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A caravanserai (or caravansary; ) was a roadside
inn Inns are generally establishments or buildings where travelers can seek lodging Lodging refers to the use of a short-term dwelling In law, a dwelling (also known as a residence or an abode) is a self-contained unit of accommodation ...
where travelers ( caravaners) could rest and recover from the day's journey. Caravanserais supported the flow of commerce, information and people across the network of
trade route A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo. The term can also be used to refer to trade over bodies of water. Allowing goods In economics Economics ( ...
s covering Asia,
North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in th ...

North Africa
and
Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact characteri ...

Southeast Europe
, most notably the
Silk Road The Silk Road () was and is a network of trade route A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo. The term can also be used to refer to trade over bodies of ...

Silk Road
. Although many were located along rural roads in the countryside, urban versions of caravanserais were also historically common in cities throughout the
Islamic world The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the Islamic Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodne ...

Islamic world
, though they were often called by other names such as ''khan'', ''wikala'', or ''funduq''.


Terms and etymology


Caravanserai

The word ''kārvānsarāy'' is a
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
compound word combining ''kārvān'' "
caravan Caravan or caravans may refer to: Transport and travel *Caravan (travellers), a group of travellers journeying together **Caravanserai, a place where a caravan could stop *Camel train, a convoy using camels as pack animals *Convoy, a group of vehi ...
" with ''sarāy'' "palace", "building with enclosed courts". Here "caravan" means a group of traders, pilgrims or other travellers, engaged in long-distance travel. The word is also rendered as ''caravansary'', ''caravansaray'', ''caravanseray'', ''caravansara'', and ''caravansarai''. In scholarly sources, it is often used as an umbrella term for multiple related types of commercial buildings similar to inns or hostels, whereas the actual instances of such buildings had a variety of names depending on the region and the local language. However, the term was typically preferred for rural inns built along roads outside of city walls. The word ''serai'' is sometimes used with the implication of caravanserai. A number of place-names based on the word ''sarai'' have grown up:
Mughal Serai Mughal Serai is a caravanserai situated at village Shambhu on Grand Trunk Road, Sher Shah Suri Marg, near Rajpura at . History The serai was built during Sher Shah Suri, Sher Shah Suri's reign along with many others caravanserais during the constru ...
,
Sarai Alamgir Sarai Alamgir ( Punjabi, Urdu Urdu (; ur, , ALA-LC: ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural te ...
and the
Delhi Sarai Rohilla railway station Delhi Sarai Rohilla Terminal railway station (station code: DEE) is situated about 4 km from old Delhi Junction Railway station, Delhi railway junction in India. Its station code is DEE. It is managed by Delhi Division of Northern Railway z ...
for example, and a great many other places are also based on the original meaning of "palace".


Khan

The word ''khan'' () derives from Middle Persian ''hʾn (''xān'', “house”). It typically referred to an "urban caravanserai" built within a town or a city. In Turkish the word is rendered as ''han''. The same word was used in
Bosnian Bosnian may refer to: *Anything related to the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina or its inhabitants *Anything related to Bosnia (region) or its inhabitants * Bosniaks, an ethnic group mainly inhabiting Bosnia and Herzegovina and one of three Ethnic gr ...
, having arrived through Ottoman conquest. In addition to Turkish and Persian, the term was widely used in Arabic as well, and examples of such buildings are found throughout the Middle East from as early as the Ummayyad period.


Funduq

The term ''funduq'' ( ar, فندق, lit=; sometimes spelled ''foundouk'' or ''fondouk'' from the transliteration) is frequently used for historic inns in Morocco and around . The word comes from Greek ''pandocheion'', lit.: "welcoming all", thus meaning 'inn', led to ''
funduq A caravanserai (or caravansary; ) was a roadside inn where travelers ( caravaners) could rest and recover from the day's journey. Caravanserais supported the flow of commerce, information and people across the network of trade route A trade rou ...
'' in Arabic (), ''pundak'' in Hebrew (), '' fundaco'' in Venice, '' fondaco'' in Genoa and '' alhóndiga'' or ''fonda'' in Spanish (funduq is the origin of Spanish term ''fonda''). In the cities of this region such buildings were also frequently used as housing for artisan workshops.


Wikala

The Arabic word ''wikala'' (وكالة), sometimes spelled ''wakala'' or ''wekala'', is a term found frequently in historic Cairo for an urban caravanserai which housed merchants and their goods and served as a center for trade, storage, transactions and other commercial activity. The word ''wikala'' means roughly "agency" in
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
, in this case a commercial agency, which may also have been a reference to the
customs Customs is an authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social science that u ...

customs
offices that could be located here to deal with imported goods. The term ''khan'' was also frequently used for this type of building in Egypt.


History

Caravanserais were a common feature not only along the Silk Road, but also along the
Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian Iranian may refer to: * Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and offi ...

Achaemenid Empire
's
Royal Road The Royal Road was an ancient highway A highway is any public or private road A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two Location (geography), places that has been Pavement (material), paved or otherwise improved to a ...
, a ancient highway that stretched from
Sardis Sardis () or Sardes (; Lydian Lydian may refer to: * Lydians, an ancient people of Anatolia * Lydian language, an ancient Anatolian language * Lydian alphabet ** Lydian (Unicode block) * Lydian (typeface), a decorative typeface * Lydian dominan ...

Sardis
to
Susa Susa (; Cuneiform Cuneiform is a Logogram, logo-Syllabary, syllabic writing system, script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active use from the early Bronze Age until the beginning of the ...

Susa
according to
Herodotus Herodotus ( ; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, Hēródotos, ; BC) was an Classical Greece, ancient Greek writer, geographer, and historian born in the Greek city of Halicarnassus, part of the Achaemenid Empire, Persian Empire (now Bodrum, Turkey). He ...
: "Now the true account of the road in question is the following: Royal stations exist along its whole length, and excellent caravanserais; and throughout, it traverses an inhabited tract, and is free from danger." Other significant urban caravanserais were built along the
Grand Trunk Road The Grand Trunk Road formerly known as ''Uttarapath'', ''Sarak-e-Azam'', ''Badshahi Sarak'', ''Sarak-e-Sher Shah'' is one of Asia's oldest and longest major roads. For at least 2,500 years, it has linked Central Asia Central Asia is a region ...

Grand Trunk Road
in the Indian subcontinent, especially in the region of
Mughal Mughal or Moghul may refer to: * The Mughal Empire of South Asia ** Mughal dynasty ** Mughal emperors ** Mughal people, a social group of South Asia ** Mughal Army, the Army of Mughal Empire * Cultural influences of the Mughal Empire ** Mughal arc ...
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
and
Bengal Subah The Bengal Subah (also known as Mughal Bengal) was the largest subdivision Subdivision may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Subdivision (metre), in music * Subdivision (film), ''Subdivision'' (film), 2009 * "Subdivision", an episode of Priso ...
. Throughout most of the Islamic period (7th century and after), caravanserais were a common type of structure both in the rural countryside and in dense urban centers across the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
,
North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in th ...

North Africa
, and
Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Arabic: عُثْمان ''‘uthmān''). It may refer to: Governments and dynasties * Ottoman Caliphate, an Islamic caliphate from 1517 to 1924 * Ottoman Empi ...
Europe. A number of 12th to 13th-century caravanserais or ''han''s were built throughout the
Seljuk Empire The Great Seljuk Empire or the Seljuk Empire, was a high medieval The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that lasted from around AD 1000 to 1250. The High Middle Ages In the history of Eu ...

Seljuk Empire
, many examples of which have survived across
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
today (e.g. the large Sultan Han in
Aksaray Province Aksaray Province ( tr, ) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Ro ...
) as well as in
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
(e.g. the
Ribat-i Sharaf The Ribat of Sharaf ( fa, رباط شرف, , Robat-i Sharaf or Robat-e Sharaf) is a historical ribat A ribāṭ ( ar, رِبَـاط; hospice, hostel, base or retreat) is an Arabic term for a small fortification A fortification is a mili ...
in
Khorasan Khorasan may refer to: * Greater Khorasan, a historical region which lies mostly in modern-day northern/northwestern Afghanistan, northeastern Iran, southern Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan * Khorasan Province, a pre-2004 province of Iran, ...
). Urban versions of caravanserais also became important centers of economic activity in cities across these different regions of the Muslim world, often concentrated near the main '''' areas, with many examples still standing in the historic areas of
Damascus )), is an adjective which means "spacious". , motto = , image_flag = Flag of Damascus.svg , image_seal = Emblem of Damascus.svg , seal_type = Seal , m ...

Damascus
,
Aleppo )), is an adjective which means "white-colored mixed with black". , motto = , image_map = , mapsize = , map_caption = , image_map1 ...

Aleppo
,
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in E ...

Cairo
,
Istanbul Istanbul ( , ; tr, İstanbul ), formerly known as Constantinople, is the List of largest cities and towns in Turkey, largest city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural and historic center. The city straddles the Bosporus strait, and lie ...

Istanbul
,
Fes Fez or Fes (; ar, فاس, fās, ber, ⴼⴰⵙ, fas, french: Fès) is a city in northern inland Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa.Dark green: ...

Fes
, etc. In many parts of the Muslim world, caravanserais also provided revenues that were used to fund charitable or religious functions or buildings. These revenues and functions were managed through a ''
waqf A waqf ( ar, وَقْف; ), also known as hubous () or ''mortmain Mortmain () is the perpetual, inalienable ownership of real estate Real estate is property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources ...

waqf
'', a protected agreement which gave certain buildings and revenues the status of
mortmain Mortmain () is the perpetual, inalienable ownership of real estate Real estate is property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an ...
endowments guaranteed under
Islamic law Sharia (; ar, شريعة, sharīʿa ) is a religious law Religious law includes ethical and moral codes taught by religious traditions. Different religious systems hold sacred law in a greater or lesser degree of importance to their beli ...
.Behrens-Abouseif, Doris. 2007. ''Cairo of the Mamluks: A History of Architecture and its Culture''. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press. Many major religious complexes in the
Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Arabic: عُثْمان ''‘uthmān''). It may refer to: Governments and dynasties * Ottoman Caliphate, an Islamic caliphate from 1517 to 1924 * Ottoman Empi ...
and
Mamluk Mamluk ( ar, مملوك, mamlūk (singular), , ''mamālīk'' (plural), translated as "one who is owned", meaning "", also as ''Mameluke'', ''mamluq'', ''mamluke'', ''mameluk'', ''mameluke'', ''mamaluke'', or ''marmeluke'') is a term most commo ...

Mamluk
empires, for example, either included a caravanserai building (like in the ''
külliye A külliye ( ota, كلية) is a complex of buildings associated with Turkish architecture centered on a mosque and managed within a single institution, often based on a waqf (charitable foundation) and composed of a madrasa, a Dar al-Shifa ("cli ...
'' of the in Istanbul) or drew revenues from one in the area (such as the Wikala al-Ghuri in Cairo, which was built to contribute revenues for the nearby complex of Sultan al-Ghuri).


Caravanserai in Arab literature

Al-Muqaddasi , birth_date = c. 945/946 CE , birth_place = Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλ ...
the Arab geographer wrote in 985 CE about the hostelries, or wayfarers' inns, in the Province of Palestine, a province at that time listed under the topography of Syria, saying: "Taxes are not heavy in Syria, with the exception of those levied on the Caravanserais (''Fanduk''); Here, however, the duties are oppressive..." The reference here being to the imposts and duties charged by government officials on the importation of goods and merchandise, the importers of which and their beasts of burden usually stopping to take rest in these places. Guards were stationed at every gate to ensure that taxes for these goods be paid in full, while the revenues therefrom accruing to the Fatimid kingdom of Egypt.


Architecture

Most typically a caravanserai was a building with a square or rectangular walled exterior, with a single portal wide enough to permit large or heavily laden beasts such as
camel A camel is an even-toed ungulate The even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla , ) are ungulates—hoofed animals—which bear weight equally on two (an even number) of their five toes: the third and fourth. The other three toes are either present, ...

camel
s to enter. The courtyard was almost always open to the sky, and the inside walls of the enclosure were outfitted with a number of identical
animal stall An animal stall is an enclosure housing one or a few animals. Stalls for animals can often be found wherever animals are kept: a horse stable is often a purpose-built and permanent structure. A farmer's barn may be subdivided into animal stalls ...
s, bays, niches or chambers to accommodate merchants and their servants, animals, and merchandise. Caravanserais provided water for human and animal consumption, washing and
ritual purification Ritual purification is the ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, performed in a sequestered place and according to a set sequence. Rituals may be prescribed by the traditions of a community ...
such as ''
wudu Wuḍūʾ ( ar, الوضوء ' ) is the Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd" ...
'' and ''
ghusl ( ar, غسل ', ) is an Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental ...
''. Sometimes they had elaborate public baths ( hammams), or other attached amenities such as a fountain or a sabil/sebil. They also kept
fodder Fodder (), also called provender (), is any agricultural Agriculture is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise ...

fodder
for animals and had shops for travellers where they could acquire new supplies. In addition, some shops bought goods from the travelling merchants. Many caravanserais were also equipped with small mosques, such as the elevated examples in the Seljuk and Ottoman caravanserais in Turkey. In Cairo, starting in the Burji Mamluk period, ''wikala''s (urban caravanserais) were frequently several stories tall and often included a ''rab, a low-income rental apartment complex, which was situated on the upper floors while the merchant accommodations occupied the lower floors. In addition to making the best use of limited space in a crowded city, this also provided the building with two sources of revenue which were managed through the ''
waqf A waqf ( ar, وَقْف; ), also known as hubous () or ''mortmain Mortmain () is the perpetual, inalienable ownership of real estate Real estate is property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources ...

waqf
'' system.


Notable caravanserais

* Ağzıkara Han, Ağzıkarahan (Aksaray Province), Turkey *
Akbari Sarai The Akbari Sarai ( ur, ) is a large caravan inn (''"sarai"'') that is located in Shahdara Bagh in Lahore Lahore (; pnb, ; ; ur, ; ) is the capital of the Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English language, English a ...

Akbari Sarai
,
Lahore Lahore (; pnb, ; ; ur, ; ) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab Punjab (; ; ; ; also as Panjāb or Panj-Āb) is a geopolitical, cultural, and in , specifically in the northern part of the , comprising areas of east ...

Lahore
, Pakistan *
Büyük Han Büyük Han (lit. Great Inn) ( el, Μεγάλο Πανδοχείο ''Megálo Pandocheío'') is the largest caravansarai on the island of Cyprus and is considered to be one of the finest buildings on the island.. Located in the capital of Cyprus, it ...

Büyük Han
, Nicosia, Cyprus *, Istanbul, Turkey *, Istanbul, Turkey *
Caravanserai of Sa'd al-Saltaneh The Sa'd al-Saltaneh Caravanserai (سعد السلطنه) is a large Caravanserai A caravanserai (or caravansary; ) was a roadside inn where travelers ( caravaners) could rest and recover from the day's journey. Caravanserais supported the flow ...

Caravanserai of Sa'd al-Saltaneh
, Qazvin, Iran *, Granada, Spain * Funduq Nejjarine, Fes, Morocco * Funduq Sagha, Fes, Morocco *
Funduq Shamma'in The Funduq al-Shamma'in or (if using the French transliteration) Foundouk Chemmaïne () is a medieval ''funduq'' (urban caravanserai A caravanserai (or caravansary; ) was a roadside inn where travelers ( caravaners) could rest and recover from t ...
, Fes, Morocco * Funduq Staouniyyin, Fes, Morocco *, Kharabakh, Azerbaijan * Khan al-Tujjar, Nablus, West Bank * *, Acre, Israel *
Khan As'ad Pasha Khan As'ad Pasha ( ar, خَان أَسْعَد بَاشَا, Khān ʾAsʿad Bāşā) is the largest Caravanserai in the Old City of Damascus, covering an area of . Situated along Al-Buzuriyah Souq, it was built and named after As'ad Pasha al-Azm, th ...

Khan As'ad Pasha
, Damascus, Syria *
Khan Jaqmaq Khan Jaqmaq ( ar, خَان جَقْمَق, Ḵān Jaqmaq) is one of the few remaining caravansary, khans in the Old City of Damascus, it was built by the Mamluk emir, Sayf ad-Din Jaqmaq who was governor of Damascus in 1418–20. It was rebuilt to a ...
, Damascus, Syria *
Khan el-Khalili Khan el-Khalili ( ar, خان الخليلي) is a famous bazaar and souk, souq (or ''souk'') in the Islamic Cairo, historic center of Cairo, Egypt. Established as a center of trade in the Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo), Mamluk era and named for one of ...

Khan el-Khalili
, Cairo, Egypt *
Khan Sulayman Pasha Khan Sulayman Pasha ( ar, خَان سُلَيْمَان بَاشَا, Khān Sulaymān Bāşā) is a large caravansary, khan in the Old City of Damascus.
, Damascus, Syria * Khan Tuman, Damascus, Syria *
Koza Han The Koza Han () is a historic caravanserai (''han'') in Bursa, Turkey. It is located in the heart of the city's historic market district. History Bursa, the first capital of the Ottoman Empire, was also its center of silk production and trade. ...

Koza Han
, Bursa, Turkey * Kürkçü Han, Istanbul, Turkey *
Manuc's Inn Manuc Bei Manuc's Inn ( ro, Hanul lui Manuc, ) is the oldest operating hotel building in Bucharest Bucharest ( , ; ro, București ) is the capital and largest city of Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the cr ...
, Bucharest, Romania *, Baku, Azerbaijan *
Rabati Malik Rabati Malik, also called Ribat-i Malik, is a ''caravanserai A caravanserai (or caravansary; ) was a roadside inn where travelers ( caravaners) could rest and recover from the day's journey. Caravanserais supported the flow of commerce, informati ...
, Uzbekistan * Sultan Han, Sultanhanı (Aksaray Province), Turkey * Sultan Han, Sultanhanı (Kayseri Province), Turkey * Orbelian's Caravanserai, Armenia * Nampally Sarai, Nampally, Hyderabad, India * Shaki Caravanserai, Shaki,
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (, ; az, Azərbaycan ), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan ( az, Azərbaycan Respublikası ), is a country in the Transcaucasia, Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, it is boun ...

Azerbaijan
* Wikala al-Ghuri, Cairo, Egypt * Wikala Qaytbay (at Bab al-Nasr), Cairo, Egypt *Sabil-Kuttab-Wakala of Sultan Qa'it Bay, Wikala Qaytbay (at al-Azhar), Cairo, Egypt *Mughal Sarai, Surat, Gujarat, India *Zeinodin Caravanserai, Zein-o-din, Yazd, Iran


Gallery

File:Fallujah 1914.jpg, Fallujah's Caravanserai in use, ca. 1914, Iraq File:Fair at Khan al-Tujjar.jpg, 1850 drawing of Khan al-Tujjar (Mount Tabor), Khan al-Tujjar, near Mount Tabor, Israel File:Akko BW 13.JPG, in Akko, Acre, Israel File:Khan al-Wazir Alp.JPG, Khan al-Wazir,
Aleppo )), is an adjective which means "white-colored mixed with black". , motto = , image_map = , mapsize = , map_caption = , image_map1 ...

Aleppo
, Syria File:Selim Caravanserai3.jpg, Inside the Orbelian's Caravanserai, Armenia File:Sadolsaltaneh caravanserai.jpg, Interior of the
Caravanserai of Sa'd al-Saltaneh The Sa'd al-Saltaneh Caravanserai (سعد السلطنه) is a large Caravanserai A caravanserai (or caravansary; ) was a roadside inn where travelers ( caravaners) could rest and recover from the day's journey. Caravanserais supported the flow ...

Caravanserai of Sa'd al-Saltaneh
in Qazvin,
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
File:Hotel Shah Abbas Sahn.jpg, Caravanserai of Shah Abbas, now Abbasi Hotel, in Isfahan, Iran. View is from the courtyard (sahn). File:Neyestanak Caravanserai Inner Courtyard 2007-01-01.jpg, Abandoned caravanserai in Neyestanak, Neyestānak, Iran File:Caravanserai-Sheki.jpg, 18th-centuryVladimir Braginskiy. Tourist Attractions in the USSR: A Guide. Raduga Publishers, 1982. 254 pages. Page 104.
The whole of the centre of Sheki has been proclaimed a reserve protected by the state. To take you back to the time of the caravans, two large eighteenth-century caravanserais have been preserved with spacious courtyards where the camels used to rest, cellars where goods were stored, and rooms for travellers.
caravanserai in Shaki, Azerbaijan, Sheki,
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (, ; az, Azərbaycan ), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan ( az, Azərbaycan Respublikası ), is a country in the Transcaucasia, Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, it is boun ...

Azerbaijan
File:Multani karvansarayı.JPG, , Baku,
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan (, ; az, Azərbaycan ), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan ( az, Azərbaycan Respublikası ), is a country in the Transcaucasia, Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, it is boun ...

Azerbaijan
File:Katra Mosque - Murshidabad.jpg, Katra Masjid, Caravenserai Mosque in Murshidabad, India; built by Nawab of Bengal, Nawab Murshid Quli Khan of Bengal File:Charles D'Oyly04.jpg, 1823 etching of Bara Katra, or Great Caravanserai, in Dhaka, Bangladesh; built by the Mughal emperors, Mughal Shah Shuja (Mughal), Prince Shah Shuja File:The Small Kuttra with its enclosed Mosque, Dhaka (1817).jpg, 1817 sketch of the Choto Katra caravanserai in Dhaka, Bangladesh; built by the Mughal viceroy Shaista Khan File:Anderkilla Shahi Jame Mosque (02).jpg, Anderkilla in Chittagong, Bangladesh File:Wikala-sabil-kuttab of Qaitbay 03.jpg, Entrance portal of the Sabil-Kuttab-Wakala of Sultan Qa'it Bay, Wikala of Sultan Qaytbay, dating from 1477, south of Al-Azhar Mosque,
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in E ...

Cairo
File:Tash Rabat.JPG, Ruins of a
Silk Road The Silk Road () was and is a network of trade route A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo. The term can also be used to refer to trade over bodies of ...

Silk Road
caravanserai in Tash Rabat, Kyrgyzstan


See also

*Architecture of Azerbaijan *Bedesten *Caravan city *Islamic architecture *List of caravanserais *List of caravanserais in Azerbaijan *List of Seljuk hans and kervansarays in Turkey *List of streets, hans and gates in Grand Bazaar, Istanbul *Motel *Persian architecture *Rest area *wikt:roadhouse, Roadhouse *Ottoman architecture, Turkish architecture


References


Further reading

* Branning, Katharine. 2018
turkishhan.org
The Seljuk Han in Anatolia. New York, USA. * Cytryn-Silverman, Katia. 2010. ''The Road Inns (Khans) in Bilad al-Sham''. BAR (British Archaeological Reports), Oxford. * * Erdmann, Kurt, Erdmann, Hanna. 1961. ''Das anatolische Karavansaray des 13. Jahrhunderts'', 3 vols. Berlin: Mann, 1976, * Hillenbrand, Robert. 1994. ''Islamic Architecture: Form, function and meaning''. NY: Columbia University Press. (see Chapter VI for an in depth overview of the caravanserai). * Kiani, Mohammad Yusef. 1976
Caravansaries in Khorasan Road.
Reprinted from: ''Traditions Architecturales en Iran'', Tehran, No. 2 & 3, 1976. * Schutyser, Tom. 2012. ''Caravanserai: Traces, Places, Dialogue in the Middle East''. Milan: 5 Continents Editions, * Yavuz, Aysil Tükel. 1997. ''The Concepts that Shape Anatolian Seljuq Caravansara.'' In: Gülru Necipoglu (ed). 1997. ''Muqarnas XIV: An Annual on the Visual Culture of the Islamic World.'' Leiden: E. J. Brill, 80–95. [archnet.org/library/pubdownloader/pdf/8967/doc/DPC1304.pdf Available online as a PDF document, 1.98 MB]


External links


Shah Abbasi Caravanserai, Tishineh

Caravansara Pictures

Consideratcaravanserai.net
Texts and photos on research on caravanserais and travel journeys in Middle East and Central Asia.


The Seljuk Han in Anatolia
{{Authority control Caravanserais, Hotel types Islamic architecture Architecture of Iran Silk Road Persian words and phrases