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In
organic chemistry Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s and s: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and th ...
, a condensation reaction is a type of
chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and t ...

chemical reaction
in which two
molecule A molecule is an electrically Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a change in position In physics, motion is the phenomenon ...

molecule
s are
combined Combined may refer to: * Alpine combined (skiing), the combination of slalom and downhill skiing as a single event ** super combined (skiing) * Nordic combined (skiing), the combination of cross country skiing and ski jumping as a single event * Th ...
to form a single molecule, usually with the loss of a small molecule such as
water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known li ...

water
. If water is lost, the reaction is also known as a
dehydration synthesis In chemistry, a dehydration reaction (a.k.a. Condensation polymer, condensation reaction) is a conversion that involves the loss of water from the reacting molecule or ion. Dehydration reactions are common processes, the reverse of a hydration reac ...
. However other molecules can also be lost, such as
ammonia Ammonia is a compound Compound may refer to: Architecture and built environments * Compound (enclosure), a cluster of buildings having a shared purpose, usually inside a fence or wall ** Compound (fortification), a version of the above fort ...

ammonia
,
ethanol Ethanol (also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol) is an organic Organic may refer to: * Organic, of or relating to an organism, a living entity * Organic, of or relating to an anatomical organ (anatomy), ...

ethanol
,
acetic acid Acetic acid , systematically named ethanoic acid , is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H, C2H4O2, or HC2H3O2). Vinegar is no less than 4% acetic acid by volume, making acetic acid ...

acetic acid
and
hydrogen sulfide Hydrogen sulfide is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by havi ...

hydrogen sulfide
. The addition of the two molecules typically proceeds in a step-wise fashion to the addition product, usually in
equilibrium List of types of equilibrium, the condition of a system in which all competing influences are balanced, in a wide variety of contexts. Equilibrium may also refer to: Film and television * Equilibrium (film), ''Equilibrium'' (film), a 2002 scien ...
, and with loss of a water molecule (hence the name
condensation Condensation is the change of the state of matter In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist. Four states of matter are observable in everyday life: solid, liquid, gas, and Plasma (physics), plasma. ...

condensation
). The reaction may otherwise involve the
functional group In organic chemistry, a functional group is a substituent or moiety (chemistry), moiety in a molecule that causes the molecule's characteristic chemical reactions. The same functional group will undergo the same or similar chemical reactions re ...
s of the molecule, and is a versatile class of reactions that can occur in
acid An acid is a or capable of donating a (hydrogen ion H+) (a ), or, alternatively, capable of forming a with an (a ). The first category of acids are the proton donors, or s. In the special case of , proton donors form the H3O+ and are ...
ic or
basic BASIC (Beginners' All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming language In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the ar ...
conditions or in the presence of a
catalyst that utilizes a low-temperature oxidation catalyst to convert carbon monoxide to less toxic carbon dioxide at room temperature. It can also remove formaldehyde from the air. Catalysis () is the process of increasing the reaction rate, rate of a ...

catalyst
. This class of reactions is a vital part of life as it is essential to the formation of
peptide bond In organic chemistry, a peptide bond is an amide type of Covalent bond, covalent chemical bond linking two consecutive alpha-amino acids from C1 (carbon number one) of one alpha-amino acid and N2 (nitrogen number two) of another, along a peptide o ...

peptide bond
s between
amino acid Amino acids are organic compound In , organic compounds are generally any s that contain - . Due to carbon's ability to (form chains with other carbon s), millions of organic compounds are known. The study of the properties, reactions, a ...

amino acid
s and to the
biosynthesis of fatty acids Fatty acid synthesis is the creation of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Its main function is to deliver the a ...
. Many variations of condensation reactions exist. Common examples include the
aldol condensation An aldol condensation is a condensation reaction in organic chemistry in which an enol or an enolate ion reacts with a carbonyl Chemical compound, compound to form a β-hydroxyaldehyde or β-hydroxyketone (an aldol reaction), followed by dehydration ...

aldol condensation
and the
Knoevenagel condensation The Knoevenagel condensation () reaction is an organic reactionImage:Claisen Rearrangement Scheme.png, 400px, The Claisen rearrangementOrganic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds. The basic organic chemistry reaction types ...
, which both form water as a by-product, as well as the
Claisen condensation The Claisen condensation is a carbon–carbon bond A carbon–carbon bond is a covalent bond A covalent bond is a chemical bond A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of ...

Claisen condensation
and the
Dieckman condensation The Dieckmann condensation is the intramolecular chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the IUPAC nomenclature for organic transformations, chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Classical ...
(intramolecular Claisen condensation), which form alcohols as by-products.


See also

*
Anabolism Anabolism () is the set of metabolic pathway In biochemistry Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms. A sub-discipline of both chemistry and biology, biochemistry may be d ...
*
Hydrolysis Hydrolysis (; ) is any chemical reaction in which a molecule of water breaks one or more chemical bonds. The term is used broadly for substitution Substitution may refer to: Arts and media *Chord substitution, in music, swapping one chord fo ...

Hydrolysis
, the opposite of a condensation reaction *
Condensed tannin Condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins, polyflavonoid tannins, catechol-type tannins, pyrocatecollic type tannins, non-hydrolyzable tannins or flavolans) are biopolymer, polymers formed by the Condensation reaction, condensation of flavans. They do n ...
s


References

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