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Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application.
Computer science is the study of
computation Computation is any type of calculation A calculation is a deliberate process that transforms one or more inputs into one or more results. The term is used in a variety of senses, from the very definite arithmetic Arithmetic (from the Ancient ...

computation
,
automation Automation describes a wide range of technologies that reduce human intervention in processes. Human intervention is reduced by predetermining decision criteria, subprocess relationships, and related actions — and embodying those predetermi ...
, and
information Information is processed, organised and structured data. It provides context for data and enables decision making process. For example, a single customer’s sale at a restaurant is data – this becomes information when the business is able ...

information
. Computer science spans theoretical disciplines, such as
algorithm of an algorithm (Euclid's algorithm) for calculating the greatest common divisor (g.c.d.) of two numbers ''a'' and ''b'' in locations named A and B. The algorithm proceeds by successive subtractions in two loops: IF the test B ≥ A yields "yes" ...

algorithm
s,
theory of computation . Turing machines are frequently used as theoretical models for computing. In theoretical computer science and mathematics, the theory of computation is the branch that deals with what problems can be solved on a model of computation, using an ...
, and
information theory Information theory is the scientific study of the quantification (science), quantification, computer data storage, storage, and telecommunication, communication of Digital data, digital information. The field was fundamentally established by the ...
, to
practical disciplines Applied science is the use of the scientific method The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at least the 17th century. It involves caref ...
including the design and implementation of
hardware Hardware may refer to: Technology Computing and electronics * Computer hardware, physical parts of a computer * Digital electronics, electronics that operate on digital signals * Electronic component, device in an electronic system used to affect e ...
and
software Software is a collection of instructions that tell a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operatio ...
. Computer science is generally considered an area of
academic research Research is " creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expa ...

academic research
and distinct from
computer programming Computer programming is the process of designing and building an executable computer program to accomplish a specific computing result or to perform a particular task. Programming involves tasks such as analysis, generating algorithms, Profiling ...
.
Algorithm of an algorithm (Euclid's algorithm) for calculating the greatest common divisor (g.c.d.) of two numbers ''a'' and ''b'' in locations named A and B. The algorithm proceeds by successive subtractions in two loops: IF the test B ≥ A yields "yes" ...

Algorithm
s and
data structures 315px, A data structure known as a hash table. In computer science, a data structure is a data organization, management, and storage format that enables efficient access and modification. More precisely, a data structure is a collection of dat ...
have been called the heart of computer science. The
theory of computation . Turing machines are frequently used as theoretical models for computing. In theoretical computer science and mathematics, the theory of computation is the branch that deals with what problems can be solved on a model of computation, using an ...
concerns abstract
models of computation In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of Algor ...
and general classes of
problems Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc methods in an orderly manner to find solutions to problems. Some of the problem-solving techniques developed and used in philosophy, artificial intelligence, computer science, engineering, ma ...
that can be solved using them.
Cryptography Cryptography, or cryptology (from grc, , translit=kryptós "hidden, secret"; and ''graphein'', "to write", or ''-logia ''-logy'' is a suffix In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompa ...

Cryptography
and
computer security Computer security, cybersecurity, or information technology security (IT security) is the protection of computer system A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out Sequence, sequences of arithmetic or logical operations a ...
study the means for secure communication and prevent security vulnerabilities.
Computer graphics Computer graphics deals with generating images with the aid of computers. Today, computer graphics is a core technology in digital photography, film, video games, cell phone and computer displays, and many specialized applications. A great deal ...
and
computational geometry Computational geometry is a branch of computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Comp ...
study the generation of images.
Programming language theory Programming language theory (PLT) is a branch of computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their applica ...
considers approaches to the description of computational processes and
database In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and softw ...

database
theory concerns the management of repositories of data.
Human–computer interaction Human–computer interaction (HCI) studies the design and use of computer technology, focused on the interfaces between people ( users) and computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or lo ...
investigates the interfaces through which humans and computers interact, and
software engineering Software engineering is the systematic application of engineering approaches to the software development, development of software. A software engineer is a person who applies the principles of software engineering to design, develop, maintain, tes ...
focuses on the design and principles behind developing software. Areas such as
operating system An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware, computer software, software resources, and provides common daemon (computing), services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems scheduler (computing), sch ...

operating system
s,
network Network and networking may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * ''Network'' (1976 film), a 1976 American film * ''Network'' (2019 film), an Indian film * ''Network'' (album), a 2004 album by Saga * Network (comics), a series of Marvel C ...
s and
embedded system An embedded system is a computer system A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out Sequence, sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Com ...
s investigate the principles and design behind
complex systems A complex system is a system composed of many components which may interaction, interact with each other. Examples of complex systems are Earth's global climate, organisms, the human brain, infrastructure such as power grid, transportation or comm ...
.
Computer architecture In computer engineering Computer engineering (CoE or CpE) is a branch of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunn ...
describes construction of computer components and computer-operated equipment.
Artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, label=none, lit=possessed of reason, intellectual, ...

Artificial intelligence
and
machine learning Machine learning (ML) is the study of computer algorithms that can improve automatically through experience and by the use of data. It is seen as a part of artificial intelligence. Machine learning algorithms build a model based on sample data, ...

machine learning
aim to synthesize goal-orientated processes such as problem-solving, decision-making, environmental adaptation,
planning Planning is the process A process is a series or set of Action (philosophy), activities that interact to produce a result; it may occur once-only or be recurrent or periodic. Things called a process include: Business and management *Business pro ...
and learning found in humans and animals. Within artificial intelligence,
computer vision Computer vision is an Interdisciplinarity, interdisciplinary scientific field that deals with how computers can gain high-level understanding from digital images or videos. From the perspective of engineering, it seeks to understand and automate ta ...
aims to understand and process image and video data, while
natural language processing Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of linguistics, computer science, and artificial intelligence concerned with the interactions between computers and human language, in particular how to program computers to process and analyze larg ...
aims to understand and process textual and linguistic data. The fundamental concern of computer science is determining what can and cannot be automated. The
Turing Award The ACM A. M. Turing Award is an annual prize given by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) for contributions "of lasting and major technical importance to the computer field". It is generally recognized as the highest distinction in com ...
is generally recognized as the highest distinction in computer science.


History

The earliest foundations of what would become computer science predate the invention of the modern
digital computer A computer is a machine A machine is a man-made device that uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an action. Machines can be driven by animals and people A people is a plurality of person A person (plural ...
. Machines for calculating fixed numerical tasks such as the
abacus The abacus (''plural'' abaci or abacuses), also called a counting frame, is a calculating tool that has been in use since ancient times and is still in use today. It was used in the ancient Near East The ancient Near East was the home of ear ...

abacus
have existed since antiquity, aiding in computations such as multiplication and division.
Algorithm of an algorithm (Euclid's algorithm) for calculating the greatest common divisor (g.c.d.) of two numbers ''a'' and ''b'' in locations named A and B. The algorithm proceeds by successive subtractions in two loops: IF the test B ≥ A yields "yes" ...

Algorithm
s for performing computations have existed since antiquity, even before the development of sophisticated computing equipment.
Wilhelm Schickard) of his own invention. It was painted in 1632, 8 years after his last calculating clock drawing. Wilhelm Schickard (22 April 1592 – 24 October 1635) was a German professor of Hebrew and astronomy who became famous in the second part of the 2 ...

Wilhelm Schickard
designed and constructed the first working
mechanical calculator A mechanical calculator, or calculating machine, is a mechanical device used to perform the basic operations of arithmetic automatically. Most mechanical calculators were comparable in size to small desktop computers and have been rendered obso ...
in 1623. In 1673,
Gottfried Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz ; see inscription of the engraving depicted in the "#1666–1676, 1666–1676" section. ( – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath active as a mathematician, philosopher, scientist, and diplomat. He is a promin ...
demonstrated a digital mechanical calculator, called the Stepped Reckoner. Leibniz may be considered the first computer scientist and information theorist, for, among other reasons, documenting the binary number system. In 1820,
Thomas de Colmar Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar (May 5, 1785 – March 12, 1870) was a French inventor and entrepreneur best known for designing, patenting and manufacturing the first commercially successful mechanical calculator A mechanical calculator, or ...
launched the
mechanical calculator A mechanical calculator, or calculating machine, is a mechanical device used to perform the basic operations of arithmetic automatically. Most mechanical calculators were comparable in size to small desktop computers and have been rendered obso ...
industryIn 1851 when he invented his simplified
arithmometer The Arithmometer or ''Arithmomètre'' was the first digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of electronics ...
, the first calculating machine strong enough and reliable enough to be used daily in an office environment.
Charles Babbage Charles Babbage (; 26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871) was an English polymath. A mathematician, philosopher, inventor and mechanical engineer, Babbage originated the concept of a digital programmable computer. Babbage is considered ...

Charles Babbage
started the design of the first ''automatic mechanical calculator'', his Difference Engine, in 1822, which eventually gave him the idea of the first ''programmable mechanical calculator'', his
Analytical Engine The Analytical Engine was a proposed mechanical general-purpose computer designed by English mathematician and computer pioneer Charles Babbage. It was first described in 1837 as the successor to Babbage's difference engine, which was a des ...
. He started developing this machine in 1834, and "in less than two years, he had sketched out many of the salient features of the modern computer". "A crucial step was the adoption of a punched card system derived from the
Jacquard loom 330px, A Jacquard loom showing information punchcards, National Museum of Scotland The Jacquard machine () is a device fitted to a loom A loom is a device used to weave cloth and tapestry. The basic purpose of any loom is to hold the warp ...

Jacquard loom
" making it infinitely programmable."The introduction of punched cards into the new engine was important not only as a more convenient form of control than the drums, or because programs could now be of unlimited extent, and could be stored and repeated without the danger of introducing errors in setting the machine by hand; it was important also because it served to crystallize Babbage's feeling that he had invented something really new, something much more than a sophisticated calculating machine." Bruce Collier, 1970 In 1843, during the translation of a French article on the Analytical Engine,
Ada Lovelace Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace ('' née'' Byron; 10 December 1815 – 27 November 1852) was an English mathematician and writer, chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's proposed mechanical general-purpose computer A co ...

Ada Lovelace
wrote, in one of the many notes she included, an algorithm to compute the
Bernoulli number In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). ...
s, which is considered to be the first published algorithm ever specifically tailored for implementation on a computer. Around 1885,
Herman Hollerith Herman Hollerith (February 29, 1860 – November 17, 1929) was an American businessman, inventor, and statistician who developed an electromechanical tabulating machine The tabulating machine was an electromechanical machine designed to assist ...
invented the tabulator, which used
punched card A punched card (also punch cardSteven Pinker, in ''The Stuff of Thought'', Viking, 2007, p.362, notes the loss of ''-ed'' in pronunciation ''as it did in ice cream, mincemeat, and box set, formerly iced cream, minced meat, and boxed set.'' or pu ...

punched card
s to process statistical information; eventually his company became part of
IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the C ...

IBM
. Following Babbage, although unaware of his earlier work,
Percy Ludgate Percy Edwin Ludgate (2 August 1883 – 16 October 1922) was an Irish amateur scientist who designed the second analytical engine The Analytical Engine was a proposed mechanical general-purpose computer designed by English mathematician and ...

Percy Ludgate
in 1909 published the 2nd of the only two designs for mechanical analytical engines in history. In 1937, one hundred years after Babbage's impossible dream,
Howard Aiken Howard Hathaway Aiken (March 8, 1900 – March 14, 1973) was an American physicist A physicist is a scientist A scientist is a person who conducts Scientific method, scientific research to advance knowledge in an Branches of science, area ...
convinced IBM, which was making all kinds of punched card equipment and was also in the calculator business to develop his giant programmable calculator, the , based on Babbage's Analytical Engine, which itself used cards and a central computing unit. When the machine was finished, some hailed it as "Babbage's dream come true". During the 1940s, with the development of new and more powerful
computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and software. It has scie ...

computing
machines such as the
Atanasoff–Berry computer The Atanasoff–Berry computer (ABC) was the first automatic electronic digital computer. Limited by the technology of the day, and execution, the device has remained somewhat obscure. The ABC's priority is debated among historians of computer tech ...
and
ENIAC ENIAC (; Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was the first programmable, electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, ...

ENIAC
, the term ''computer'' came to refer to the machines rather than their human predecessors. As it became clear that computers could be used for more than just mathematical calculations, the field of computer science broadened to study
computation Computation is any type of calculation A calculation is a deliberate process that transforms one or more inputs into one or more results. The term is used in a variety of senses, from the very definite arithmetic Arithmetic (from the Ancient ...

computation
in general. In 1945,
IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the C ...

IBM
founded the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at
Columbia University Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University in the City of New York) is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in New York City. Established in 1754 as King's College on the grounds of ...

Columbia University
in
New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2019 population of 8,336,817 distributed over about , New York City is also the L ...

New York City
. The renovated fraternity house on Manhattan's West Side was IBM's first laboratory devoted to pure science. The lab is the forerunner of IBM's Research Division, which today operates research facilities around the world. Ultimately, the close relationship between IBM and the university was instrumental in the emergence of a new scientific discipline, with Columbia offering one of the first academic-credit courses in computer science in 1946. Computer science began to be established as a distinct academic discipline in the 1950s and early 1960s. The world's first computer science degree program, the
Cambridge Diploma in Computer ScienceDiploma in Computer Science, originally known as the "Diploma in Numerical Analysis and Automatic Computing", was a conversion course in Computer Science offered by the University of Cambridge, England. It was equivalent to a master's degree in prese ...
, began at the
University of Cambridge , mottoeng = Literal: From here, light and sacred draughts. Non literal: From this place, we gain enlightenment and precious knowledge. , established = , other_name = The Chancellor, Masters and Scholars of ...
Computer Laboratory A computer lab is a space which provides computer services to a defined community. Computer labs are typically provided by libraries to the public, by academic institutions to students who attend the institution, or by other institutions to the pub ...
in 1953. The first computer science department in the United States was formed at
Purdue University Purdue University is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupings. This is a different concept to the sociol ...
in 1962. Since practical computers became available, many applications of computing have become distinct areas of study in their own rights.


Etymology

Although first proposed in 1956, the term "computer science" appears in a 1959 article in ''
Communications of the ACM ''Communications of the ACM'' is the monthly journal A journal, from the Old French ''journal'' (meaning "daily"), may refer to: *Bullet journal, a method of personal organizations *Diary, a record of what happened over the course of a day or othe ...
'', in which Louis Fein argues for the creation of a ''Graduate School in Computer Sciences'' analogous to the creation of
Harvard Business School Harvard Business School (HBS) is the graduate Graduate refers to someone who has been the subject of a graduation, namely, someone who has completed the requirements of an academic degree. Education * Graduate, an alumnus * Graduate diploma, ...
in 1921, justifying the name by arguing that, like
management science Management science (MS) is the broad interdisciplinary study of problem solving and decision making in human organizations, with strong links to management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a busin ...
, the subject is applied and interdisciplinary in nature, while having the characteristics typical of an academic discipline. His efforts, and those of others such as numerical analyst
George Forsythe George Elmer Forsythe (January 8, 1917 – April 9, 1972) was the founder and head of Stanford University , mottoeng = "The wind of freedom blows" , type = Private university, Private research university , academic_affiliations = Association ...
, were rewarded: universities went on to create such departments, starting with Purdue in 1962. Despite its name, a significant amount of computer science does not involve the study of computers themselves. Because of this, several alternative names have been proposed. Certain departments of major universities prefer the term ''computing science'', to emphasize precisely that difference. Danish scientist
Peter Naur Peter Naur (25 October 1928 – 3 January 2016) was a Danish computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for the ...
suggested the term ''datalogy'', to reflect the fact that the scientific discipline revolves around data and data treatment, while not necessarily involving computers. The first scientific institution to use the term was the Department of Datalogy at the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1969, with Peter Naur being the first professor in datalogy. The term is used mainly in the Scandinavian countries. An alternative term, also proposed by Naur, is
data science#REDIRECT Data science Data science is an Interdisciplinarity, interdisciplinary field that uses scientific methods, processes, algorithms and systems to extract knowledge and insights from structured and unstructured data, and apply knowledge a ...

data science
; this is now used for a
multi-disciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project). It draws knowledge from several other fields like sociology, anthropology, psychology, e ...

multi-disciplinary
field of data analysis, including statistics and databases. In the early days of computing, a number of terms for the practitioners of the field of computing were suggested in the ''Communications of the ACM''—''turingineer'', ''turologist'', ''flow-charts-man'', ''applied meta-mathematician'', and ''applied
epistemologist Epistemology (; ) is the branch of philosophy concerned with knowledge. Epistemologists study the nature, origin, and scope of knowledge, epistemic Justification (epistemology), justification, the Reason, rationality of belief, and various r ...

epistemologist
''. Three months later in the same journal, ''comptologist'' was suggested, followed next year by ''hypologist''. The term ''computics'' has also been suggested. In Europe, terms derived from contracted translations of the expression "automatic information" (e.g. "informazione automatica" in Italian) or "information and mathematics" are often used, e.g. ''informatique'' (French), ''Informatik'' (German), ''informatica'' (Italian, Dutch), ''informática'' (Spanish, Portuguese), ''informatika'' (
Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with t ...

Slavic languages
and
HungarianHungarian may refer to: * Hungary, a country in Central Europe * Kingdom of Hungary, state of Hungary, existing between 1000 and 1946 * Hungarians, ethnic groups in Hungary * Hungarian algorithm, a polynomial time algorithm for solving the assignmen ...
) or ''pliroforiki'' (''πληροφορική'', which means informatics) in
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
. Similar words have also been adopted in the UK (as in the School of Informatics, University of Edinburgh). "In the U.S., however,
informatics Informatics is the study of computational systems, especially those for data storage and retrieval. According to ACM ''Europe and'' ''Informatics Europe'' informatics is synonym for computer science and computing as a profession, in which the cent ...
is linked with applied computing, or computing in the context of another domain." A folkloric quotation, often attributed to—but almost certainly not first formulated by—
Edsger Dijkstra Edsger Wybe Dijkstra ( ; ; 11 May 1930 – 6 August 2002) was a Dutch computer scientist, programmer A computer programmer, sometimes called a software developer, a programmer or more recently a coder (especially in more informal contexts), i ...
, states that "computer science is no more about computers than astronomy is about telescopes."See the entry "
Computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of Algorithm, algorithmic proc ...
" on Wikiquote for the history of this quotation.
The design and deployment of computers and computer systems is generally considered the province of disciplines other than computer science. For example, the study of computer hardware is usually considered part of
computer engineering Computer engineering (CoE or CpE) is a branch of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and ...
, while the study of commercial
computer system A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out Sequence, sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, programs. These programs enabl ...
s and their deployment is often called information technology or
information system An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical Sociotechnical systems (STS) in organizational development is an approach to complex organizational work design that recognizes the interaction between people and technology in wiktionary:Wor ...
s. However, there has been much cross-fertilization of ideas between the various computer-related disciplines. Computer science research also often intersects other disciplines, such as
cognitive science Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project). It draws knowledge from several other fie ...
,
linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include phonetics, phonet ...
,
mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It has no generally ...
,
physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical scien ...

physics
,
biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanisms, Developmenta ...

biology
,
Earth science Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Ta ...
,
statistics Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. In applying statistics to a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statistical ...
,
philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, language. Such ques ...

philosophy
, and
logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, label=none, lit ...

logic
. Computer science is considered by some to have a much closer relationship with mathematics than many scientific disciplines, with some observers saying that computing is a mathematical science. Early computer science was strongly influenced by the work of mathematicians such as
Kurt Gödel Kurt Friedrich Gödel ( , ; April 28, 1906 – January 14, 1978) was a logician, mathematician, and philosopher. Considered along with Aristotle and Gottlob Frege to be one of the most significant logicians in history, Gödel had an immens ...
,
Alan Turing Alan Mathison Turing (; 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such to ...

Alan Turing
,
John von Neumann John von Neumann (; hu, Neumann János Lajos, ; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian Americans, Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, engineer and polymath. Von Neumann was generally rega ...

John von Neumann
,
Rózsa Péter Rózsa Péter Rózsa Péter, born Rózsa Politzer, (17 February 1905 – 16 February 1977) was a Hungary, Hungarian mathematics, mathematician and logician. She is best known as the "founding mother of recursion theory". Early life and educat ...

Rózsa Péter
and
Alonzo Church Alonzo Church (June 14, 1903 – August 11, 1995) was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA ...
and there continues to be a useful interchange of ideas between the two fields in areas such as
mathematical logic Mathematical logic is the study of formal logic within mathematics. Major subareas include model theory, proof theory, set theory, and recursion theory. Research in mathematical logic commonly addresses the mathematical properties of formal syst ...
,
category theory Category theory formalizes mathematical structure and its concepts in terms of a Graph labeling, labeled directed graph called a ''Category (mathematics), category'', whose nodes are called ''objects'', and whose labelled directed edges are cal ...
,
domain theory Domain theory is a branch of mathematics that studies special kinds of partially ordered sets (posets) commonly called domains. Consequently, domain theory can be considered as a branch of order theory. The field has major applications in computer s ...
, and
algebra Algebra (from ar, الجبر, lit=reunion of broken parts, bonesetting, translit=al-jabr) is one of the areas of mathematics, broad areas of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and mathematical analysis, analysis. In its most ge ...

algebra
. The relationship between Computer Science and Software Engineering is a contentious issue, which is further muddied by
disputes Controversy is a state of prolonged public dispute or debate, usually concerning a matter of conflicting opinion An opinion is a judgement, viewpoint, or Proposition, statement that is not conclusive, rather than facts, which are true statements ...
over what the term "Software Engineering" means, and how computer science is defined.
David Parnas David Lorge Parnas (born February 10, 1941) is a Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many (or all) of ...

David Parnas
, taking a cue from the relationship between other engineering and science disciplines, has claimed that the principal focus of computer science is studying the properties of computation in general, while the principal focus of software engineering is the design of specific computations to achieve practical goals, making the two separate but complementary disciplines. The academic, political, and funding aspects of computer science tend to depend on whether a department is formed with a mathematical emphasis or with an engineering emphasis. Computer science departments with a mathematics emphasis and with a numerical orientation consider alignment with
computational science Computational science, also known as scientific computing or scientific computation (SC), is a field that uses advanced computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes th ...
. Both types of departments tend to make efforts to bridge the field educationally if not across all research.


Philosophy


Epistemology of computer science

Despite the word "science" in its name, there is debate over whether or not computer science is a discipline of science, mathematics, or engineering.https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/computer-science/#EpisStatCompScie
Allen Newell Allen Newell (March 19, 1927 – July 19, 1992) was a researcher in computer science and cognitive psychology at the RAND Corporation and at Carnegie Mellon University’s Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science, School of Computer Science, ...
and Herbert A. Simon argued in 1975, It has since been argued that computer science can be classified as an empirical science since it makes use of empirical testing to evaluate the correctness of programs, but a problem remains in defining the laws and theorems of computer science (if any exist) and defining the nature of experiments in computer science. Proponents of classifying computer science as an engineering discipline argue that the reliability of computational systems is investigated in the same way as bridges in
civil engineering Civil engineering is a Regulation and licensure in engineering, professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including public works such as roads, ...
and airplanes in
aerospace engineering Aerospace engineering is the primary field of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and build ...

aerospace engineering
. They also argue that while empirical sciences observe what presently exists, computer science observes what is possible to exist and while scientists discover laws from observation, no proper laws have been found in computer science and it is instead concerned with creating phenomena. Proponents of classifying computer science as a mathematical discipline argue that computer programs are physical realizations of mathematical entities and programs can be deductively reasoned through mathematical
formal methods In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of Algorit ...
. Computer scientists
Edsger W. Dijkstra Edsger Wybe Dijkstra ( ; ; 11 May 1930 – 6 August 2002) was a Dutch computer scientist A computer scientist is a person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, cons ...
and
Tony Hoare Sir Charles Antony Richard Hoare (born 11 January 1934) is a British computer scientist. He developed the sorting algorithm quicksort in 1959–1960. He also developed Hoare logic for verifying program correctness, and the formal language ...
regard instructions for computer programs as mathematical sentences and interpret formal semantics for programming languages as mathematical
axiomatic system In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It ...
s.


Paradigms of computer science

A number of computer scientists have argued for the distinction of three separate paradigms in computer science.
Peter Wegner Peter A. Wegner (August 20, 1932 – July 27, 2017) was a computer scientist who made significant contributions to both the theory of object-oriented programming Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept ...
argued that those paradigms are science, technology, and mathematics. 's working group argued that they are theory, abstraction (modeling), and design. Amnon H. Eden described them as the "rationalist paradigm" (which treats computer science as a branch of mathematics, which is prevalent in theoretical computer science, and mainly employs
deductive reasoning Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, is the process of reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously making ...
), the "technocratic paradigm" (which might be found in engineering approaches, most prominently in software engineering), and the "scientific paradigm" (which approaches computer-related artifacts from the empirical perspective of
natural science Natural science is a Branches of science, branch of science concerned with the description, understanding and prediction of Phenomenon, natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation. Mechanisms such as peer r ...

natural science
s, identifiable in some branches of
artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, label=none, lit=possessed of reason, intellectual, ...

artificial intelligence
). Computer science focuses on methods involved in design, specification, programming, verification, implementation and testing of human-made computing systems.


Fields

As a discipline, computer science spans a range of topics from theoretical studies of algorithms and the limits of computation to the practical issues of implementing computing systems in hardware and software. CSAB, formerly called Computing Sciences Accreditation Board—which is made up of representatives of the
Association for Computing Machinery The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is a US-based international learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization that exists to promote an disciplin ...
(ACM), and the
IEEE Computer Society IEEE Computer Society (sometimes abbreviated the Computer Society or CS) is a professional society of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Its purpose and scope is "to advance the theory, practice, and application of comput ...
(IEEE CS)—identifies four areas that it considers crucial to the discipline of computer science: ''theory of computation'', ''algorithms and data structures'', ''programming methodology and languages'', and ''computer elements and architecture''. In addition to these four areas, CSAB also identifies fields such as software engineering, artificial intelligence, computer networking and communication, database systems, parallel computation, distributed computation, human–computer interaction, computer graphics, operating systems, and numerical and
symbolic computation In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). I ...
as being important areas of computer science.


Theoretical computer science

''Theoretical Computer Science'' is mathematical and abstract in spirit, but it derives its motivation from the practical and everyday computation. Its aim is to understand the nature of computation and, as a consequence of this understanding, provide more efficient methodologies.


Theory of computation

According to , the fundamental question underlying computer science is, "What can be automated?" Theory of computation is focused on answering fundamental questions about what can be computed and what amount of resources are required to perform those computations. In an effort to answer the first question,
computability theory Computability theory, also known as recursion theory, is a branch of mathematical logic, computer science, and the theory of computation that originated in the 1930s with the study of computable functions and Turing degrees. The field has since e ...
examines which computational problems are solvable on various theoretical
models of computation In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of Algor ...
. The second question is addressed by
computational complexity theory Computational complexity theory focuses on classifying computational problem In theoretical computer science An artistic representation of a Turing machine. Turing machines are used to model general computing devices. Theoretical computer scien ...
, which studies the time and space costs associated with different approaches to solving a multitude of computational problems. The famous P = NP? problem, one of the
Millennium Prize Problems The Millennium Prize Problems are seven problems in mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and cal ...
, is an open problem in the theory of computation.


Information and coding theory

Information theory, closely related to
probability Probability is the branch of mathematics concerning numerical descriptions of how likely an Event (probability theory), event is to occur, or how likely it is that a proposition is true. The probability of an event is a number between 0 and ...

probability
and
statistics Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. In applying statistics to a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statistical ...

statistics
, is related to the quantification of information. This was developed by
Claude Shannon Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001) was an American mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such top ...
to find fundamental limits on
signal processing Signal processing is an electrical engineering subfield that focuses on analysing, modifying, and synthesizing signals such as audio signal processing, sound, image processing, images, and scientific measurements. Signal processing techniques c ...

signal processing
operations such as compressing data and on reliably storing and communicating data. Coding theory is the study of the properties of
code In communications and information processing, code is a system of rules to convert information—such as a letter (alphabet), letter, word, sound, image, or gesture—into another form, sometimes data compression, shortened or secrecy, secret, ...

code
s (systems for converting information from one form to another) and their fitness for a specific application. Codes are used for
data compression In signal processing Signal processing is an electrical engineering subfield that focuses on analysing, modifying, and synthesizing signals such as audio signal processing, sound, image processing, images, and scientific measurements. Signal ...
,
cryptography Cryptography, or cryptology (from grc, , translit=kryptós "hidden, secret"; and ''graphein'', "to write", or ''-logia ''-logy'' is a suffix In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompa ...

cryptography
,
error detection and correction In information theory Information theory is the scientific study of the quantification (science), quantification, computer data storage, storage, and telecommunication, communication of Digital data, digital information. The field was funda ...
, and more recently also for network coding. Codes are studied for the purpose of designing efficient and reliable
data transmission Data transmission and data reception (or, more broadly, data communication or digital communications) is the transfer and reception of data (a Digital data, digital bitstream or a digitized analog signal) over a Point-to-point (telecommunications) ...

data transmission
methods.


Data structures and algorithms

Data structures and algorithms are the studies of commonly used computational methods and their computational efficiency.


Programming language theory and formal methods

Programming language theory is a branch of computer science that deals with the design, implementation, analysis, characterization, and classification of
programming language A programming language is a formal language comprising a Instruction set architecture, set of instructions that produce various kinds of Input/output, output. Programming languages are used in computer programming to implement algorithms. Most ...

programming language
s and their individual
features Feature may refer to: Computing * Feature (CAD), could be a hole, pocket, or notch * Feature (computer vision), could be an edge, corner or blob * Feature (software design) is an intentional distinguishing characteristic of a software item ( ...

features
. It falls within the discipline of computer science, both depending on and affecting
mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It has no generally ...
, software engineering, and linguistics. It is an active research area, with numerous dedicated academic journals. Formal methods are a particular kind of Mathematics, mathematically based technique for the formal specification, specification, development and formal verification, verification of software and computer hardware, hardware systems. The use of formal methods for software and hardware design is motivated by the expectation that, as in other engineering disciplines, performing appropriate mathematical analysis can contribute to the reliability and robustness of a design. They form an important theoretical underpinning for software engineering, especially where safety or security is involved. Formal methods are a useful adjunct to software testing since they help avoid errors and can also give a framework for testing. For industrial use, tool support is required. However, the high cost of using formal methods means that they are usually only used in the development of high-integrity and life-critical systems, where safety or computer security, security is of utmost importance. Formal methods are best described as the application of a fairly broad variety of theoretical computer science fundamentals, in particular logic in computer science, logic calculi, formal languages, automata theory, and program semantics, but also type systems and algebraic data types to problems in software and hardware specification and verification.


Computer systems and computational processes


Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) aims to or is required to synthesize goal-orientated processes such as problem-solving, decision-making, environmental adaptation, learning, and communication found in humans and animals. From its origins in cybernetics and in the History of artificial intelligence, Dartmouth Conference (1956), artificial intelligence research has been necessarily cross-disciplinary, drawing on areas of expertise such as applied mathematics, Mathematical logic, symbolic logic, semiotics, electrical engineering, philosophy of mind, neurophysiology, and social intelligence. AI is associated in the popular mind with Robotics, robotic development, but the main field of practical application has been as an embedded component in areas of software development, which require computational understanding. The starting point in the late 1940s was
Alan Turing Alan Mathison Turing (; 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such to ...

Alan Turing
's question "Can computers think?", and the question remains effectively unanswered, although the Turing test is still used to assess computer output on the scale of human intelligence. But the automation of evaluative and predictive tasks has been increasingly successful as a substitute for human monitoring and intervention in domains of computer application involving complex real-world data.


Computer architecture and organization

Computer architecture, or digital computer organization, is the conceptual design and fundamental operational structure of a computer system. It focuses largely on the way by which the central processing unit performs internally and accesses addresses in memory. Computer engineers study computational logic and design of computer hardware, from individual Processor (computing), processor components, microcontrollers, personal computers to supercomputers and
embedded system An embedded system is a computer system A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out Sequence, sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Com ...
s. The term “architecture” in computer literature can be traced to the work of Lyle R. Johnson and Fred Brooks, Frederick P. Brooks, Jr., members of the Machine Organization department in IBM's main research center in 1959.


Concurrent, parallel and distributed computing

Concurrency is a property of systems in which several computations are executing simultaneously, and potentially interacting with each other. A number of mathematical models have been developed for general concurrent computation including Petri nets, Process calculus, process calculi and the Parallel random-access machine, Parallel Random Access Machine model. When multiple computers are connected in a network while using concurrency, this is known as a distributed system. Computers within that distributed system have their own private memory, and information can be exchanged to achieve common goals.


Computer networks

This branch of computer science aims to manage networks between computers worldwide.


Computer security and cryptography

Computer security is a branch of computer technology with the objective of protecting information from unauthorized access, disruption, or modification while maintaining the accessibility and usability of the system for its intended users. Historical
cryptography Cryptography, or cryptology (from grc, , translit=kryptós "hidden, secret"; and ''graphein'', "to write", or ''-logia ''-logy'' is a suffix In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompa ...

cryptography
is the art of writing and deciphering secret messages. Modern cryptography is the scientific study of problems relating to distributed computations that can be attacked. Technologies studied in modern cryptography include symmetric and asymetric encryption, digital signatures, cryptographic hash functions, key-agreement protocols, blockchain, zero-knowledge proofs, and garbled circuits.


Databases and data mining

A database is intended to organize, store, and retrieve large amounts of data easily. Digital databases are managed using database management systems to store, create, maintain, and search data, through database models and query languages. Data mining is a process of discovering patterns in large data sets.


Computer graphics and visualization

Computer graphics is the study of digital visual contents and involves the synthesis and manipulation of image data. The study is connected to many other fields in computer science, including
computer vision Computer vision is an Interdisciplinarity, interdisciplinary scientific field that deals with how computers can gain high-level understanding from digital images or videos. From the perspective of engineering, it seeks to understand and automate ta ...
, image processing, and
computational geometry Computational geometry is a branch of computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Comp ...
, and is heavily applied in the fields of special effects and video games.


Image and sound processing

Information can take the form of images, sound, video or other multimedia. Bits of information can be streamed via signals. Its information processing, processing is the central notion of
informatics Informatics is the study of computational systems, especially those for data storage and retrieval. According to ACM ''Europe and'' ''Informatics Europe'' informatics is synonym for computer science and computing as a profession, in which the cent ...
, the European view on
computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and software. It has scie ...

computing
, which studies information processing algorithms independently of the type of information carrier - whether it is electrical, mechanical or biological. This field plays important role in information theory, telecommunications, information engineering (field), information engineering and has applications in medical image computing and speech synthesis, among others. ''What is the lower bound on the complexity of fast Fourier transform algorithms?'' is one of List of unsolved problems in computer science, unsolved problems in theoretical computer science.


Applied computer science


Computational science, finance and engineering

Scientific computing (or
computational science Computational science, also known as scientific computing or scientific computation (SC), is a field that uses advanced computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes th ...
) is the field of study concerned with constructing scientific modelling, mathematical models and numerical analysis, quantitative analysis techniques and using computers to analyze and solve Science, scientific problems. A major usage of scientific computing is simulation of various processes, including computational fluid dynamics, physical, electrical, and electronic systems and circuits, as well as societies and social situations (notably war games) along with their habitats, among many others. Modern computers enable optimization of such designs as complete aircraft. Notable in electrical and electronic circuit design are SPICE, as well as software for physical realization of new (or modified) designs. The latter includes essential design software for integrated circuits.


Social computing and human–computer interaction

Social computing is an area that is concerned with the intersection of social behavior and computational systems. Human–computer interaction research develops theories, principles, and guidelines for user interface designers.


Software engineering

Software engineering is the study of designing, implementing, and modifying the software in order to ensure it is of high quality, affordable, maintainable, and fast to build. It is a systematic approach to software design, involving the application of engineering practices to software. Software engineering deals with the organizing and analyzing of software—it doesn't just deal with the creation or manufacture of new software, but its internal arrangement and maintenance. For example software testing, systems engineering, technical debt and Software development process, software development processes.


Discoveries

The philosopher of computing William J. Rapaport, Bill Rapaport noted three ''Great Insights of Computer Science'': * Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz's, George Boole's,
Alan Turing Alan Mathison Turing (; 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such to ...

Alan Turing
's,
Claude Shannon Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001) was an American mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such top ...
's, and Samuel Morse's insight: there are only ''two objects'' that a computer has to deal with in order to represent "anything". :: All the information about any computable problem can be represented using only 0 and 1 (or any other bistable pair that can flip-flop between two easily distinguishable states, such as "on/off", "magnetized/de-magnetized", "high-voltage/low-voltage", etc.). *
Alan Turing Alan Mathison Turing (; 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such to ...

Alan Turing
's insight: there are only ''five actions'' that a computer has to perform in order to do "anything". :: Every algorithm can be expressed in a language for a computer consisting of only five basic instructions: ::* move left one location; ::* move right one location; ::* read symbol at current location; ::* print 0 at current location; ::* print 1 at current location. * Corrado Böhm and Giuseppe Jacopini's insight: there are only ''three ways of combining'' these actions (into more complex ones) that are needed in order for a computer to do "anything". :: Only three rules are needed to combine any set of basic instructions into more complex ones: ::*''sequence'': first do this, then do that; ::* '' selection'': IF such-and-such is the case, THEN do this, ELSE do that; ::* ''repetition'': WHILE such-and-such is the case, DO this. :: Note that the three rules of Boehm's and Jacopini's insight can be further simplified with the use of goto (which means it is more elementary than structured programming).


Programming paradigms

Programming languages can be used to accomplish different tasks in different ways. Common programming paradigms include: * Functional programming, a style of building the structure and elements of computer programs that treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids state and mutable data. It is a declarative programming paradigm, which means programming is done with expressions or declarations instead of statements. * Imperative programming, a programming paradigm that uses statements that change a program's state. In much the same way that the imperative mood in natural languages expresses commands, an imperative program consists of commands for the computer to perform. Imperative programming focuses on describing how a program operates. * Object-oriented programming, a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which may contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated. Thus object-oriented computer programs are made out of objects that interact with one another. *Service-oriented programming, a programming paradigm that uses "services" as the unit of computer work, to design and implement integrated business applications and mission critical software programs Many languages offer support for multiple paradigms, making the distinction more a matter of style than of technical capabilities.


Academia

Conferences are important events for computer science research. During these conferences, researchers from the public and private sectors present their recent work and meet. Unlike in most other academic fields, in computer science, the prestige of proceedings, conference papers is greater than that of journal publications. One proposed explanation for this is the quick development of this relatively new field requires rapid review and distribution of results, a task better handled by conferences than by journals.


Education

Computer Science, known by its near synonyms, Computing, Computer Studies, has been taught in UK schools since the days of batch processing, punched cards, mark sensitive cards and paper tape but usually to a select few students. In 1981, the BBC produced a BBC Model B, micro-computer and Econet, classroom network and Computer Studies became common for GCE O level students (11–16-year-old), and Computer Science to A level students. Its importance was recognised, and it became a compulsory part of the National Curriculum, for Key Stage 3 & 4. In September 2014 it became an entitlement for all pupils over the age of 4. In the United States of America, US, with 14,000 school districts deciding the curriculum, provision was fractured. According to a 2010 report by the
Association for Computing Machinery The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is a US-based international learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization that exists to promote an disciplin ...
(ACM) and Computer Science Teachers Association (CSTA), only 14 out of 50 states have adopted significant education standards for high school computer science. Israel, New Zealand, and South Korea have included computer science in their national secondary education curricula, and several others are following.


See also

* Computer engineering * Computer programming * Digital Revolution * Information and communications technology * Information technology * List of computer scientists * List of computer science awards * List of important publications in computer science * List of pioneers in computer science * List of unsolved problems in computer science * Programming language * Software engineering


Notes


References


Further reading


Overview

* ** "Within more than 70 chapters, every one new or significantly revised, one can find any kind of information and references about computer science one can imagine. […] all in all, there is absolute nothing about Computer Science that can not be found in the 2.5 kilogram-encyclopaedia with its 110 survey articles […]." (Christoph Meinel, ''Zentralblatt MATH'') * ** "[…] this set is the most unique and possibly the most useful to the [theoretical computer science] community, in support both of teaching and research […]. The books can be used by anyone wanting simply to gain an understanding of one of these areas, or by someone desiring to be in research in a topic, or by instructors wishing to find timely information on a subject they are teaching outside their major areas of expertise." (Rocky Ross, ''SIGACT News'') * ** "Since 1976, this has been the definitive reference work on computer, computing, and computer science. […] Alphabetically arranged and classified into broad subject areas, the entries cover hardware, computer systems, information and data, software, the mathematics of computing, theory of computation, methodologies, applications, and computing milieu. The editors have done a commendable job of blending historical perspective and practical reference information. The encyclopedia remains essential for most public and academic library reference collections." (Joe Accardin, Northeastern Illinois Univ., Chicago) *


Selected literature

* * * * * ** "Covering a period from 1966 to 1993, its interest lies not only in the content of each of these papers – still timely today – but also in their being put together so that ideas expressed at different times complement each other nicely." (N. Bernard, ''Zentralblatt MATH'')


Articles

* Peter J. Denning.
Is computer science science?
', Communications of the ACM, April 2005. * Peter J. Denning,
Great principles in computing curricula
', Technical Symposium on Computer Science Education, 2004. * Research evaluation for computer science, Informatics Europ
report
. Shorter journal version: Bertrand Meyer, Christine Choppy, Jan van Leeuwen and Jorgen Staunstrup, ''Research evaluation for computer science'', in
Communications of the ACM ''Communications of the ACM'' is the monthly journal A journal, from the Old French ''journal'' (meaning "daily"), may refer to: *Bullet journal, a method of personal organizations *Diary, a record of what happened over the course of a day or othe ...
, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 31–34, April 2009.


Curriculum and classification

*
Association for Computing Machinery The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is a US-based international learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization that exists to promote an disciplin ...

1998 ACM Computing Classification System
1998. * Joint Task Force of Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), Association for Information Systems (AIS) and
IEEE Computer Society IEEE Computer Society (sometimes abbreviated the Computer Society or CS) is a professional society of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Its purpose and scope is "to advance the theory, practice, and application of comput ...
(IEEE CS)
Computing Curricula 2005: The Overview Report
September 30, 2005. * Norman Gibbs, Allen Tucker. "A model curriculum for a liberal arts degree in computer science". ''Communications of the ACM'', Volume 29 Issue 3, March 1986.


External links

*
Scholarly Societies in Computer Science

What is Computer Science?



Photographs of computer scientists
by Bertrand Meyer
EECS.berkeley.edu


Bibliography and academic search engines


CiteSeer''x''
(CiteSeerX, article): search engine, digital library and repository for scientific and academic papers with a focus on computer and information science.
DBLP Computer Science Bibliography
(Digital Bibliography & Library Project, article): computer science bibliography website hosted at Universität Trier, in Germany.
The Collection of Computer Science Bibliographies
(Collection of Computer Science Bibliographies)


Professional organizations


Association for Computing Machinery

IEEE Computer Society

Informatics Europe



AAAS Computer Science


Misc


Computer Science—Stack Exchange
a community-run question-and-answer site for computer science
What is computer science

Is computer science science?

Computer Science (Software) Must be Considered as an Independent Discipline.
{{Authority control Computer science, Formal sciences, Computer engineering