Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social ...
in the
Republic of Florence The Republic of Florence, officially the Florentine Republic ( it, Repubblica Fiorentina, , or ), was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organizati ...
* 1506 -
Conspiracy A conspiracy, also known as a plot, is a secret plan or agreement between persons (called conspirers or conspirators) for an unlawful or harmful purpose, such as murder Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification ...
against the life of the brothers
Alfonso I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara Alfonso d'Este (21 July 1476 – 31 October 1534) was Duke of Ferrara during the time of the War of the League of Cambrai. Biography He was the son of Ercole I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara and Eleanor of Naples, Duchess of Ferrara, Eleanor of Naple ...
and Cardinal
Ippolito d'Este Ippolito (I) d'Este ( hu, Estei Hippolit; 20 March 1479 – 3 September 1520) was an Italian Roman Catholic cardinal Cardinal or The Cardinal may refer to: Christianity * Cardinal (Catholic Church), a senior official of the Catholic Chu ...
in the
Duchy of Ferrara The Duchy of Ferrara ( la, Ducatus Ferrariensis egl, Ducà ad Frara it, Ducato di Ferrara) was a state in what is now northern Italy. It consisted of about 1,100 km2 south of the lower Po River, stretching to the valley of the lower Reno Riv ...
, coordinated by their half brother
Giulio d'Este Giulio d'Este (13 July 1478 – 24 March 1561) was the illegitimate son of Ercole I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara. He is known for the conflicts he had with his half brother, Ippolito d'Este, which culminated in a failed Conspiracy (criminal), conspiracy ...

Giulio d'Este
and full brother
Ferrante d'EsteFerrante d'Este (19 September 1477, Castel Capuano, Naples – February 1540, Ferrara) was a Ferrarese nobleman and condottiero. He was the son of Ercole I d'Este and Eleonora d'Aragona (1450-1493), Eleonora d'Aragona - he was named after his mother' ...
* 1569 -
1569 Plot The 1569 Plot was a conspiracy in Sweden in 1569. The purpose was to depose John III of Sweden John III ( sv , Johan III, fi, Juhana III; 20 December 1537 – 17 November 1592) was King of Sweden from 1569 until his death. He was the son of Kin ...
against
John III of Sweden John III ( sv , Johan III, fi, Juhana III; 20 December 1537 – 17 November 1592) was King of Sweden from 1569 until his death. He was the son of King Gustav I of Sweden and his second wife Margaret Leijonhufvud. He was also, quite autonomousl ...

John III of Sweden
. * 1570 -
Ridolfi plot The Ridolfi plot was a plot in 1571 to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I of England and replace her with Mary, Queen of Scots. The plot was hatched and planned by Roberto Ridolfi, an international banker who was able to travel between Brussels, Ro ...
against
Elizabeth I of England Elizabeth I (7 September 153324 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to i ...

Elizabeth I of England
* 1574 -
Mornay Plot The Mornay plot was a plot in 1574 to assassinate John III of Sweden John III ( sv , Johan III, fi, Juhana III; 20 December 1537 – 17 November 1592) was King of Sweden from 1569 until his death. He was the son of King Gustav I of Sweden and hi ...
against
John III of Sweden John III ( sv , Johan III, fi, Juhana III; 20 December 1537 – 17 November 1592) was King of Sweden from 1569 until his death. He was the son of King Gustav I of Sweden and his second wife Margaret Leijonhufvud. He was also, quite autonomousl ...

John III of Sweden
. * 1583 - Throckmorton Plot by English Catholics led by Sir Francis Throckmorton to coordinate an invasion of England led by
Henry I, Duke of Guise Henry I, Prince of Joinville, Counts and dukes of Guise, Duke of Guise, Counts of Eu, Count of Eu (31 December 1550 – 23 December 1588), sometimes called ''Le Balafré'' (''Scarface''), was the eldest son of Francis, Duke of Guise, and Anna d' ...
, to murder Elizabeth, and replace her with her cousin
Mary, Queen of Scots Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587), also known as Mary Stuart, was List of Scottish monarchs, Queen of Scotland from 14 December 1542 until her forced abdication in 1567. Mary, the only surviving legitimate child of King ...

Mary, Queen of Scots
* 1586 -
Babington Plot The Babington Plot was a plan in 1586 to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I, a Protestant, and put Mary, Queen of Scots, her Catholic Church, Roman Catholic cousin, on the English throne. It led to the Queen of Scots' execution, a result of a le ...
, plot by
Anthony Babington Anthony Babington (24 October 156120 September 1586) was an English gentleman convicted of plotting the assassination of Elizabeth I of England and conspiring with the imprisoned Mary, Queen of Scots. The "Babington Plot" and Mary's involvement i ...
and John Ballard to assassinate Elizabeth and coordinate an invasion of England by
King Philip II of Spain Philip II) in Spain, while in Kingdom of Portugal, Portugal and his Italian kingdoms he ruled as Philip I ( pt, Filipe I). (21 May 152713 September 1598), also known as Philip the Prudent ( es, Felipe el Prudente), was King of Spain from 1556, ...

King Philip II of Spain
and the Holy League. Discovered by
Sir Francis Walsingham Sir Francis Walsingham ( 1532 – 6 April 1590) was principal secretary to Queen Elizabeth I of England from 20 December 1573 until his death and is popularly remembered as her " spymaster". Born to a well-connected family of g ...
and led to execution of Mary, Queen of Scots * 1603 -
Main Plot The Main Plot was an alleged conspiracy of July 1603 by English courtiers to remove King James I James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland The monarch of Scotland was the head of sta ...
to remove
James I of England James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy, constitutional form of gover ...

James I of England
and enthrone
Arbella Stuart Lady Arbella Stuart (1575 – 25 September 1615) (or Arabella, or Stewart) was an English noblewoman who was considered a possible successor to Queen Elizabeth I of England. During the reign of King James VI and I (her first cousin), she marrie ...

Arbella Stuart
allegedly led by Henry Brooke, Lord Cobham, and sponsored by Spain. * 1603 -
Bye Plot The Bye Plot of 1603 was a conspiracy, by Roman Catholic priests and Puritans The Puritans were English Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to purify the Church of England of Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refer ...
, leads to the execution of Sir George Brooke * 1605 - Gunpowder Plot to blow up the
House of Lords The House of Lords, formally The Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled, is the of the . Membership is by , or . Like the , it meets in the . ar ...

House of Lords
by during the
State Opening of Parliament #REDIRECT State Opening of Parliament#REDIRECT State Opening of Parliament The State Opening of Parliament is an event which formally marks the beginning of a session of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Ki ...
as prelude to a popular revolt in the
Midlands The Midlands is a part of England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the to the east a ...

Midlands
, during which James's nine-year-old daughter,
Princess Elizabeth
Princess Elizabeth
, was to be installed as the
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic
head of state; foiled after a letter to
William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle William Parker, 13th Baron Morley, 4th Baron Monteagle (15751 July 1622) was an English peer, best known for his role in the discovery of the Gunpowder Plot. In 1605 Parker was due to attend the opening of Parliament of England, Parliament. He was ...
, and the discovery and arrest of
Guy Fawkes Guy Fawkes (; 13 April 1570 – 31 January 1606), also known as Guido Fawkes while fighting for the Spanish, was a member of a group of provincial Catholic Church in England and Wales, English Catholics who was involved in the failed Gu ...

Guy Fawkes
. Often called the Gunpowder Treason Plot; origin of
Guy Fawkes Day Guy Fawkes Night, also known as Guy Fawkes Day, Bonfire Night and Fireworks Night, is an annual commemoration observed on 5 November, primarily in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, common ...
* 1718–1720 The Pontcallec conspiracy during the minority of
Louis XV Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved (french: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774. He succeeded his great-grandfather Louis XIV at the age of five. Until he reached ...
to overthrow the Regent
Philippe II, Duke of Orléans Philippe II, Duke of Orléans (Philippe Charles; 2 August 1674 – 2 December 1723), was a French royal, soldier, and statesman who served as Regent A regent (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the ...
in favour of
Philip V of Spain Philip V ( es, Felipe; 19 December 1683 – 9 July 1746) was King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to 14 January 1724, and again from 6 September 1724 to his death in 1746. Philip instigated many important reforms in Spain, most especially the centra ...

Philip V of Spain
* 1749 - Conspiracy of the Slaves by Muslim slaves in Hospitaller-ruled Malta to kill
Grand Master Grandmaster or Grand Master may refer to: People * Grandmaster Flash, Joseph Saddler (born 1958), hip-hop musician and disc jockey * Grandmaster Melle Mel, Melvin Glover (born 1961), hip-hop musician * "Grandmaster Sexay", nickname for profession ...
Manuel Pinto da Fonseca Manuel Pinto da Fonseca (also ''Emmanuel Pinto de Fonseca''; 24 May 1681 – 23 January 1773) was a Portuguese nobleman, the 68th Grand Master of the Order of Saint John, from 1741 until his death. He undertook many building projects, introducing ...
and take over the island with the help of the
Barbary states The terms Barbary Coast, Barbary, Berbery or Berber Coast were used in English-language sources (similarly to equivalent terms in other languages) from the 16th century to the early 19th to refer to the coastal regions of North Africa or Maghreb ...
. * 1756 -
Coup of 1756 The Coup of 1756 ( sv, Kuppen 1756) was an attempted coup d'état planned by Louisa Ulrika of Prussia, Queen Louisa Ulrika of Sweden to abolish the rule of the Riksdag of the Estates and reinstate absolute monarchy in Sweden. The attempted coup was ...
was an attempted
coup d'état A coup d'état (; French for "blow of state"), often shortened to coup in English, (also known as an overthrow) is a seizure and removal of a government and its powers. Typically, it is an illegal, unconstitutional seizure of power by a politic ...
planned by Queen Louisa Ulrika of Sweden to abolish the rule of the
Riksdag of the Estates Riksdag of the Estates (formally sv, Riksens ständer; informally sv, Ståndsriksdagen) was the name used for the Estates The Estates, also known as the States (french: États, german: Landstände, nl, Staten), was the assembly of the repres ...
and reinstate
absolute monarchy Absolute monarchy (or absolutism as doctrine) is a form of monarchy in which the monarch holds supreme autocracy, autocratic authority, principally not being restricted by written laws, legislature, or customs. These are often hereditary monar ...
in Sweden. * 1788 -
Anjala conspiracy The Anjala conspiracy ( sv, Anjalaförbundet) of 1788 was a scheme by disgruntled Sweden-Finland, Swedish officers to end Gustav III's Russian War of 1788–90. Declaring Finland an independent Sovereign state, state was not a part of the orig ...
* 1789 -
1789 Conspiracy (Sweden) The 1789 Conspiracy was a plot in Sweden in 1789, with the purpose of deposing Gustav III of Sweden, and place his brother Charles XIII of Sweden on the throne. The plot was instigated by a group of consirators at the royal court, consisting of amon ...
against
Gustav III of Sweden Gustav III (29 March 1792), also called ''Gustavus III'', was King of Sweden from 1771 until his assassination in 1792. He was the eldest son of Adolf Frederick, King of Sweden and Queen Louisa Ulrika of Prussia. Gustav was a vocal opponent of ...

Gustav III of Sweden
. * 1793 -
Armfelt Conspiracy The Armfelt Conspiracy was a plot in Sweden in 1793. The purpose was to depose the de jure regent Charles XIII of Sweden, Duke Charles and the de facto regent Gustaf Adolf Reuterholm, leaders of the regency government of Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden, ...
against
Charles XIII of Sweden Charles XIII, or Carl XIII ( sv, Karl XIII, 7 October 1748 – 5 February 1818), was King of Sweden The monarchy of Sweden concerns the monarchical head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially ...

Charles XIII of Sweden
. * 1796 – The
Conspiracy of the Equals The Conspiracy of the Equals (french: Conjuration des Égaux) of May 1796 was a failed coup d'Etat during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General of 1789 and ended in coup ...
, led by
François-Noël 'Gracchus' Babeuf
François-Noël 'Gracchus' Babeuf
, which attempted to overthrow the
Directoire The Directory (also called Directorate, ) was the governing five-member committee A committee or commission is a body of one or more persons that is subordinate to a deliberative assembly. Usually, the assembly sends matters into a committee ...

Directoire
* 1807 - The
Burr conspiracy The Burr conspiracy was a plot alleged to have been planned by Aaron Burr in the years during and after his term as Vice President of the United States A vice is a practice, behaviour, or Habit (psychology), habit generally considered immorality ...
, an alleged plot by former
Vice President of the United States The vice president of the United States (VPOTUS) is the second-highest officer in the executive branch The executive (short for executive branch or executive power) is the part of government A government is the system or group ...
Aaron Burr Aaron Burr Jr. (February 6, 1756 – September 14, 1836) was an American politician and lawyer. He served as the third vice president of the United States The vice president of the United States (VPOTUS) is the second-highest officer in ...

Aaron Burr
and a cabal of his supporters to establish an independent country in the
American Southwest The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural region of the United States that generally includes Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣona ...
. The accusations would lead to Burr being arrested and later indicted for
treason Treason is the crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition,Farmer, Lindsay: "Cr ...
. * 1832 - Georgian plot, assassination of the Russian imperial administration and restoration of the Georgian monarchy * 1865 -
Abraham Lincoln assassination Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln (; February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until Assassination of Abraham Lincoln, his assassination in 1 ...
plot, to include assassination of cabinet members. It had originated as a plot by
Confederate Confederacy may refer to: A confederation, an association of sovereign states or communities. Examples include: * Battle of the Trench, Confederate tribes * Confederate States of America, a confederation of secessionist American states that existed ...

Confederate
sympathizers to kidnap Lincoln and force the Union to negotiate for either a release of prisoners of war or an end to the
American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon nove ...
. * 1898 - The
Dreyfus Affair The Dreyfus affair (french: l'affaire Dreyfus, ) was a political scandal that divided the Third French Republic The French Third Republic (french: Troisième République, sometimes written as ) was the system of government adopted in His ...
, a coordinated attempt to falsely accuse
Alfred Dreyfus Alfred Dreyfus ( , also , ; 9 October 1859 – 12 July 1935) was a French artillery officer of Jewish ancestry whose trial and conviction in 1894 on charges of treason Treason is the crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful ...
of treason * 1914 - The
Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * Serbian language * Serbian names See also

* * * Serbian Uprising (disamb ...

Serbian
Black Hand Black Hand or The Black Hand may refer to: Extortionists and underground groups * Black Hand (anarchism) (''La Mano Negra''), a presumed secret, anarchist organization based in the Andalusian region of Spain during the early 1880s * Black Hand (e ...
secret society A secret society is a club or an organization whose activities, events, inner functioning, or membership are concealed. The society may or may not attempt to conceal its existence. The term usually excludes covert groups, such as intelligence ...
aided the
nationalist Nationalism is an idea and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nation (as in a in-group and out-group, group of people),Anthony D. Smith, Smith, Anthony. ''Nationalism: Theory, Ideology, History''. Polity (publisher), Polity, ...
group
Young Bosnia Young Bosnia () was a revolutionary movement active in the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina before World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted f ...
in planning and organizing the assassination Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand in
Sarajevo Sarajevo ( ; cyrl, Сарајево, ; ''see names in other languages'') is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase ...

Sarajevo
, thereby triggering a series of events that resulted in
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
. * 1941 - Operation Spark, a planned attempt on the life of
Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (; 20 April 188930 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the dictator of Nazi Germany, Germany from 1933 to 1945. Adolf Hitler's rise to power, He rose to power as the leader of the Nazi Party, becoming Cha ...

Adolf Hitler
. * 1944 -
July 20 Plot On 20 July 1944, Claus von Stauffenberg Claus Philipp Maria Justinian Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg (; 15 November 1907 – 21 July 1944) was a German army officer best known for his failed attempt on 20 July 1944 to assassinate Adolf Hitle ...
- An attempt to assassinate Hitler with suitcase bomb at a conference at the
Wolf's Lair The Wolf's Lair (german: Wolfsschanze; pl, Wilczy Szaniec) served as Adolf Hitler's first Eastern Front (World War II), Eastern Front military headquarters in World War II. The Organisation Todt constructed the complex, which became one of se ...
in
Rastenburg
Rastenburg
,
East Prussia East Prussia (german: Ostpreußen, ; pl, Prusy Wschodnie; lt, Rytų Prūsija; la, Borussia orientalis; russian: Восточная Пруссия, Vostóchnaya Prússiya) was a of the from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom ...
, and then use
Operation Valkyrie Operation Valkyrie (german: Unternehmen Walküre) was a German World War II emergency continuity of government operations plan issued to the Replacement Army, Territorial Reserve Army of Germany to execute and implement in case of a general br ...
to grab power * 1945 - The Soviet Union's infiltration of the
Manhattan Project The Manhattan Project was a research and development Research and development (R&D, R+D), known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), is the set of innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in ...
through
atomic spies Atomic spies or atom spies were people in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It consists of 50 , a , five major , 326 , and some ...
such as
George Koval George Abramovich Koval ( rus, Жорж (Георгий) Абрамович Коваль, p=ˈʐorʐ (ɡʲɪˈorɡʲɪj) ɐˈbraməvʲɪtɕ kɐˈvalʲ, a=Ru-George Abramovich Koval.flac, Zhorzh Abramovich Koval; December 25, 1913 – January 31 ...
and
Klaus Fuchs Klaus Emil Julius Fuchs (29 December 1911 – 28 January 1988) was a German theoretical physicist and atomic spy Klaus Fuchs, arguably the most important of the identified "atomic spies" for his extensive access to high-level scientific ...

Klaus Fuchs
. Soviet intelligence was eventually confirmed by a declassified U.S. Army Corps of Engineers report and the
Venona project The Venona project was a United States counterintelligence program initiated during World War II by the United States Army's Signal Intelligence Service (later absorbed by the National Security Agency), which ran from February 1, 1943, until Octob ...
, and assisted the
Soviet atomic bomb project The Soviet atomic bomb project ( Russian: Советский проект атомной бомбы, ''Sovetskiy proyekt atomnoy bomby'') was the classified research and development program that was authorized by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Uni ...
. * 1951 -
Rawalpindi conspiracy The Rawalpindi Conspiracy (also known as the Rawalpindi Conspiracy Case) was an attempted ''coup d'état'' against the governments of Liaquat Ali Khan, the first Prime Minister of Pakistan The prime minister of Pakistan ( ur, , lit=Grand vizier ...
- failed coup against
Liaquat Ali Khan Nawab#Nawabzada, Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan (''Navābzādā Liāqat Alī Khān'' , ur, ; October 1895 – 16 October 1951), widely known as Quaid-e-Millat (Leader of the Nation) and ''Shaheed-e-Millat'' ( ur, links=no, Martyr of the Natio ...

Liaquat Ali Khan
, Prime Minister of Pakistan. * 1953 -
Iranian coup d'état
Iranian coup d'état
- The
Imperial Iranian Armed Forces The Islamic Republic of Iran Armed Forces ( fa, نيروهای مسلح جمهوری اسلامی ايران, Nīrūhā-ye Mosallah-e Jomhūri-ye Eslāmi-ye Īrān) are the combined military forces of Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), al ...

Imperial Iranian Armed Forces
restores the
Shah of Iran This article lists the monarchs of Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, also West A ...
,
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Mohammad Reza Pahlavi ( fa, محمدرضا پهلوی, ; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (), was the last ''Shah Shah (; fa, شاه, Šâh or Šāh, , ) was a title given to the emperors and king ...

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
, and overthrows
Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
Mohammad Mosaddegh Mohammad Mosaddegh ( fa, محمد مصدق, ; 16 June 1882 – 5 March 1967) was an Iranian politician who served as the 35th Prime Minister of Iran The Prime Minister of Iran was a political post in Iran (Name of Iran, Persia) that had exis ...

Mohammad Mosaddegh
with the aid of
CIA The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA; ), known informally as "The Agency" and "The Company", is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the federal government of the United States The federal government of the United States (U.S. ...
and MI6. *1959 - Bangkok Plot - a plan to overthrow Premier of
Cambodia Cambodia (; also Kampuchea ; km, កម្ពុជា, ), officially the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is in area, bordered by Thailand to Cambodia–T ...

Cambodia
Prince
Norodom Sihanouk Norodom Sihanouk ( km, នរោត្តម សីហនុ, ; 31 October 192215 October 2012) was a Cambodia, Cambodian politician who led Cambodia in various capacities throughout his political career, but most often as the King of Cambodia. ...
, formulated by Cambodian politicians with international support. * 1971 - Ugandan coup d'état - Ugandan Army units loyal to Idi Amin, General Idi Amin deposed the government of Milton Obote, President Milton Obote while he was abroad attending the annual 1971 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting. * 1972 - Watergate scandal - The burglary of the Democratic National Committee offices at the Watergate complex by Committee for the Re-Election of the President, CREEP and subsequent cover-up scandals that forced Richard Nixon, President Richard Nixon to resign in 1974. * 1984 - Brighton hotel bombing - attempted assassination of Margaret Thatcher and her cabinet by the Provisional IRA at the Grand Brighton Hotel, Grand Hotel in Brighton, resulted in the death of Chief Whip, Deputy Chief Whip Anthony Berry. * 1984 - 1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack, Rajneeshee bioterror attack * 1987 - Iran-Contra Affair - sale of arms to Iran to fund the Contras in Nicaragua by Reagan Administration officials to circumvent the Boland Amendment * 1990 - Nayirah testimony, a false testimony to the Tom Lantos Human Rights Commission, Congressional Human Rights Caucus organized by public relations firm Hill & Knowlton for the Kuwaiti government * 2001 - September 11 attacks - Attacks on the World Trade Center (1973–2001), World Trade Center in New York City, the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia, Arlington, Virginia, and a planned fourth target in Washington, D.C., Washington D.C. using Aircraft hijacking, hijacked airplanes by al-Qaeda. * 2003 - Plame affair - publication of Valerie Plame, Valerie Plame's employment as a covert
CIA The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA; ), known informally as "The Agency" and "The Company", is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the federal government of the United States The federal government of the United States (U.S. ...
officer by Robert Novak, who learned it from Richard Armitage (naval officer), Richard Armitage, after her husband Joseph C. Wilson published a The New York Times, ''New York Times'' op-ed expressing doubt that Saddam Hussein purchased uranium from Niger. Lead to conviction of Scooter Libby for obstruction of justice and perjury. * 2015 - November 2015 Paris attacks - attacks on targets in Paris, including an Eagles of Death Metal concert at the Bataclan (theatre), Bataclan theatre and the Stade de France in Saint-Denis, Seine-Saint-Denis, Saint-Denis, conducted by coordinated teams of Islamic terrorism, Islamic terrorists affiliated with Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, ISIS.


Fabricated conspiracies

* 1924 - The Zinoviev letter, published in the ''Daily Mail'' in London before the 1924 United Kingdom general election, 1924 general election, is a forgery that impacted the vote. It was signed with the name of Grigory Zinoviev, a politician in the Soviet Union and the leader of the Communist International, and called on violent action by the Communist Party of Great Britain. It was devised by Anti-communism, anti-Communist White émigré, White Russian émigrés in Paris and the Labour Party (UK), Labour Party blamed it for its defeat. *1938 - Presumed Hitler Youth Conspiracy, NKVD case in Moscow involving some 70 arrests and 40 executions of teenagers and adults, later found to be baseless


False flag operations

* 1939 - Shelling of Mainila - False flag, false-flag artillery attack by the Red Army to provide the Soviet Union with a pretext for the Winter War against Finland. * 1939 - Operation Himmler and its Gleiwitz incident - False flag, false-flag attacks, including on a Radio broadcasting, radio station in Gliwice, Gleiwitz, by Nazi Germany and Schutzstaffel, SS officers disguised as Polish Armed Forces personnel as a pretext for the invasion of Poland * 1954 - Lavon affair Operation Susannah, "False Flag" terrorism by Mossad


See also

* List of assassinations * List of coups and coup attempts by country * List of terrorist incidents * List of conspiracy theories * Seditious conspiracy * History of espionage


References


Further reading

* Burnett, Thom. ''Conspiracy Encyclopedia: The Encyclopedia of Conspiracy Theories'' (2006) * Critchlow, Donald T., John Korasick, Matthew C. Sherman, eds. ''Political Conspiracies in America: A Reader'' (2008
online
* Coward, Barry, and Julian Swann. ''Conspiracies and conspiracy theory in early modern Europe: from the Waldensians to the French revolution'' (Routledge, 2017). * Dean, Jodi. ''Aliens in America: Conspiracy Culture from Outerspace to Cyberspace'' (Cornell University Press, 1998). * Knight, Peter, ed. ''Conspiracy Theories in American History: An Encyclopedia'' (2003) * Lewis, Jon E. ''The Mammoth Book of Cover-Ups: The 100 Most Terrifying Conspiracies of All Time'' (2008
excerpt
* Newton, Michael, ed. ''Famous Assassinations in World History: An Encyclopedia'' (2 vol ABC-CLIO, 2014), covers 266 assassinations and attempted assassinations of world political leaders from 465 BCE to 2012. * Newton, Michael, ed. ''The Encyclopedia of Conspiracies and Conspiracy Theories'' (2005) * Sifakis, Carl. ''Encyclopedia of Assassinations'' (Facts on File 2001), * Wood, Gordon. “Conspiracy and the Paranoid Style: Causality and Deceit in the Eighteenth Century.” ''William and Mary Quarterly'' 39 (1982): 401–41
online
US history {{DEFAULTSORT:Conspiracies (Political) Politics-related lists Conspiracy, Political