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As a topic of
chemistry Chemistry is the scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a natural science that covers the elements that make up matter to the compounds made of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties ...
, chemical synthesis (or combination) is the artificial execution of
chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the IUPAC nomenclature for organic transformations, chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Classically, chemical reactions encompass changes that only involve the pos ...
s to obtain one or several products. This occurs by physical and chemical manipulations usually involving one or more reactions. In modern
laboratory A laboratory (; ; colloquially lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which science, scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed. Laboratory services are provided in a variety of settings: ...
uses, the process is reproducible and reliable. A chemical synthesis involves one or more compounds (known as ''
reagent In chemistry, a reagent ( ) or analytical reagent is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or test if one occurs. The terms ''reactant'' and ''reagent'' are often used interchangeably, but reactant specifies a ...
s'' or ''reactants'') that will experience a transformation when subjected to certain conditions. Various reaction types can be applied to formulate a desired product. This requires mixing the compounds in a reaction vessel, such as a chemical reactor or a simple round-bottom flask. Many reactions require some form of processing (" work-up") or purification procedure to isolate the final product. The amount produced by chemical synthesis is known as the '' reaction yield''. Typically, yields are expressed as a
mass Mass is an Intrinsic and extrinsic properties, intrinsic property of a body. It was traditionally believed to be related to the physical quantity, quantity of matter in a Physical object, physical body, until the discovery of the atom and par ...
in
gram The gram (originally gramme; SI unit symbol g) is a unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI) equal to one one thousandth of a kilogram. Originally defined as of 1795 as "the absolute weight of a volume Volume is a measure ...
s (in a laboratory setting) or as a percentage of the total theoretical quantity that could be produced based on the limiting reagent. A '' side reaction'' is an unwanted chemical reaction occurring which reduces the desired yield. The word ''synthesis'' was used first in a chemical context by the chemist Hermann Kolbe.


Strategies

Many strategies exist in chemical synthesis that are more complicated than simply converting a reactant A to a reaction product B directly. For multistep synthesis, a chemical compound is synthesized by a series of individual chemical reactions, each with its own work-up. For example, a laboratory synthesis of
paracetamol Paracetamol, also known as acetaminophen, is a medication used to treat fever and mild to moderate pain. Common brand names include Tylenol (brand), Tylenol and Panadol (brand), Panadol. At a standard dose, paracetamol only slightly decreases ...
can consist of three sequential parts. For
cascade reaction A cascade reaction, also known as a domino reaction or tandem reaction, is a chemical process that comprises at least two consecutive reactions such that each subsequent reaction occurs only in virtue of the chemical functionality formed in the p ...
s, multiple chemical transformations occur within a single reactant, for multi-component reactions as many as 11 different reactants form a single reaction product and for a " telescopic synthesis" one reactant experiences multiple transformations without isolation of intermediates.


Organic synthesis

Organic synthesis Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds. Organic chemistry, Organic molecules are often more complex than Inorganic chemistry, inorganic compounds, and t ...
is a special type of chemical synthesis dealing with the synthesis of
organic compound In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen or carbon-carbon chemical bond, bonds. Due to carbon's ability to Catenation, catenate (form chains with other carbon atoms), millions of organic c ...
s. For the
total synthesis Total synthesis is the complete chemical synthesis of a complex molecule, often a natural product, from simple, commercially-available precursors. It usually refers to a process not involving the aid of biological processes, which distinguishes i ...
of a complex product, multiple procedures in sequence may be required to synthesize the product of interest, requiring a large amount of time. Skill in organic synthesis is prized among chemists and the synthesis of exceptionally valuable or difficult compounds has won chemists such as
Robert Burns Woodward Robert Burns Woodward (April 10, 1917 – July 8, 1979) was an American Organic chemistry, organic chemist. He is considered by many to be the most preeminent synthetic organic chemist of the twentieth century, having made many key contribution ...
a Nobel Prize for Chemistry. If a chemical synthesis starts from basic laboratory compounds, it is considered a purely synthetic process. If it starts from a product isolated from plants or animals and then proceeds to new compounds, the synthesis is described as a semisynthetic process.


Inorganic synthesis

Inorganic synthesis and organometallic synthesis are applied to the preparation of compounds with significant non-organic content. An illustrative example is the preparation of the anti-cancer drug
cisplatin Cisplatin is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of cancers. These include testicular cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, breast cancer, bladder cancer, head and neck cancer, esophageal cancer, lung cancer, mesothel ...
from potassium tetrachloroplatinate.


See also

* Beilstein database *
Chemical engineering Chemical engineering is an engineering field which deals with the study of operation and design of chemical plants as well as methods of improving production. Chemical engineers develop economical commercial processes to convert raw materials int ...
* Click chemistry * Electrosynthesis * '' Methods in Organic Synthesis'' *
Organic synthesis Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds. Organic chemistry, Organic molecules are often more complex than Inorganic chemistry, inorganic compounds, and t ...
* Peptide synthesis *
Total synthesis Total synthesis is the complete chemical synthesis of a complex molecule, often a natural product, from simple, commercially-available precursors. It usually refers to a process not involving the aid of biological processes, which distinguishes i ...
* Automated synthesis


References


External links


The Organic Synthesis Archive

Natural product syntheses
{{DEFAULTSORT:Chemical Synthesis Chemistry